Questions tagged [ottoman-empire]

The Ottoman Empire was an empire lasting from 1299--1923 AD, centered in modern-day Turkey and spanning at its height across much of eastern Europe, the Middle East, and northern Africa. Sometimes referred to as the Turkish Empire.

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Why did the Ottomans rebuild Byzantine gates to a smaller format?

It's very perplexing to me. Here are some examples: https://pages.pomona.edu/~sg064747/travel/images/Turkey/Fortifications/1600-LandWallsArchGate.jpg https://romeonrome.com/files/2013/09/66....
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What are the current obligations of Treaty of Lausanne?

The Turkish President Erdogan and his followers are always talking about that they should update the Treaty of Lausanne or even they are claiming that it will expire on 2023 and they are saying that ...
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What is this griffin-like creature labelling a lunar mansion in the Zubdat al-Tawarikh?

While looking for astronomy-related things I found out about this Turkish history manuscript from 1583 called the Zubdat al-Tawarikh or "History of the World". One of the first things in it is an ...
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Did the Ottoman government rationalize the Armenian Genocide and other instances of ethnic cleansing as a response to Russian expansion?

The course I took on Ottoman history was 2-3 years ago and relatively short, so please correct any and all inaccurate statements I make. Also, I want to emphasize that neither genocide nor ethnic ...
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How did Egypt become a protectorate of the British empire?

How did Egypt become a protectorate of the British empire in 1914? (Feel free to add more content to this question)
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Why did the Ottomans not change their capital to an Arab city?

As of 1517 A.D., the Ottmans have acquired the whole Levant, Egypt and they've largely become Muslim. Why they did not move their capital to a historically Islamic city like Damascus, Baghdad, or ...
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What did contemporary countries in Europe call the Ottoman Empire?

In present texts, it is common to call it "the Ottoman Empire", although the name refers to the ruling dynasty rather than the nation, people or the region. This is not the case with other ...
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Which submarine was invented first?

In some books I saw the Ottomans invented Tahtelbahir in 1719. Is it true ?
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Why was it Italy that attack ed Tripoli under Ottoman control in 1911?

This was the invasion that triggered off a lot of pre-WW1 events including the second Bulgarian war. But why did Italy invade Tripoli in 1911? It would make sense to me if Austro-Hungary invaded it ...
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Was the religious and cultural diversity a core structural cause of the Ottoman Empire's decline?

To what extent did the bureaucratic structure of the state that were required to sustain the Ottoman’s wealth and power undermine (damage or weaken) the foundations of the Ottoman state in the late ...
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Why did nationalism in all of Europe surge in the 19th century?

Nationalism in all parts of Europe surged in the 19th century, the centuries old multinational states of the Ottoman Empire and Austria-Hungary broke apart and by the end of the century this jingoism ...
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Was the inequality of wealth in 1950s in Egypt the result of the Ottoman Empire's former power in Egypt?

One of Nasser's more historic changes he enacted was land reform. This took the form of placing limits on land ownership in terms of feddans, nationalization of large amounts of land, and the issuance ...
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How was the relation between the Ottoman Empire and Serbia, Greece, and Montenegro during the Second Balkan War?

As pointed out by Tom Au in this answer to "Has there ever been a truly multi-sided war?", Turkey fought and lost to Bulgaria, Serbia, Greece and Montenegro in the First Balkan War. However, shortly ...
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Why was there such tension between the Ottoman Empire and Russia during the Armenian genocide?

I'm researching the Armenian genocide on a very basic level, and I've learned that a lot of the tension between Armenians and the Turks was because the Armenians were seen as supporting the Russians, ...
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Why did the Allied attack at Gallipoli fail during WWI? [duplicate]

The British Navy was the most powerful in the world at the time. How were the Ottomans able to repel the attacking force? I've read that the Ottomans mined the Dardanelles strait and successfully ...
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Constantine XI Palaiologos

According to Wikipedia, Byzantium Emperor Constantine XI Palaiologos and The Empress Helena, acting as regent, appealed to Ottoman Sultan Murad II. Just wondering why they appealed to Ottoman Sultan'...
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Was there relative peace in the Middle East before the end of the Great War?

I just finished reading Eugene Rogan's book The Fall of the Ottomans. The vast majority of the book covers the years 1914 - 1918 (i.e. WWI), before concluding with the redistribution of the Ottoman ...
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What was the name of the Ottoman-Spanish truce in 1580?

As I'm reading the history of the Western Mediterranean about this period, I found many references to a truce between the Ottomans and Habsburg Spain in 1580. For example, Wikipedia - Habsburg Spain: ...
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Did the US wage war against the Ottoman Empire in 1917?

When the US entered world war one, did it include declaration of war against the Ottoman Empire? Were there any actions or plans for US military operations in the Middle East?
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How would 19th century Janissaries remedy the Ottoman empire? [closed]

What would a Janissary suggest to be done to the Ottoman empire to fix problems that started the modernization?
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What happened to Children of Prince Halil of Ottoman Empire?

Inspired from my discussion with MA Goulding on Byzantine-Ottoman blood ties, I am curious about something. Shehzade Halil Orhanoghlu was son of Orhan I of Ottoman Sultanate and Princess Theodora ...
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When was the Ottoman mosque within the Parthenon demolished?

After the Great Turkish War of 1683 - 1699, the Ottomans built a small mosque in the ruined Parthenon using salvaged materials from Parthenon itself. This was after it was catastrophically damaged by ...
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Codification of Sharia by the Ottoman Empire in the 19th century

The wikipedia entry about Rashidun Caliphate says: According to Noah Feldman, a law professor at Harvard University, the legal scholars and jurists who once upheld the rule of law were replaced by ...
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What was the fate of Gülbahar, the chief consort of Sultan Suleyman of 16th century?

Could someone outline the basic timeline of Gulbahar's history with respect to her exile from the old palace harem and death in line with her son's execution? I'm writing a tragic-comedy stageplay on ...
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What was the reason for the Ottoman invasion of Otranto?

In 1480, the Ottomans invaded Otranto and briefly occupied it. However, it didn't seem that the city was strategically important or held particular value to the Ottomans, nor did they seem to follow ...
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Was drinking coffee with milk illegal under the Ottoman Empire?

Did the Ottoman Empire ever ban the consumption of coffee with milk? I know Sultan Murad IV banned drinking coffee by itself, but was there any laws on drinking coffee with milk? If so, what was the ...
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What was the Janissaries' Strength?

-What's the secret behind the Janissaries strength? -Historically, The Janissaries were one of the strongest military units in the entire Ottoman army: They played key roles throughout the Ottoman ...
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How stable was the Middle East under Ottoman rule?

Since the outbreak of WWI, the Middle East has been a strategic area; many powers have vied for control. How stable was the region under Ottoman rule? Stable is, for the purposes of this question, ...
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Street Team Games played by boys in Balkans of early 20th Century

In today's world, probably the most typical neighborhood game played in teams by boys in most countries is football (soccer). I would like to ask what were the team Games played by boys (let's say ...
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What does it mean: “French was a lingua franca in the Ottoman caliphal court?”

According to the Economist: The Ottoman caliphate: Straddling two worlds Ruling from Istanbul, the caliphs kept polyglot courts, reflecting the multiple religions and races represented there. ...
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Did the Ottoman Empire lose some control over Egypt during the Crimean War?

What were the effects of the Crimean War on the relationship between the British and Ottoman empires? Did they lose partial control over Egypt?
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After the fall of Constantinople, were the Christians who lived in the Ottoman Empire treated fairly? [closed]

In my textbook it states that the Christians who lived in the Ottoman Empire received a humanitarian treatment. They were permitted to live peacefully as normal citizens of the state. I believe there ...
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Nejd (Saudi Arabia) and the Arab Revolt

Did Nejd (Saudi Arabia) actually engage the Ottoman Empire during WWI or did they just fight al Rashid (Jabal Shammer), who was loyal to the Ottomans? Did al Rashid fight the Allied forces?
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What autonomy did Bosnia lose when it was annexed by Austria-Hungary in 1908?

Austria-Hungary occupied Bosnia in 1878 by forcing the Ottomans to leave after 400+ years of dominion. So I understand that Bosnia then became a territory of Austria-Hungary. In 1908, Austria-...
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Why was the Hexamillion wall incapable of preventing invasion?

The Hexamillion wall was created to fortify the only land route into the Peloponnese peninsula ~ but throughout it's history (450-1460 AD) it failed to prevent multiple invasions, acting only as a ...
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Is Kemal Atatürk responsible for Armenian Genocide?

There is a controversy discussed here about Atatürk's responsibility for the Armenian Genocide. However, yahoo answers says that that Atatürk actually may have ended it. I want to know about ...
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Who was the Ottoman who started as a slave boy and eventually became Grand Vizier by the time he was 80?

I seem to remember he lived around the 16th century.
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Does Little Hagia sophia still contain Greek mosaics under the plaster?

Little Hagia Sophia is a small church in Istanbul located close to the famous and large Hagia Sophia. It was built around the same time and is said to have contained very beautiful mosaics. At the ...
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Why did Herzl's attempt to come to a political agreement with the Ottoman rulers of Palestine fail?

Theodor Herzl, who founded Zionism as a modern political movement in 1897, attempted to come to a political agreement with the Ottoman rulers of Palestine. When was this, what was his proposal and why ...
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Was it ever deemed illegal to translate the Qu'ran?

In England it was illegal to translate the Bible from Latin into English until the 14C when when John Wycliffe campaigned to have this situation changed. I have often heard that the Qu'ran is ...
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Why did religion mixed with politics hold back progress of Europeans but not the Turks?

The Turks were technologically more advanced than the Europeans during the Middle Ages. One major reason behind the Europeans backwardness was that their freedom of thought was stifled by dogmatic ...
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What is the real story of the Lion of Gripsholm Castle?

In 2011, one of the popular stories over the Internet was a history of The Lion of Gripsholm Castle. The Swedish language version of the linked blog entry was the one responsible for spreading this ...
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Why did Fakhr-al-Din seek a treaty with Tuscany, of all places?

In an interesting vignette, it turns out that the Druze emir of Lebanon, Fakhr-al-Din, had traveled in the early 17th century to Florence and tried to conclude a military alliance with the Grand Duchy ...
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Why didn't the Ottomans besiege Malta after 1565?

The Great Siege didn't work out but one would think that given the crucial strategic position of Malta, the Ottomans would have made another attempt at a later date. Why didn't that happen?
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Was there any new military innovation during the Siege of Malta?

In the Siege of Malta, the Knights Hospitaller defended the island despite being heavily outnumbered by the invading Ottoman troops. Malta was such a small island, the Turks were the masters of the ...
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Battle of Vienna & Morean War : what was Russia's position?

Russia doesn't appear in wikipedia's accounts of the Morean War or of the preceding Battle of Vienna. I find that mildly suprising. Perhaps the reason is that before Peter Russia was less active with ...
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What was the currency in use in Palestine shortly before and during WWI?

Wikipedia lists the following Ottoman currencies: Akçe, Para, Kuruş, Lira, Sultanî, but I would like to now which were prevalent in actual use (or, rather, uses). Also, such a variety suggests that ...

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