Questions tagged [poland]

Poland was an important Eastern-European kingdom between the 11th and 18th centuries. For the next 123 years, it was partitioned between other countries. In 1918 it became a democratic republic, which after World War II joined Warsaw Pact. In 2004, Poland joined the European Union. Check full tag wiki page to see examples of related topics.

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Can anyone identify these (possibly WW1 Polish) uniforms?

The only hint I have is that the gentlemen in the picture were Polish and it was reputed to have been taken in 1917. So far I suspect that they may be cavalry?
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Did Augustus the Strong sleep with his own daughter?

I'm working my way through Robert Massie's voluminous biography of Peter the Great at the moment. It's truly a pleasure to read; one really does have the sensation of stepping into Peter's world. ...
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Is history of Polish Catholicism exceptional? [closed]

Zygmunt Zieliński in his study called "The myth of a Catholic Pole" in the book Polish political myths of the 19th and 20th centuries observes: (…) the criterion for distin­guishing the ...
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What is the name for the very first Polish state likely established around 966 by Mieszko I through baptism of Poland?

In the year of likely around 966, Mieszko I united all of the tribes occupying a part of today's western Poland through Christianization of it, therefore making Poland an official sovereign state (at ...
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What was the treatment of Polish POW in British or Soviet uniform in WW2?

Suppose that Polish soldier, member of Polish Armed Forces in the West, becomes a German POW. How good or bad would have be treated ? Like UK/US POW (relatively mildly) or like Polish POWs from 1939 (...
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Identifying this uniform, possibly German or Polish

This photo was in my great-aunt's album. She only identified it as "he came from Germany", but the picture was taken in Bunzlau, which I believe to be in Poland. I am guessing it is from ...
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Why was Austria given the best chunk in the First Partition of Poland, even while protesting it?

In the First Partition of Poland, Austria was given 2.7 million people, versus 1.3 million for Russia, and almost 1 million for Prussia. Austria got more than twice as much land as Prussia, and only ...
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Why was Poland subject to much harsher Russification than Finland was?

A Wikipedia page describes Russification of Poland: Russification in Congress Poland intensified after the November Uprising of 1831, and in particular after the January Uprising of 1863. In 1864 the ...
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Identify male uniform 1860-80 north Central Europe single breast trouser boot round cap

This photo is believed to be from 1860-1880 Poland/Lithuania, as the house behind them looks like a Polish thatch house. The man in question is in the center back of the photo. Uniform is single ...
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Why has Witold Pilecki not been included in the Righteous Among the Nations? [closed]

Witold Pilecki was a Polish resistance fighter who volunteered to enter the Auschwitz I concentration camp. From there, he organised a resistance movement and gathered intelligence on the atrocities ...
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What are the themes of post-WW2 Polish immigration to the United States? [closed]

What are the themes of post-WW2 Polish immigration to the United States? What was life like for this immigrant community?
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When in September 1939 did the British diplomatic mission leave Warsaw?

On September first 1939, at 4:45 in the morning, the Schleswig-Holstein opened fire on Danzig/Gdansk. September twenty-second is when German troops completed their encirclement of Warsaw. Somewhere in ...
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Any information about the photo with Army Uniforms

Found an old photo and want to identify which period does it belong to and where it could have been taken or which country are these soldiers from. Found word "Brattig" on the other side, maybe ...
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What is the actual Polish street name of the street in Martinau, now Rokitnica, of Strasse der SA?

My mother who was born in Beuthen/Bytom, but must have lived at least for a while in Martinau, "Strasse der SA 19". I want to go there and find the street. Martinau was Rokittnitz (part of the ...
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For how many years in the eighteenth century were Russian soldiers present within the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth borders?

For modern Poland, the answer is rather simple. Russian, and later Soviet soldiers, were stationed inside the Polish borders for almost the whole 19th and 20th centuries (with a notable exception for ...
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What is the most complete study of Count Benyowszky?

Maurice Benyowsky was a notorious adventurer who wrote a well-known, highly fictionalized autobiography (Memoirs and Travels of Mauritius Augustus Count de Benyowsky). His supposed exploits became ...
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Why did the recorded history of Poland start after the reign of Miezsko I?

Norman Davies says this in his book, God's Playground, Volume I regarding Miezsko I: He started the recorded history of the Poles which has continued without a break from that day to this. Even I ...
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What is the name and meaning of a World War 2 CCC Medal with both the Polish Eagle and British Statant Gardant Lion?

While looking through a collection of World War 2 medals, I came across this one (picture attached) and have been unable to identify it. It is in the form of a shield, appears to have a Polish eagle ...
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What was the reason that Poland wanted a part of Germany north of Stettin/Szczecin and west of the Oder?

If you look at the map you see the so-called Stettiner Zipfel (Szczecin lobe) in the west of the Oder which includes Stettin/Szczecin. OpenStreetMap How the course of the border is defined is ...
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Why was Polish king Sigismund II Augustus' coronation held when his father Sigismund I was still alive?

Sigismund II Augustus was born in 1520 and crowned at age 10 in 1530, while his father Sigismund I the Old was still alive. Could someone explain me the reason for this coronation? Sigismund II August ...
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Was the end date of Soviet-Japanese Border War the direct reason of starting Soviet invasion on Poland in 1939

The end date of the Soviet-Japanese Border War oddly coincides with the beginning date of the Soviet invasion on Poland in 1939. Was the end date of the Soviet-Japanese Border War the direct reason of ...
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Did the Red Army and German Army clash in Poland in 1939?

I found a youtube lecture by Stephen Kotkin. He is a professor of history, wrote 2 books on Stalin with a 3rd on the way, and has access to certain Russian archives. That's all I know about him, ...
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Was there Nazi Collaboration at an Institutional level in Poland?

Following recent legal regulations in Poland prohibiting any association of Polish culpability with the Holocaust and concentration camps, the question that arises is whether there was any Polish ...
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Help with identifying my great-grandfather's pre-WWI Cossack uniform

My great-grandfahter was a Cossack from "Then Russia" "Now Belarus" where the Belarus, Ukraine and Poland borders met, but I don't now which "type" like Don or Kuban etc. He fled from the place he ...
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Why did Hitler treat the Slavs inconsistently?

I think it's pretty common knowledge that Hitler viewed the Slavs as subhuman or 'untermenschen'; however; his attitude towards the Slavs as regards the conquests in Eastern Europe seem somewhat ...
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Did more Jews live in Poland than any other country, prior to the Holocaust, because of how Polish laws and people regarded Jews?

Poland in 1900 and just before the Sho'ah ranks 1st in a list of nations by Jewish percentage of the population. [1] Now of course in such a ranking that country is Israel. Why did Jews migrate to and ...
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Did Poland help Germany take Czechoslavakia before Germany invaded Poland?

In March of 1939, "with Germany's permission" (WW2 for dummies), Poland invaded Czechoslovakia while Germany was annexing the Sudetenland per the Munich agreement. Only 6 months later, in September, ...
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Was the Vistula delta inhabited by Slavic tribes or Baltic tribes?

Specifically I'm talking about the area in between the Nogat and Vistula river. Googling maps of Old Prussian territory seem to have a mix of including this land and not including it. This map ...
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Before the Great War, was the word “Poland” typically used to refer only to the Russian partition of Poland?

Before World War 1, Poland was partitionned between Prussia, Austria-Hungary and Russia. However I have strong reasons to suspect that the word "Poland" was at that time referring specifically to the ...
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Where I can find historical literacy rates of Eastern European countries?

I am looking for literacy rate of Eastern European countries for last 100 (or more) years. I am especially interested in Russia and Poland. The only data I was able to find was OurWorldInData and ...
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How and why did Aleksotas became part of the Russian Empire in 1864? [closed]

I am interested in Hermann Minkowski and, according to Wikipedia, he “was born in Aleksotas, a village in the Kovno Governorate of the Russian Empire” in 1864. Wikipedia also says that ...
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What plane would have been used to airdrop someone into occupied Europe?

I'm trying to write a story in which the main protagonist is a fictional Polish spy, who has to retrieve a 'macguffin' that's been captured from the Germans. It is set in the spring of 1943. She ...
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How could Poles from Kresy be enough to repopulate entire regions of Poland?

After the second World War, Poland's borders moved about 200km to the west due to the demands of Stalin. Poles located in the east of their country had to resettle to the western lands newly "acquired"...
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How did the Poland-Lithuanian Commonwealth become official?

I believe that they were good allies but were they also at some point became one nation. But it seemed like an unusually long "courtship" that lasted decades, or even centuries. That's why am kinda ...
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What concessions did Hitler demand from the Poles before 1939?

On Wikipedia, it is stated that: Earlier, Hitler's foreign policy worked to weaken ties between Poland and France, and attempted to manoeuvre Poland into the Anti-Comintern Pact, forming a ...
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How historically accurate is “Good King Wencenclaus”? [closed]

The popular Christmas carol "Good King Wencenclaus" is about a King Stephen who was very kind to a poor beggar. Was this King Wencenclaus an actual king of history, and if so, which one? Also, are ...
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Did Britain bill Poland for maintaining Polish Air Force that fought over Britain?

After the war, a bill for over 68 million pounds sterling, covering the equipment and operating costs of the Polish Air Force in Great Britain, was paid from the Polish gold reserves deposited in ...
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Why was Poland able to resist the Swedish invasion during the Deluge, but not during the time of Charles XII?

The Deluge, in the mid-17th century, was a particularly troubled time for Poland. The western part of the country was overrun by Sweden, and the eastern part was invaded by disgruntled Cossacks. The ...
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What land did Polish nationalists claim in 1914?

In the early 20th century, Poland was split between Russia, Austria-Hungary and Germany. However, clear borders of the "country" did not exist. When the country was finally re-created after the Great ...
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How did the written Polish language survive in eastern Germany during partition (if it survived at all)?

After the partition of poland in the late 18th century, Prussia aquired a large part of Polish territory. Those areas suffered heavy Germanization process through assimilation and suppression of ...
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Why aren't the Silesian Uprisings, especially the 3rd, refered to as a “war”?

Three Silesian Uprising happened in 1919, 1920 and 1921. While the first is definitely an "ordinary" uprising, the second is closer to be a civil war. The third uprising is definitely a civil war. ...
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Why did Bierut threaten to murder families of those who did not join him?

My knowledge is very small on this. Boleslaw Bierut was a Polish Communist leader who became the President of Poland after the Soviet takeover of the country, in the aftermath of WW2 as Wikipedia says....
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Cryptography used by Red Army in Polish-Bolshevik war

In a film "Bitwa Warszawska 1920" which tells the story of the Polish-Bolshevik war there is a scene with two cryptographers that are able to break the cipher used by Red Army. Turns out it was a ...
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Is there evidence that German soldiers tried to prevent the Jedwabne Pogrom?

I believe I saw this in one of historian Sir Martin Gilbert's books but I have not seen it elsewhere nor do I know which book of Gilbert's it was. Note that I am not talking about SS but what I recall ...
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What was the price of basic foodstuff in 1930 Poland?

I'm working on a movie shot in Warsaw. The movie takes places in the 30s in Poland and we're currently searching for the prices of basic food during that time. Generally speaking, what was the price ...
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Could Polish people who didn't live in Poland get Polish citizenship after Poland's revival in 1918?

Before and during WWI, people of Polish origin held either Russian, Austrian or German passports. I am pretty sure none of the official documents mentioned ethnicity at all, the system of separate ...
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How can I find the most complete list of the names of Kaytn Massacre victims?

The Katyn Massacre refers to a series of mass executions of Polish prisoners by Soviet authorities during WW2. The number of victims is estimated to be over 22,000. How can I go about finding the ...
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Why was the capital of Poland moved from Krakow to Warsaw in 1595?

This question is a follow-up to the question Why did Poland keep Warsaw as its capital instead of returning it to Krakow in the 20th century? In particular: Now as for Warsaw becoming the capital. ...
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Did the German authorities respell Polish names to be more German during the time of the German Empire?

How were Polish names handled by Prussian and German authorities during the times of the German empire? It is well known there was intense Germanisation throughout the area, for example all location ...
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How did communist authorities decide who is “German” and who is “Polish” when expelling Germans from recovered territories?

It is a well known fact that Poland won a lot of territory over Germany after WWII, and that German people were expelled, and the place was re-settled with ethnically Poles. What is less known is how ...