Questions tagged [mexico]

For questions about the nation of Mexico, including its people, history, and politics. Also use this tag for questions about the indigenous cultures and settlers that occupied the same area but predate the modern nation.

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46
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6answers
7k views

Why did Germany officially acknowledge the contents of the Zimmerman telegram?

The Zimmerman telegram was a diplomatic message from officials in Germany to the Mexican president, sent in 1917. After being intercepted and decoded by Britain's intelligence community, its contents ...
35
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8answers
44k views

Did Native Americans ever fight the indigenous people living in Mexico before Europeans arrived?

From elementary school, my history teacher used to talk about the fighting between native American tribes. Then, later in the semester, we would briefly discuss the rise of Aztecs, Olmecs, Mayans, etc....
28
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4answers
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Why did Mexico encourage the settlement of Texas by Americans?

Beginning in the 1820's, Mexico encouraged Americans (such as Moses and Stephen Austin) to settle in their territory of Texas. It was this that led to Texas becoming independent of Mexico—something ...
16
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5answers
20k views

Was the Zimmerman Telegram a ruse on the US or a way of Germany to incite Mexico to declare war on the US?

Prior to America's entry into WWI the Zimmerman Telegram was one incident that helped push America to declare war against Germany and join the Allies. While Mexico never fought against the US, so was ...
14
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3answers
795 views

Who decided on the name “Mexico”?

New Spain's independence struggle led to adopting the national identity of "México", the name of its major city and the Mexica society there. In referring to a specific indigenous group, Mexico seems ...
14
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3answers
2k views

How long did it take mail to get between Madrid and Mexico?

Spain administered its main colony Mexico from across the Atlantic. Ships crossed regularly between Cadiz or Seville and Vera Cruz (both capital cities are inland). At the time of Mexican independence,...
13
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1answer
572 views

Why was Queretaro chosen as a fail-safe capital of Mexico?

According to this article on a person's experience in the country of Mexico, Querétaro was used as a temporary capital city of the Mexican Republic three times. What I am having trouble finding out ...
12
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1answer
658 views

Did the treasure ship Cortes first sent from Mexico ever arrive in Spain?

When Cortes first arrived in Mexico in 1519, some of his men threatened mutiny, saying they'd return to Cuba instead of fighting Indians. To prevent this, Cortes committed one of the most daring acts ...
12
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1answer
2k views

When was the concept of the “border wall” between the United States and Mexico first proposed?

The current American president Donald Trump has become notorious for (among other things) championing the idea to build a 18+ foot concrete wall across the entire US/Mexican border. Where did this ...
10
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3answers
885 views

What was the main food source in old California?

What was the main food source in California during the Spanish and Mexican periods? I'm expecting it was either corn or wheat, but I don't know which.
10
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1answer
354 views

Why were Catholic priests so instrumental in the Mexican independence movement?

Catholic priests were leading figures in the beginning of the Mexican War of Independence. In 1810, Hidalgo gave the Grito de Dolores; in 1811, Morelos occupied Acapulco and Mercado took San Blas. ...
9
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1answer
194 views

Was California's request for a Mexico border fence from the Pacific Ocean to the Colorado River acted upon?

In the 1965 California legislative session, a joint resolution (chapter 132, No. 44) was passed imploring the president and congress to build an: animal-proof fence from the Pacific Ocean to the ...
9
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1answer
275 views

Did New Mexicans under Spain regard themselves as Mexican?

Mexico, in its original sense, is the homeland of the Mexica (Aztec) people and its principal city. The sense of the name broadened, presumably as people in the metropole spoke broadly about it, and ...
8
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2answers
305 views

Did anyone in Alta California pay in cash?

In the Spanish and Mexican eras, California was an economy very cut off from its mother countries. Most trade was by bartering goods [Josiah Belden by Doyce Nunis, Jr., 1962]. Is there evidence of ...
7
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4answers
917 views

Why didn't Russia seize California when it could? [closed]

Spanish colonies in the Californias, created in part to forestall Russian expansion, were militarily weak. The military had only a few hundred men in the whole territory, and no ships at all. It was ...
7
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3answers
415 views

Why was Mexico's former ruling party named the *Institutional* Revolutionary Party?

The party was founded in 1929, but its current name was given in 1946. What does the word institutional mean in its name? Does it mean 'revolutionise the institutions'? Or does it mean 'the ...
7
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1answer
240 views

What mesoamerican culture used long, “pike-like” spears?

A while back, I read about some Mesoamerican tribe or culture that armed many of its warriors with extremely long spears, that either the Spanish invaders or the article I read itself compared to the ...
7
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2answers
484 views

Why Californian Indian leader Estanislao was named after Polish martyr?

Researching for Polish people dealing with Indians during 19th century, I've found out about Estanislao, one of Yokuts' leaders, who led different groups of Californian Indian rebels against Mexican ...
7
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2answers
98 views

Are there extant rancho budgets (original or contrived) for Mexican California?

This question is a source request for real or estimated annual account ledgers for ranchos in Mexican California. Not much cash was used, so records are sparse. Most goods on the rancho were produced ...
7
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1answer
127 views

Do we know who graduated from the University of Mexico in the 1700s?

The Royal and Pontifical University of Mexico was the country's first and foremost university in the colonial period. According to George I. Sánchez, by 1776 it had awarded 29,882 bachelor's and 1,162 ...
7
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1answer
770 views

Did the Zapatistas actually kill anyone?

The armed Zapatista movement started in 1994 as an armed revolution and spanned more than 20 years. Disambiguation - this is the 1983/1994 movement, not the 1910 movement. It is surprising to note ...
7
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1answer
278 views

Explaining differences in settler-first peoples mating [duplicate]

There was fairly little mixing between European settlers and the first peoples in what is today USA and Canada. There was extensive mixing in what is today Mexico (modern day: 65% Mestizo, 17.5% ...
7
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0answers
337 views

How did Tenochtitlan's Templo Mayor disappear for centuries?

According to Wikipedia (amongst other sources), after the Siege of Tenochtitlan, the Templo Mayor was dismantled and a church was built over its ruins. This church would eventually become Mexico City ...
6
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2answers
327 views

When did Mesoamericans stop using their native weapons?

Indigenous warriors of today's Mexico used atlatl spear-throwers and obsidian-bladed hand weapons such as tepoztopilli and macuahuitl. According to Bernal Díaz del Castillo, these arms were formidable ...
6
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1answer
473 views

How did Porfirio Diaz leave Mexico for Europe?

As I understand it, Porfirio Diaz departed Mexico for Europe soon after surrendering the presidency, sometime around 1911. I seem to remember that he departed on a German passenger liner. Can that be ...
6
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3answers
2k views

What is so special about the location of Mexico City?

Since 1325, the area we know today as Mexico City has held some sort of cultural or historical bond. The bond is so strong that, no matter what, no matter how bad a shape the country gets, they ...
6
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2answers
631 views

Were any Californios able to hold on to their ranchos?

Despite the clarity of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo on this topic, Mexican land grants in Alta California were subject to drawn-out legal battles in the American period. Most Californios lost their ...
6
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2answers
2k views

Why didn't the United States occupy Baja California during the US-Mexican war?

What were the limitations on further US expansion at that war? why did they stop on the bank of the Rio Grande and in particular what stopped them from taking over Baja California?
6
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1answer
163 views

Why did the First Mexican Empire replace 60% of its Regency?

From September of 1821 until Agustín I ascended the throne, a five-man Imperial Regency governed independent Mexico. Initially it included Agustín Iturbide (the same), José Isidro Yáñez, Manuel ...
6
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1answer
192 views

Who erected Luis Argüello's tombstone?

Luis Argüello was California's first Mexican governor. He died in 1830 and was buried next to San Francisco's Mission Dolores. His grave marker doesn't appear contemporary with his death, though. I ...
5
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2answers
229 views

Who was the first foreigner to be naturalized as a Mexican citizen?

The earliest example I have is Jose Antonio Bolcof of Russia, who became a Mexican about 1833. Who beat him? cf. Who was the first foreigner to be naturalized as a Mexican citizen in Alta California? ...
5
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3answers
217 views

Who was the first foreigner to be naturalized as a Mexican citizen in Alta California?

The earliest example I have is Jose Antonio Bolcof of Russia, who became a Mexican about 1833. Who beat him? cf. Who was the first foreigner to be naturalized as a Mexican citizen?: several Texans ...
5
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2answers
458 views

Did the US try to buy California before the 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo?

With regard to Mexican California in the 1840s, Hague and Langum's Thomas O. Larkin says, on page 10: The United States had long been interested in California and had more than once attempted to ...
5
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1answer
115 views

What did the administrators of secularized California missions do?

The Alta California missions built in the Spanish period were initially run by Franciscans, then secularized in the 1830s, becoming regular parish churches. Some lay people officially served to "...
5
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0answers
75 views

Were priests in politics in New Spain?

In the the Spanish Empire generally, the royal state and the state church were tightly coupled. One hierarchy supposedly answered to the Viceroy and then the King; the other to the Archbishop and the ...
5
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0answers
370 views

When was the name of the Mexican war changed to Mexican-American war?

I learned recently (by having an answer marked wrong in Pub Quiz) that the conflict which was called the Mexican War when I was in school is now called the Mexican-American War. My question: When, ...
4
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2answers
267 views

How many people lived in the Mexican territories annexed by the US?

What was the population of the areas annexed by the US from Mexico in the 1840s? Basically, "Texas," "California" and the area in between?
4
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2answers
304 views

Did any relevant Mexican authority ever acknowledge the secession of Texas before the start of the Mexican-American War?

I am an amateur historian with only a couple days' research under my belt, but I am putting together a theory that paints the Mexican-American War as a war of purely American aggression (Texas as the ...
4
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1answer
317 views

What campaigns did the Mexican army fight against American Indians in the North?

I am seeking information about Mexican Army Operations against Apaches and other Native American militant tribes (such as the Apaches, Comanches, Yaquis, etc) in the northern part of the country. If ...
4
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1answer
74 views

Where was the Ixcanha Maya community located during the Caste War of the Yucatán?

There is mention of a Mayan community of about a thousand people during the Caste War of the Yucatán who refused to break with the Catholic Church. I am trying to figure out where their community was ...
4
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1answer
1k views

How were native laborers on California ranchos treated?

The ranchos established during the Mexican period of California history relied on the labor of native Americans. Unlike the Mission properties, ranchos did not attempt to prevent workers from escaping ...
4
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2answers
70 views

What kind of canoes were used in 19th century Yucatán?

I’m specifically curious about seagoing canoes along the coast of the Yucatán Peninsula in the mid-1800’s. Were they still typically of the dugout variety, or had they evolved to canvas on a wood ...
4
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1answer
262 views

Which trade ship did not return to California from China?

The Baltic German captain Otto von Kotzebue wrote (from "California Through Russian Eyes", Gibson, ed.): An attempt was even made to launch, at the Californios' own risk, trade with China, but it ...
4
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1answer
79 views

What taxes were assessed on people in Alta California?

Countries and their churches extract rents from their citizens or subjects through various taxes. What taxes were individual Alta Californians required to pay in the Spanish and Mexican periods?
4
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1answer
117 views

Immigrants to Mexican New Mexico

In its Mexican era California attracted immigrants, principally Anglo-Americans, who often worked as merchants and capitalists. English speakers like William Hartnell and Thomas Larkin dominated ...
4
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1answer
272 views

Who left Fort Ross to defect to Mexico?

Remarks by Kirill Khlebnikov reproduced in "California Through Russian Eyes" by Gibson, p. 332, say that one defector from Fort Ross had headed to Mexico. Who was the unnamed defector?
4
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0answers
91 views

By when was the Manila galleon well known?

Spain managed to start up the Manila galleon system in the 1560s, linking the Philippines with Mexico. The Spanish crown used its control of non-free labor in New Spain to extract precious metals. On ...
4
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0answers
149 views

Why was the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo signed there?

The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo which ended the Mexican-American War was signed "at the main altar of the old Basilica of Guadalupe", or possibly in an adjacent building. This is a major Catholic ...
4
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0answers
98 views

Were adobes often built on shellmounds?

Adobe was the principal construction material used in the arid north of Mexico. In wetter parts the adobe was subject to water damage: rain ate away its exposed surfaces and softened the ground on ...
4
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0answers
227 views

Guadalupe Victoria's imprisonment

In 1821 Agustín Iturbide formed a ruling junta for newly independent Mexico that excluded his prominent fellow revolutionary officers. Near the end of 1821, Iturbide imprisoned several that may have ...