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Questions tagged [religion]

A term to describe an organized belief system which revolves around supernatural elements and entities.

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31 views

Was religion orthodoxy a fundamental idea behind the spanish and the english expansion to the atlantic [duplicate]

Empires of the Atlantic world is a great book. I want to know how did religion benefit the Spanish and/or English
5
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0answers
137 views

What was the early understanding of static electricity shocks?

What was the common understanding of electric shocks caused by static electricity in the ancient world and middle ages? I'm talking about the shock when you touch something on a dry day for example. ...
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15answers
14k views

Why do western monotheistic religions seem to be so full of conflict over dogma?

This could be a totally false premise. But clearly when Christianity was starting (and even to this day) there were serious conflicts about ideology. You had the Arians, Monophysites, etc. all at each ...
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2answers
142 views

Are the proportions of a Christian cross based on a golden ratio? [closed]

I was just 3D modeling something and I noticed the intersection of two lines I made by multiplying one by the golden ratio looks exactly like the kind of cross I see on top of or in the window of a ...
10
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0answers
125 views

Was there a rule against non-Muslims wearing the colour green in the Ottoman empire?

On the wikipedia page titled Green in Islam, it is stated that: In the Ottoman Empire, the wearing of a green turban was a privilege afforded to the descendants of Muhammad Also, in the book ...
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2answers
77 views

Did monotheistic religions play a role in shaping the belief that political power should be in the hands of an all powerful monarch? [closed]

When reflecting on the past, is there a pattern in human societies whereby political power was entrusted in a sovereign with virtually absolute power under monarchies? In other words, did Kings and ...
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0answers
96 views

Was ambition considered a character flaw in medieval times or Renaissance?

In Shakespeare's play "Julius Caesar", ambition is an undesirable trait: "The noble Brutus hath told you Caesar was ambitious. If it were so, it was a grievous fault". Was ambition widely considered ...
2
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1answer
217 views

Where does Marsilio Ficino write that all nations worship a God whose name is spelled with four letters?

I have seen quoted in the name of Marsilio Ficino (1433-1499), also spelled Marcellus Ficin, that all nations of the world worship a God whose name is spelled with four letters. Does anybody know ...
7
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2answers
350 views

Is there any historicity to the concept of Ghost Fences / Walls?

A Ghost Wall or Fence is a concept I keep coming across in historical fiction set around the Iron Age or Sub-Roman Britain. Generally, it appears as a boundary made of deceased peoples bones to either ...
5
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0answers
164 views

Are there recent saints of established religions whose very existence is in doubt?

Saint Peter the Aleut, or Chukagnak, was supposed to have been a man from Kodiak forced to labor for the Russian-American Company and brought to California. According to his colleague Kyglaia, in 1815,...
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0answers
193 views

Did horse sacrifice persist in Christian Europe?

While researching the Indo-European horse sacrifice, I happened upon the following claim online: Although the papal ban seems to have greatly reduced the consumption of horseflesh in most of Europe,...
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0answers
125 views

Before 1800, were there major schools of Islamic thought that relaxed behavior rules for women on the Hajj?

It is my understanding that most comprehensive works of Islamic thought (past and present) do the following: (a) Give rules or guidelines for behavior, some of them specific to women; (b) Give rules ...
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1answer
52 views

What is the source of this Ambedkar quote on freedom of thought in Hinduism?

From here, the Indian social reformer B. R. Ambedkar is supposed to have said: In the Hindu religion, one can[not] have freedom of speech. A Hindu must surrender his freedom of speech. He must act ...
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0answers
96 views

What is know about Baal Hammon's Vegetal Crown

What more is known about the Vegetal Crown of the Carthaginian chief god Baal Hammon? I've searched for more information about this particular motif but can't find any. Obviously it can be thought ...
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3answers
234 views

Why was James II and VII (same person), the last Roman Catholic monarch of Britain, not forced to convert to Anglicanism?

From what I understand (although my English history is very poor), to be the monarch of England, one must convert to Anglicanism, as the monarch is also the head of the Anglican Church. I believed ...
8
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2answers
370 views

What do historians mean when they say “divinity” in the context of Ancient Greece?

I was going to find sources for the Wikipedia article on Thales of Miletus, since the section on divinity has almost none, I was wondering what "divinity" even means in the context of Ancient Greece. ...
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5answers
7k views

What is the pre-schism Christian church called today?

I've come upon numerous instances where a pre-11th century person or artifact is associated with either the Orthodox or Catholic church. The most recent example is in Francis Fukuyama's "The Origins ...
22
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7answers
9k views

Why are the majority of Dresden inhabitants atheists or agnostics?

German Wikipedia says that Four fifths of the inhabitants of Dresden do not belong to any religious community. Approx. 20 % of the population is predominantly Christian. Original German text: ...
7
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1answer
163 views

What cult images are likely to be found in a Second Punic war era Roman field camp?

Were cult images (e.g. statues of gods) carried by a Roman army (or its commander) around 200 BC? If so, which gods? And were would they be kept while in camp? (I am not referring to items individual ...
9
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1answer
1k views

Why didn't the linguistic split overlap with the religion split in Prussian Silesia?

The Prussian province of Silesia was split in two "halves", the northwest, centered around Breslau (Wrocław), was mostly Protestant, German-speaking, and was akin to other regions of the kingdom of ...
5
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1answer
174 views

Giving a child to Thor

In Chapter 7 of Eyrbyggja saga we are told how Thorolf, the first gođi of Thorsness pledged his chield to Thor: Thorolf Most-beard married in his old age, and had to wife her who is called Unn; ...
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1answer
85 views

Late 17th century colonial Anglican pastor

I am preparing to play an Anglican pastor/priest at a live-action role-playing game. The (pretend) location: an English colonial outpost in the Caribbean. The (pretend) time period: circa 1695. And ...
3
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1answer
224 views

Is Armenia the first Christian state?

I have heard from people and read on the internet that Armenia is considered to be the first country to adopt Christianity as state religion (the exact date is widely disputed, though 301 AD is the ...
59
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5answers
12k views

How did the general population of England convert so smoothly to Protestantism?

The rise of Protestantism among English monarchs from Henry VIII is well documented. However, after a bit of light research, I have been unable to find many resources on how the general population ...
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4answers
2k views

How did Christianity replace Roman Paganism and other ancient religions?

Christianity seems to have been the first world religion that was interested in and successful with establishing itself as not only the state religion of but practically the only in an empire - namely,...
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1answer
206 views

Have historians offered interpretations on why the disciples claimed they saw a resurrected Jesus? [closed]

It is generally accepted by historians who studied the Bible that Jesus almost certainly existed and was crucified. We also know that his disciples claimed Jesus appeared to them after his death. ...
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0answers
135 views

What did states gain from spreading a particular religion? [closed]

(It might be easier to understand the question if I phrase it this way from the start before reading the rest: What did states gain from spreading a particular religion?) From what I've read, the ...
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0answers
102 views

Importance of religion for a common man in medieval India

I have recently studied the rise of Islam and the origins of Bhakti movement in medieval India. All the sources that I have referred to talk of the spread of new religious ideas and people converting ...
3
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1answer
261 views

Did Roman Empire elite believe in their gods?

For example, did Julius Cesar or Augustus believe in the existence of Jupiter? Is there some consistent evidence in writings that they truly believed in the Roman gods? Or maybe they thought that the ...
9
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2answers
372 views

Did Freemasons motivate Spain's expulsion of Jesuits?

Carlos III of Spain was a Catholic, but an anticlerical one. After riots in Madrid, he expelled the Society of Jesus (and was followed in this by Pope Clement XIV). The same year, 1767, the first ...
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1answer
150 views

Why did almost every ancient civilization have a found religion? [closed]

I'm studying to be an Anthropologist and I've always had this question but I cannot get a definitive answer. Almost every ancient civilization I have studied, whether it be in the Old or New World had ...
2
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0answers
102 views

What was the Hospitaller gonfalon like in the 12th and 13th centuries?

The Templar Order had a gonfalon (a military standard of a specific type) of black and white called the beauseant (I have come to prefer the spelling most common in the book I first took it from ...
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1answer
206 views

Babylonian handbags - meaning?

What is the meaning of “handbags” that Babylonian gods are often depicted carrying ? ![god with handbag]
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0answers
110 views

How many people were killed by Protestant Inquisition style tribunals? Asking for references/estimates

It's relatively easy to find estimates for the number of people killed the Catholic Inquisition; one just needs to check the Wikipedia page, regardless of the doubts on the true numbers. However, ...
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0answers
102 views

During the anti-Ahmadi riots of 1953 and 1974 how did rioters know who was an Ahmadi?

In Pakistan in both 1953 and 1974 there was mass violence against the Ahmadi community, how did the rioters tell who was an Ahmadi and who wasn't?
3
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2answers
195 views

Is Josephus account of destruction of Temple considered reliable?

I'm currently finishing up "The Jewish War" by Josephus. Josephus describes the lengths that Romans went to preserve the temple. On the one hand, I know Romans had rather a synthetic approach to ...
7
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3answers
872 views

What was the last religion to become 'extinct'?

Some ancient religions, like the one of the Romans and the Ancient Greek, used to have a rather large number of followers, but are now 'extinct', i.e. they aren't practiced anymore (though there are ...
3
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2answers
332 views

Did ancient and/or medieval cultures that emphasized the danger of religious pollution also exert more control over women?

Let me open by saying this is emphatically not a politically motivated dig at any modern or historical culture. I recognize that it can be difficult to answer a question about cultural values, let ...
7
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1answer
488 views

What religion did Mustafa Kemal Atatürk self-identify as following?

He was born in the Ottoman Empire (later Turkey), so I assume he was a Muslim. But when I checked his attitude towards religion, it became clear that he saw religion as an obstacle in making ...
5
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1answer
111 views

Was every man compelled to follow his father's occupation in ancient Egypt?

Adam Smith wrote that in ancient Egypt: every man was bound by a principle of religion to follow the occupation of his father, and was supposed to commit the most horrid sacrilege if he changed it ...
4
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2answers
555 views

What religions did Constantine convert to?

The Roman Emperor Constantine the Great was the first Emperor to legalize Christianity. He also converted to Christianity, from his deathbed. As I remember 40 years ago from theology studies ...
8
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1answer
154 views

What was the primary source Brugsch used to argue for Egyptian monotheism?

There is a theory held by some that Ancient Egypt had a degree of monotheism (A certain Emmanuel de Rougé even going as far as saying, in 1839, "The Egyptian religion is a pure monotheism, which ...
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0answers
98 views

Were there any Crypto-Olympian worshipers after 380 AD/CE? [duplicate]

In 380 AD/CE, the Byzantine Emperor Theodosius issued The Edict of Thessaloniki which nationalized Christianity within Greece, Asia Minor, Italy, as well as other parts of The Roman Empire, while also ...
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3answers
2k views

Did the Romans install offensive statues in the temples of conquered territories?

In her book Revelations: Visions, Prophecy, and Politics in the Book of Revelation, Princeton professor and religious scholar Elaine Pagels notes that when the Romans conquered a new territory, ...
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1answer
2k views

What does a leaning cross on a gravestone mean?

I found this photo I took in 2010 of a gravestone located in Fenstanton Parish Church graveyard. It is dated 1886. I've done a little research (1,2,3) but none of them were especially helpful. Why ...
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1answer
171 views

Why are doomsday predictions for 2012 seen as incompatible with historical Maya mythology/religion?

Interpretations of the Maya calendar that the world might end on date 13.0.0.0.0, Dec 21 2012, were often roundly dismissed as having no historical basis and being inconsistent with Maya beliefs. See ...
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0answers
29 views

Where can I find historical data of changes in the population of Buddhist followers since Ancient India?

I need some sources regarding the changes in the size of Buddhist populations since the death of Gautama Buddha, e.g. the number of Buddhists in what is modern day India from 410 BC until now, or just ...
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0answers
76 views

Was the Sri Lankan Civil War primarily a religious or an ethnic conflict? [closed]

Was the Sri Lankan Civil War of 1983-2009 strictly an ethnic conflict between the Sinhalese and the Tamils, or was it more of a religious rivalry between Buddhists and Hindus?
0
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1answer
294 views

Polytheism and war

James Hillman argues that polytheism reduces the chances of war. I have not been able to find evidence for this. Is there any historical evidence that polytheism reduces the chances of sacred or ...
4
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1answer
119 views

Did Saint Paul preach at the Theater in Philippi?

We know that Saint Paul traveled to and spent much time in Philippi-(in the North of Greece). In fact, Saint Paul began his European mainland mission in Ancient Neapolis-(present-day Kavala) and then ...