Questions tagged [middle-east]

The Middle East typically refers to the region stretching from the northern part of eastern Africa all the way to Pakistan. The region is centered around the Arabian peninsula with the Persian Gulf being the critical component of the region.

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2answers
492 views

Why did conquered countries after WWII recover, but countries conquered later continue suffering? [on hold]

Nations damaged severely in WWII (suffered major economic collapse and civilian casualties) such as Japan, Germany and Poland have not only recovered but are doing better than ever before. Most of ...
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135 views

Why does the Balfour declaration refer to Palestine, as opposed to the Land of Israel or the Holy Land? [closed]

The Balfour Declaration states that His Majesty's government view with favour the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, and will use their best endeavours to ...
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104 views

What was the reason the Maronites lobbied for a state of Greater Lebanon?

I'm currently reading A House of Many Mansions: The History of Lebanon Reconsidered (1988) by Kamal Salibi. In the first chapter he argues that it was initially the Christian minorities of historic ...
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Why are most of the world's oldest buildings in Europe and not in the Fertile Crescent?

Looking at the list of the world's ten oldest surviving human constructed buildings are in Europe while the oldest building in what (with a generous interpretation of the concept) could be called the ...
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What method(s) where used to date cuneiform as being as old as 3200 BC?

If anyone could provide the source(s) too that would be great
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What did the ancient Eastern world think of the ancient Greeks?

The opinions of the Greeks the Eastern world which notably included the Persians, Assyrians, Babylonians, Indians and Egyptians are known to all. They elaborated at length through their literature ...
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Who was Ahmad al-Barbir al-Tarabulusi, and did he write about an old number-based middle-eastern joke about homosexuality?

While reading the book From one to zero. A universal history of numbers by the French historian Georges Ifrah I came across a retelling about an old joke about homosexuality but I cannot find any ...
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164 views

Was early Mari Sumerian or multicultural?

Mari was a multicultural Semitic and Sumerian city in central Mesopotamia. Despite its rich history during the historical period, I have found almost no discussion of the earliest period. This was ...
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What was the function of the walls of Jericho?

The walls of old Jericho have been dated to around 8000bc. This is thousands of years before the nascent civilisations of Babylon and Egypt built similar fortifications and thousands of years before ...
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243 views

How did Tunisia's revolution (and Arab Spring) begin?

I am asking because the most cited reasons are not that convincing: The self-immolation of Mohamed Bouazizi: He was neither the first nor the last to self-immolate himself. Poverty: Prices more than ...
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The Abbasid ransom for the Black Stone (Hajar Aswad)

The Black Stone (Al Hajaru Al Aswad, popularly called Hajar Aswad) of the Kaaba in Mecca was stolen in 930 AD by the Qarmatians, and was returned 23 years later in 952 AD for "a huge" ransom paid by ...
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Economic aftermath in Europe and the Middle East of the Black Death

The following excerpt is from Blinkist's summary of The Silk Roads by Peter Frankopan: Europe after the plague was an altogether different place. The population had fallen dramatically, but this ...
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1answer
264 views

How did contemporaries view the Byzantine Empire during the 11th century?

I'm curious about how the Byzantine empire was viewed by contemporaries during the Middle Ages (11th century). By contemporaries, I mean the other powers of the era, such as Western European countries,...
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153 views

is Ubaid 0 actually related to Eridu and Ubaid I-IV?

Most sources state 5400 B.C. as the beginning of the Ubaid period. The Ubaid period is further divided by them into Ubaid I-IV. Wikipedia lists Tel El Oueili (6500 B.C.) as "Ubaid 0", thus placing the ...
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1answer
118 views

Is the Lebanese town of Nabatieh related in any way to the ancient Nabatean Civilization?

Was Nabatieh in South Lebanon founded by the Nabateans of North Arabia(ex: Petra). If anyone finds some information on it, could you also please share the source so I can learn more about my ancestral ...
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1answer
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Why didn't China vote in UNSC Resolution 344?

According to this Wikipedia article, the United Nations Security Council passed Resolution 344 in 1973 with 10 votes from non-permanent members and 4 abstentions from the permanent members France, ...
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1answer
256 views

Did the US threaten a nuclear strike to defend Israel in 1973?

Did the US threaten a nuclear strike to defend Israel? In 1973, America and Russia Almost Fought a Nuclear War over Syria Soviet leaders were shocked by the American response. "Who could have ...
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1answer
542 views

Is David Graeber correct to assert that patriarchy did not exist in Sumeria?

In Debt: The First 5000 Years, David Graeber incisively claims that As we’ll see, there is reason to believe that it is in such moral crises that we can find the origin not only of our current ...
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337 views

Sources of iron in the middle east

In the time around 7th century AD, the use of swords and shields was common in the middle east. They should've required iron for that. They didn't know much about smelting. So, how did they get the ...
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329 views

What was clothing in ancient Palmyra like?

What is known about what people used to wear in the city of Palmyra during the third century AD? Was it more similar to Roman or Persian fashion of the period?
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345 views

What is this Crimean Gothic Symbol?

As there aren't any archaeology or anthropology stack exchanges, this seemed like the best place to ask. What is this symbol and its history in the West? —Mangup-Kale, Crimea (Cross clearly added ...
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International mail in the early 1900s

I am currently studying Middle East Political history and have come to some correspondences between British diplomats and Arab leaders. The dates on these outgoing correspondences are 14 July 1915, ...
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693 views

From Twitter: When did Islamic literacy fall behind?

This morning I found this interesting question from verified Twitter user Iyad el-Baghdadi. Transcription: Question to experts (and good researchers). My impression is that parts of the ...
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1answer
228 views

Were Moses & Abraham historical figures?

History is not my area of specialization. I am curious to know about the historicity of Moses and Abraham from the viewpoint of modern critical scholarship. It would be great if references are ...
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388 views

Jerusalem 1187: How would Saladin's army have laid siege to the walls?

BACKGROUND In fall of 1187 Saladin's "12,000 professional cavalrymen [and] 30,000 volunteers" arrived at Jerusalem and began a two week siege, assaulting the walls with towers, arrows, rocks, and ...
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Jerusalem 1187: How did ethnicity impact Saladin's army?

This is intended to be the first (and longest) of a series questions about the Siege of Jerusalem in 1187. It was originally one massive question, but the community rightly recommended that I break it ...
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Are there “Sumerian” figurines from the Uruk and Ubaid periods?

There are distinctive Sumerian figurines from the Early Dynastic period. One of the early arguments for indigenous Sumerians was that these figurines were also in the Jemdet Nasr, Uruk, and Ubaid ...
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US Israeli relations before and after the USS Liberty Attack? [closed]

Average total aid between the United States and Israel over years given inclusively. $ 60 million dollars annually 1949-1958 $ 73.4 million dollars annually 1957-1966 $ 1 billion dollars annually ...
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Does Winckler's explanation of Semitic migrations have any merit?

Hugo Winckler's 1907 History of Babylon and Assyria, says something along these lines: Semitic people originated in the Arabian Peninsula. All Semitic migrations were caused by overpopulation. Syria ...
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Is it true that slavery was endemic in Sub-Saharan Africa previous to the establishment of the trans-Atlantic slave trade?

Stefan Molyneux claims in The Truth About The Crusades that: Islam dominated slave trade between the 7th and the 15th century, while the Christians entered the market of human flesh much later - ...
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2answers
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Why didn't the Christian kingdoms in Hispania participate in the crusades? [closed]

I have read in the history of crusaders that Catholic kingdoms in Europe including England and France and Holy Roman Empire participated in the crusades but not Spain, any clear reason for that? ...
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How multilingual would Canaanite citizens have been?

This question concerns the Land of Israel circa 1,500-1,000 BCE. Different sources mention different languages for this region: This land was part of the New Kingdom of Egypt, so presumably Middle ...
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299 views

How was the start date of the bronze age determined?

Since the bronze age, it's been known that there was a bronze age, follow by an iron age. Today it is accepted that the bronze age in the Middle East started about 3500 B.C. This date is easy to ...
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How did early Judaism and Zoroastrianism influence each other, if they were so far apart?

I've been reading, from various sources, fairly vague and hand-wavey claims that Zoroastrianism and early Judaism influenced each other (and that both were influenced by Atenism). Looking at ...
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Does the Ottoman Empire count as a colonial power?

Their role in the Middle East and North Africa was pretty similar to that of the French and British, who succeeded them. The French and British rule of their areas is generally called colonial rule, ...
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2answers
739 views

Kurds and their relation to the start of civilization?

Is there a relationship between these folks and the start of civilization? Mehrdad Izady suggests that they started civilization via establishing the agricultural production. How can this be possible, ...
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234 views

Did the PLO coordinate with Arab armies during the Six Day War?

In general, the PLO did some raiding before and after the Six Day War but I noticed this facebook post (and also wikipedia) that listed the PLO among the contributors to the Arab's strength. It would ...
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332 views

Why didn't Saudi Unification Include the Coastal States like Qatar, UAE, Oman, Yemen, and Kuwait

Why are the following states independent and not a part of Saudi Arabia? Qatar, UAE, Oman, Yemen, and Kuwait While their annexation might be difficult in our current time period, it should have been ...
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224 views

What did women wear during the Rashidun era?

What did women wear during the Rashidun caliphate?
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Were the greatest rulers from before the Classical Antiquity known by ancient historians?

To clearly delimit dates and places, I ask for information about the rulers before 1000 BC in the Fertile Crescent or Eastern Mediterranean. Historians may be Greek, Roman, or peoples belonging to the ...
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1answer
418 views

Was there relative peace in the Middle East before the end of the Great War?

I just finished reading Eugene Rogan's book The Fall of the Ottomans. The vast majority of the book covers the years 1914 - 1918 (i.e. WWI), before concluding with the redistribution of the Ottoman ...
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118 views

Which countries actually played a part in the foundation of the UN [closed]

I'm doing a presentation on the influence of countries outside Europe in the foundation of the United Nations, I think China had some influence but I'm not sure!
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236 views

Why did Anwar Sadat establish diplomatic relationship with Israel and did that decision pay off?

Why did Egypt establish diplomatic relationship with Israel and did that decision pay off? As far as I recall, Anwar Sadat was able to convince his people and his followers that establishing ...
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First Century (or earlier) gesture signifying peace between two parties?

I am working on a painting set in the first century which shows a military group confronting another group in the Middle East. I am trying to find a gesture which the leader of one army would make ...
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Why did the Ottomans not change their capital to an Arab city?

As of 1517 A.D., the Ottmans have acquired the whole Levant, Egypt and they've largely become Muslim. Why they did not move their capital to a historically Islamic city like Damascus, Baghdad, or ...
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With what frequency was stoning applied in the Muslim world before the Ottoman empire?

The Wikipedia article Rajm says: At least a couple of sources (Sadakat Kadri, Max Rodenbeck) have noted that while popular in the abstract, rajm has been infrequently applied in Islamic history. ...
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149 views

Accuracy of Ancient Dates of Persian/Middle East Based on Astronomy

What astronomical events have helped determine the accuracy of historical dates of Middle Eastern (specifically Persian) events? Some examples of Middle Eastern/Persian events could be the year a king ...
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Did Nabataean traders use linen, or cotton, for their sails?

While studying the Arab and African sea trade along the Red Sea and points south, I read an article on Nabataea.net that reads It is thought that originally sails were woven from coconut of palm ...
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Are there examples in ancient history of honor killing?

I thought I had found two examples of honor killing in ancient literature, although people online have disagreed with me. In Livy, the killing of Verginia by her father Verginius in ancient Rome ...
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Why did the Byzantines not try to recover Syria during the war between Ali and Muawiya?

After the Caliph Othman get killed there was period of instability in the Islamic state for more than five years, and Syria was just taken by Muslims before around twenty years. Why did the ...