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Questions tagged [ottoman-empire]

The Ottoman Empire was an empire lasting from 1299--1923 AD, centered in modern-day Turkey and spanning at its height across much of eastern Europe, the Middle East, and northern Africa. Sometimes referred to as the Turkish Empire.

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Are there historians who deny or have denied the Armenian genocide?

I heard that one of the The Young Turks' hosts denied it and should be heavily criticized, but what's the consensus on it among historians? Is it as taboo as denying the Holocaust or less taboo?
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Is today's Old City of Jerusalem the Jerusalem of the Crusades' period?

In 1099 the Christian crusaders besieged the walled city of Jerusalem and took it. Here is a map of the Old City of Jerusalem today: It clearly shows the walls (I don't know when they were built) ...
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Why couldn't the Ottoman Empire modernise the way Meiji Japan did? [closed]

What makes it appear to me that Japan modernised to come to a level of advancement comparable to Western powers was, unlike Ottoman Empire Japan had universal compulsory education the level of ...
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What would the Wikipedia page for Spain have said in 1490?

I'm trying to understand the Spanish empire prior to the discovery of America - I'm not looking for a book length answer, just a broad summary like what would have been on a Wikipedia page at that ...
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How did Mehmed II die?

The different Wikipedias offer different stories. English Wikipedia claims poison as a likely cause of death: In 1481 Mehmed marched with the Ottoman army, but upon reaching Maltepe, Istanbul he ...
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Was there a rule against non-Muslims wearing the colour green in the Ottoman empire?

On the wikipedia page titled Green in Islam, it is stated that: In the Ottoman Empire, the wearing of a green turban was a privilege afforded to the descendants of Muhammad Also, in the book ...
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Who is in this c.1866 photo?

This photo was found with (but not in) an envelope containing seven photos of European royals, all but two of which have been positively identified (one of them here by Evargalo). Below is a photo of ...
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Why didn't the Hungarians help the battle of Kosovo?

I am curious why the Hungarians, as the first neighbor of then Serbia and Bosnia, who sent troops to confront the invasion of the Ottomans, didn't also participate given that it was obvious that the ...
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Did Sultan Mehmet IV defeat a Persian champion in single combat?

From Jason Goodwin's popular history of the Ottoman Empire, Lords of the Horizons: At the siege of Baghdad in 1683, when the Persians demanded the contest be decided by single combat, they put up ...
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What's the difference between Potur and Şalvar?

I'm researching the clothing of 16th-century Ottoman clothing, and I keep getting Potur and Şalvar as "trousers." Was there a difference between them or were the words synonymous?
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Did teenage Sultan Osman II use people as targets?

Long ago I read in The Story of the Greatest Nations and the World's Famous Events (or in some other edition), that the teenage Ottoman Sultan Osman II (reigned 1618-1622) used prisoners of war for ...
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What information would be contained on an Ottoman Tapu deed in the 1830s?

I'm working on a project, and during this project, the subject of a Tapu deed in the Ottoman Empire came up. Tapu was a permanent lease by the government to someone. I was able to find this picture ...
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International mail in the early 1900s

I am currently studying Middle East Political history and have come to some correspondences between British diplomats and Arab leaders. The dates on these outgoing correspondences are 14 July 1915, ...
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Why were there “Tributary States” to the Ottoman Empire?

Here's something that's always puzzled me: Whenever there was agitation for independence in the territories struggling for independence from the Ottoman Empire, a lot of times the places concerned ...
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What religion did Mustafa Kemal Atatürk self-identify as following?

He was born in the Ottoman Empire (later Turkey), so I assume he was a Muslim. But when I checked his attitude towards religion, it became clear that he saw religion as an obstacle in making ...
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Why did the Ottomans rebuild Byzantine gates to a smaller format?

It's very perplexing to me. Here are some examples: https://pages.pomona.edu/~sg064747/travel/images/Turkey/Fortifications/1600-LandWallsArchGate.jpg https://romeonrome.com/files/2013/09/66....
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What is this griffin-like creature labelling a lunar mansion in the Zubdat al-Tawarikh?

While looking for astronomy-related things I found out about this Turkish history manuscript from 1583 called the Zubdat al-Tawarikh or "History of the World". One of the first things in it is an ...
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Was it not clear to the WWI allies that they were over-reaching with the treaty of Sevres?

In the treaty of Sevres, the Ottoman Empire was made to cede not only all (?) territories outside modern-day Turkey, but also: Control of the Bosphorus straight and the Dardanelles Significant ...
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Why Russia didn't have capitulations treaty with the Ottoman Empire till 1711? [closed]

If we check the list of the so-named capitulations treaties (trade treaties they were really) of the Ottoman Empire, we'll see that Russia had got that treaty only in 1711. Why? There existed many ...
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What are the current obligations of Treaty of Lausanne?

The Turkish President Erdogan and his followers are always talking about that they should update the Treaty of Lausanne or even they are claiming that it will expire on 2023 and they are saying that ...
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Was Mimar Sinan of Greek Christian origin?

Mimar Sinan was perhaps the greatest and most famous architect in Turkish History. He was born at the end of the 1400s and lived nearly 100 years. His style essentially defined Ottoman architectural ...
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Which submarine was invented first?

In some books I saw the Ottomans invented Tahtelbahir in 1719. Is it true ?
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Why was it Italy that attack ed Tripoli under Ottoman control in 1911?

This was the invasion that triggered off a lot of pre-WW1 events including the second Bulgarian war. But why did Italy invade Tripoli in 1911? It would make sense to me if Austro-Hungary invaded it ...
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What is the Greek inscription on the Nicaea gate?

I was visiting the historic city of Nicaea (Iznik) in Turkey this August and studied it's history. I noticed the entrance gate at the southern wall of the city which was built by the Romans. The same ...
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Was the inequality of wealth in 1950s in Egypt the result of the Ottoman Empire's former power in Egypt?

One of Nasser's more historic changes he enacted was land reform. This took the form of placing limits on land ownership in terms of feddans, nationalization of large amounts of land, and the issuance ...
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Does the Ottoman Empire count as a colonial power?

Their role in the Middle East and North Africa was pretty similar to that of the French and British, who succeeded them. The French and British rule of their areas is generally called colonial rule, ...
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Why is it called the “Ottoman” Empire in English language?

I don't get why in English language it is called the "Ottoman" Empire. The name of the state derives from its founder, Osman I., however how can "Osman" be transformed to "Ottoman"? For me this doesn'...
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Was Napoleon's General Joachim Murat of Turkish descent?

Joachim Murat was a General allegiant to Napoleon and very successfull in his military career. Though his very German first name I wondered if he has Turkish origin too because his second name ...
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Why did the Allied attack at Gallipoli fail during WWI? [duplicate]

The British Navy was the most powerful in the world at the time. How were the Ottomans able to repel the attacking force? I've read that the Ottomans mined the Dardanelles strait and successfully ...
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Constantine XI Palaiologos

According to Wikipedia, Byzantium Emperor Constantine XI Palaiologos and The Empress Helena, acting as regent, appealed to Ottoman Sultan Murad II. Just wondering why they appealed to Ottoman Sultan'...
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Why was there such tension between the Ottoman Empire and Russia during the Armenian genocide?

I'm researching the Armenian genocide on a very basic level, and I've learned that a lot of the tension between Armenians and the Turks was because the Armenians were seen as supporting the Russians, ...
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Was there relative peace in the Middle East before the end of the Great War?

I just finished reading Eugene Rogan's book The Fall of the Ottomans. The vast majority of the book covers the years 1914 - 1918 (i.e. WWI), before concluding with the redistribution of the Ottoman ...
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Why did Ottoman Army use camels in the Siege of Vienna 1683?

I was reading up on Siege of Vienna 1529. I saw a rather curious image with camels in it: For full resolution image, click here. I was surprised to see Ottoman Empire using camels in the ...
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Why did the Ottomans not change their capital to an Arab city?

As of 1517 A.D., the Ottmans have acquired the whole Levant, Egypt and they've largely become Muslim. Why they did not move their capital to a historically Islamic city like Damascus, Baghdad, or ...
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Did the US wage war against the Ottoman Empire in 1917?

When the US entered world war one, did it include declaration of war against the Ottoman Empire? Were there any actions or plans for US military operations in the Middle East?
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How would 19th century Janissaries remedy the Ottoman empire? [closed]

What would a Janissary suggest to be done to the Ottoman empire to fix problems that started the modernization?
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What happened to Children of Prince Halil of Ottoman Empire?

Inspired from my discussion with MA Goulding on Byzantine-Ottoman blood ties, I am curious about something. Shehzade Halil Orhanoghlu was son of Orhan I of Ottoman Sultanate and Princess Theodora ...
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When was the Ottoman mosque within the Parthenon demolished?

After the Great Turkish War of 1683 - 1699, the Ottomans built a small mosque in the ruined Parthenon using salvaged materials from Parthenon itself. This was after it was catastrophically damaged by ...
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Codification of Sharia by the Ottoman Empire in the 19th century

The wikipedia entry about Rashidun Caliphate says: According to Noah Feldman, a law professor at Harvard University, the legal scholars and jurists who once upheld the rule of law were replaced by ...
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Did the Ottoman government rationalize the Armenian Genocide and other instances of ethnic cleansing as a response to Russian expansion?

The course I took on Ottoman history was 2-3 years ago and relatively short, so please correct any and all inaccurate statements I make. Also, I want to emphasize that neither genocide nor ethnic ...
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Why did nationalism in all of Europe surge in the 19th century?

Nationalism in all parts of Europe surged in the 19th century, the centuries old multinational states of the Ottoman Empire and Austria-Hungary broke apart and by the end of the century this jingoism ...
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Was the religious and cultural diversity a core structural cause of the Ottoman Empire's decline?

To what extent did the bureaucratic structure of the state that were required to sustain the Ottoman’s wealth and power undermine (damage or weaken) the foundations of the Ottoman state in the late ...
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To what extent can Ataturk be seen as the last of the Young Turks/CUP?

Even though Reza Shah, Sherif Hussein and Faisal all tried and failed in their quest to create independent states in the wake of the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, why was Ataturk so successful and ...
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What was the fate of Gülbahar, the chief consort of Sultan Suleyman of 16th century?

Could someone outline the basic timeline of Gulbahar's history with respect to her exile from the old palace harem and death in line with her son's execution? I'm writing a tragic-comedy stageplay ...
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What was the Janissaries' Strength?

-What's the secret behind the Janissaries strength? -Historically, The Janissaries were one of the strongest military units in the entire Ottoman army: They played key roles throughout the Ottoman ...
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What were the differences between the Sieges of Constantinople in 678, 717, and 1453, inc. Greek Fire? [closed]

Constantinople repelled the sieges of 678 and 717 with Greek fire. What were the differences between the Byzantine army/navy in 678/717 versus 1453, and how did the Arab army/navy differ from the ...
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Street Team Games played by boys in Balkans of early 20th Century

In today's world, probably the most typical neighborhood game played in teams by boys in most countries is football (soccer). I would like to ask what were the team Games played by boys (let's say ...
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What was the name of the Ottoman-Spanish truce in 1580?

As I'm reading the history of the Western Mediterranean about this period, I found many references to a truce between the Ottomans and Habsburg Spain in 1580. For example, Wikipedia - Habsburg Spain: ...
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What does it mean: “French was a lingua franca in the Ottoman caliphal court?”

According to the Economist: The Ottoman caliphate: Straddling two worlds Ruling from Istanbul, the caliphs kept polyglot courts, reflecting the multiple religions and races represented there. ...
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How did policymakers in the Muslim world react to the discovery and colonization of the Americas?

Since Colombus' voyage in 1492, the Europeans began to explore and colonize the Americas. During the next century, the Spanish (and the Portuguese?) extracted a lot of wealth from the Americas, ...