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Questions tagged [mongol-empire]

For questions about the 13th-14th century empire that originated in modern-day Mongolia and was founded by Genghis Khan.

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How were the invasions of Korea by the Mongols and the Manchus similar?

The first Mongol invasions of 1231 forced the Koreans to capitulate and reconsider their defensive posture. In an attempt to overthrow the newly imposed tributes of the Mongols, the Koreans (at the ...
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Why did the Mongols outlaw intermarriage between the Mongols and the Chinese and forbid the Chinese from learning the Mongolian language?

When the Mongols invaded China and established the Yuan dynasty, why did they outlaw intermarriage and forbid the Chinese from learning the Mongolian language? I am reading this from a textbook for ...
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How were Mongols defeated on the field?

The question is not about the collapse of the Mongol states, but of how the Mongol war machine was outmatched. The factors that led to the military successes of the Mongols, like lack of dependence ...
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Are there any primary sources on the letter Hulagu wrote to Qutuz?

I was wondering if there are any primary sources on the letter that the Mongol Khan Hulagu wrote to the Mamluk Sultan Qutuz (from Wikipedia: "Hulagu intended to continue southward through Palestine ...
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How accurate is the quip: “Mongols, having already conquered half of Europe, decided the other half wasn't worth it”?

Erik Flint, writing in the voice of a heroine who is a professional historian, quipped: Mongols, having already conquered half of Europe, decided the other half wasn't worth it (emphasis added) ...
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Turko-Mongol horse tactics and Western European response

Did not seem that Western European armies stood up to Turco-Mongol military tactics such as the horse archer. Did these European armies ever learn to counter those tactics? The Slavs (Polish) had a ...
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Were Mongol or Chinese cavalry charges among the largest in history?

In 1683 at the Battle of Vienna, 20,000 Polish, German and Austrian cavalry charged the Ottoman lines in what Wikipedia says is the largest cavalry charge in history. Other references are more ...
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Why did the Mongols destroy the library during the siege of Baghdad in 1258?

For all what we know the Mongolian Empire was not simply a collection of brainless brutes, but they had intense knowledge of their opponents: descriptions, maps, information about the technology, ...
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Did the Golden Horde shoe their horses?

Did Genghis Khan's people generally shoe their mounts? If so, did it begin before they began their expansion, or did they acquire the practise along the way?
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Were the mongol army boots of 13th century lined with fur?

I want to know about 13th century Mongolian army boots. I know they used leather for their boots. The leather and the source of the leather is irrelevant to my research for now. My question is that ...
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When Genghis Khan took power, what was the population of Mongolia?

I searched around for this and was surprised how little data I could find. I want to know the population of all tribes that Genghis Khan had under his control when he became the Great Khan (1206). ...
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Why did Ong Khan offer Temujin (young Gengis Khan) a position?

Why did Ong Khan offer Temujin (young Gengis kKan) a position? (after Temujin recognized him as his father) I mean it seems that after the death of Temujin's father, Ong Khan did nothing to help and ...
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Who was the English Knight Templar holding command in the Mongol Army?

Excerpt from Great Captains Unveiled (1927), by B. H. Liddell Hart: After this holocaust, Hungary was occupied without further fighting. An organised administration was set up, and the land ...
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What's the difference between Khan and Taishi/Taisha?

What is the difference between a Khan and a Taishi/Taisha? I'm working on a project about Kalmykia, and I always see it called as the Kalmyk Khanate, but none of the rulers are called Khan, they are ...
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Why did Coloman of Slavonia leave Sajó bridge weakly defended against the Mongols?

During the beginning hours of the Battle of Mohi, Coloman of Slavonia was able to repulse the Mongol attempt to secure the bridge for their safe crossing over the river. But within two hours after ...
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Why did Russians have guns towards the end of the Mongol Yoke, but not the Mongols?

Russian soldiers first used firearms in 1382, against the Mongols (it is not mentioned in the article whether the Mongols also had guns). This would prove to be an insufficient advantage at the time, ...
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Why was the standoff on the Ugra river the end of the Tatar-Mongol yoke in Russia?

This is a very layman question, since my only source of knowledge is Wikipedia. I'm sure there are works that cover this subject in more details, please mentioned them in your answer. Wikipedia says: ...
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Is there any evidence the Mongols expanded into northeast Asia?

There is plenty of recordings of the Mongol empire moving west, but is there any evidence of them expanding northeast towards the present-day petroplavlosk-kamchatsky area? Or were there factors that ...
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Was the Korean King Chungnyeol instrumental in persuading Kublai Khan to invade Japan?

The Mongol invasions of Japan were costly failures. According to Wikipedia, the Korean King Chungnyeol (by this time a vassal of the Mongols) was ...known as the fixer who instigated Mongol ...
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What was the age to ascend to the throne as Khan/Khagan?

I have recently played EU4 (a Strategy game) and noticed that if you play as one of the remnants of the Mongol Empire which still has Khans/Khagans, your heir can't rule until their 15th birthday and ...
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Does Genghis Khan really have that many descendants?

A while ago I read something about Genghis Khan, it was very interesting. Then I saw some facts and it said that he has about 16 million male descendants (so could be 32 million in total). Can it ...
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How effective were the Mongol siege equipment?

From what I understand, the mongols had engineers from China and Persia to handle the siege machinery. I'm mostly curious as if the machinery made by the Chinese engineers was unique and/or superior ...
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How did the Mongol Nomads' System of Raiding and Trading Work?

I've read (in a source I no longer remember) that the Mongol tribes of the Steppe, like some other cultures, had this habit of raiding each other without it being seen as an act of war. More ...
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In Mongolian Conquests, how did they screen the population for engineers?

I just read this from Wikipedia's article on Mongolian military tactics: When Mongols slaughtered the whole population from settlements that resisted or didn't opt to surrender, they often spared ...
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Why did Timur attempt to restore the Mongol Empire?

I have read that Timur Lang was a conqueror who attempted to restore the Mongol Empire. But why did he attempted to do that? Was he a decendant of Genghis Khan as he used to say?
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Why are Turkish people and other Turkik people considered of Mongolic race if their language is not in the Mongolic language family? [closed]

I saw that Turkish people are considered of Mongolic race even though Mongolic and Turkic are separate language families? Why are those races considered the same but their languages are so different ...
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What did Golden Horde get out of the alliance with Mamluks?

Berke Khan, the Khan of the Golden Horde was not very fond of his cousin, Helagu Khan, Khan of Ilkhanate primarily because of the latter's actions against the Abbasid Caliphate. He wrote this to ...
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When did Sultan Saif ad-Din Qutuz escape from Mongol swords?

In Wikipedia, it is mentioned that Hulagu Khan sent the following letter to Sultan of Egypt, Saif ad-Din Qutuz in 1260: From the King of Kings of the East and West, the Great Khan. To Qutuz the ...
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Why did the Mongol Empire disintegrate so rapidly after its peak?

The Mongol Empire rapidly expanded to become the largest land empire in history, but then it disintegrated just as rapidly. What caused this so rapid demise of the world's largest pre-British Empire?
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Why Khalkh mongols didn't support Dzungars in fight against China?

Khalkha Mongol Khans fought for China against the Dzungars. What was the reason for that? Why did the Dzungars become enemies of the Khalkh Mongols? Dzungar Genocide Dzungar Tsing Wars
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Why were the Mongols so victorious? [duplicate]

I read that the Mongol Empire conquered and unified China. My question is... how were the Mongols able to conquer so much when China's population almost certainly was larger during that time period? ...
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How different were the conditions for generals in the Mongol Invasions of Korea?

This question asks about the different conditions for the Mongol leaders versus the average Mongol, while on campaign. During the Mongol invasion of Korea (circa 1231-1270), how much better were the ...
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How Did the Mongol Empire Get So Big?

Undoubtedly, the largest empire in the existence of human history was the Mongol Empire, once a hodgepodge of warring nomadic tribes from Central Asia before banding together under the banner of ...
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Did Hungarian Army ever use Crescent banners?

I was reading about Battle of Mohi between Mongol Empire and Kingdom of Hungary. The Wikipedia contains this artistic depiction of the battle: The cavalry on left hand looks like Mongols while ...
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How far could Mongolian horses travel in a day?

Help! I searched this up on Google and there was nothing, I even looked it up on the Wikipedia. I need information by tomorrow. It is for a project.
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Alexander Nevsky's helmet

I've seen a claim that Alexander Nevsky's helmet has Arabic writing on it, saying something like "With Allah's help" and "Speedy victory". The claim sounds about right, giving Alexander's close ...
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Were the Islamic Caliphates (Umayyad and Abbasid) and the Mongol Empires truly as benevolent as they are portrayed?

My history textbooks insist on the same idea: these empires were religiously tolerant, allowed trade to flourish, and improved the quality of life for the subjects. On the other hand, all the ...
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Were the Huns and Mongols at one point rivals?

I recently read an article that suggests that perhaps the Huns invading Rome had once been a foe and eventually conquered and forced to migrate by the Mongol empire,this interesting idea completely ...
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Why and how were the Mongols able to invade Russia successfully?

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mongol_invasion_of_Rus%27 The campaign was heralded by the Battle of the Kalka River in 1223, which resulted in a Mongol victory over the forces of several Rus' ...
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What was the context of this famous Genghis Khan quote?

It is often quoted that Genghis Khan said: The greatest happiness is to scatter your enemy, to drive him before you, to see his cities reduced to ashes, to see those who love him shrouded in tears, ...
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What is the reason of Mongol Empire success conquering that huge territory?

I found out that Mongol Empire had around 100,000 soldiers on the field. Most of them were cavalries and they had great battle tactics. Isn't that figure however a bit low to conquer and control ...
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How many soldiers did Ghengis Khan field?

I'm looking for the number of soldiers the Mongol Empire had at the time of Genghis Khan. What percentage of them were ethnically Mongolians?
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Why were the Mongolian armies able to to use greater percentages of archers than (Medieval) Europeans?

Much has been made in other posts about how hard it was for European armies to train and maintain large numbers of archers able to use a longbow, crossbow, or similar weapons. Yet, the Mongolians ...
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What did the paper money of the Ilkhanate look like?

In the 1200s the Mongols conquered Persia (and a few other places). The portion of the empire in Persia was known as the Ilkhanate, ruled over by the ilkhan. Influenced by Chinese paper money, the ...
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What are the modern names of the nations mentioned in Ystoria Mongalorum?

Giovanni Carpini in his Ystoria Mongalorum lists as factions under the dominion of the Mongol Empire: Nations that have been subjugated: Meniti Colona-Thorati Sassi Thoas Sarthi ...
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Did the Yuan Dynasty ever occupy Hainan?

And if so who occupied Hainan before them and after them?
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Why didn't Gengis Khan invade India? [closed]

Gengis Khan conquered more land than anyone else but after looking at a map of the Mongolian empire I noticed he never invaded India Why might he have chosen not to do so?
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What prevented the Mongolian Empire from expanding into Europe?

The Mongolian Empire reached quite a vast extent according to the map below and leaders such as Genghis Khan seemed to defeat all their enemies consistently. Yet, the empire never extended into Europe,...
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Were there any naval engagements during the Mongol invasions of Japan?

During the 13th century, the Yuan empire made two invasion attempts at Japan, in the battles of Bun'ei and Kōan. In both cases, the samurai defenders fought the Mongols off their beachheads, and the ...
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What was the attitude of Mongols to conquered peoples?

Muslim historians recorded the Mongol conquest of Baghdad. In order to evaluate potential bias in these records, it would be useful to compare them to other records of Mongol conquests. Since the ...