Questions tagged [roman-republic]

Questions about the period of ancient Roman civilization when the government operated as a republic from 509 BC to 27 BC.

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6
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1answer
1k views

Why did the Roman Republic never set up a civilian police department?

I was recently reading about conflicts between Clodius and Pompey. Clodius first but subsequently Pompey as well, used - what I would characterize as - armed gangs. The power of these gangs was such ...
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From Tiberius Gracchus to Julius Caesar

In the BBC series about six critical moments in Ancient Roman history, the earliest episode is about Tiberius Gracchus. They say that, although his reforms were not successful, they initiated a ...
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Why didn't Tiberius Gracchus seek the consulship?

Tiberius Gracchus tried to push through his reforms programme while holding the magistracy of a tribune of the plebs. I wonder, though, why he did not try to get elected as consul (very likely given ...
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375 views

How did early Rome mobilize?

I have read that before the reforms of Marius, Rome produced her armies by conscripting them from the citizens by drawing of lot, with every recruit owning his own equipment. My questions are about ...
5
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1answer
159 views

Was Crassus's fire brigade composed of slaves?

Crassus created the first Roman fire brigade, and many years later, Augustus took the idea and formed the Vigiles, a group of slaves serving as firefighters. However, I can't find any source ...
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347 views

Was Marcus Marcellus faced with Viridomarus or Britomartus?

I seem to have come to a discrepancy, as I'm sure a lot have, concerning the event in which Marcus Claudius Marcellus is supposedly meant to have slain the King of the Insubres in 222 B.C.E. Plutarch ...
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326 views

Gaulish logistics during Caesar's invasion

How much, if anything, do we know about how the Gauls camped and marched when facing Caesar? Did they have tents, mules, wagons, camp followers? Can we infer anything about their rate of march? Was ...
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308 views

The influence of the second catilinarian conspiracy on the fall of the Roman Republic? [closed]

When studying Roman history during the first century BC, one of the prominent events mentioned is the second Catilinarian conspiracy, wherein Catiline seeks to overthrow the Roman Republic through a ...
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3answers
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In Battle of Zama, how did Hannibal's use of war elephants lead to a Roman Victory?

Why did Hannibal attack with elephants from the front? Why not from side? Also why did the elephants just keep walking through the small gap? Why not wreak havoc in the middle of Roman troops? (like ...
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2answers
711 views

Why didn't Caesar hire free men to do slave work?

So one of Caesar's significant policies in Roman politics was helping the peasants have land and work to make a living. Wonder why didn't he push laws that restricted the use of slaves and made those ...
4
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1answer
268 views

Did the Roman senate immediately send new governors after the death of proconsuls/propraetors?

I would like to know whether the Roman senate sent replacements for deceased governors (due to illness, accident, war, ...) immediately after hearing of their death or was content to entrust the ...
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179 views

Examples of Romans repeating early stages of the cursus honorum

In some special cases, Romans held lower offices than some they had already held, for example Quaestor while having been a consul before. I understand that senators, expelled by the censors for ...
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361 views

Why was Scipio the Younger accused of wishing to abolish Tiberius Gracchus laws?

In the Wikipedia page of Gaius Gracchus you can find this paragraph, which I find particularly confusing: When Scipio the Younger agreed to represent the Italian allies, who were protesting the ...
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Why is Sulla's nose in the bust in Munich Glyptothek broken?

I was just wondering if someone did this as a slight to Sulla in the same manner that crosses were carved into the foreheads of Roman busts.!
3
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1answer
226 views

Did the Romans hold the Isle of Wight and surrounding areas before the invasion in 43 AD?

In this video it shows the Isle of Wight and the area around it including Southampton and Portsmouth being under Roman control beginning during Julius Caesar's invasion of Britain. However my brief ...
3
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480 views

Internal crisis of the Roman Republic before the Gracchi

The beginning of the Roman Republic is traditionally dated to 509 BC, when the Roman king Tarquinius Superbus was overthrown. Wikipedia article about the Crisis of the Roman Republic states that ...
3
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1answer
370 views

Did Caesar hold proconsular imperium for his entire governorship?

In order to hold a governorship during the late Roman Republic the magistrate needed to be a pro magistratu, specifically proquaestor, propraetor or proconsular. Since Caesar was appointed his ...
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627 views

Sourced List of Ancient Roman Values

I need a listing of some of the most influential ancient Roman virtues for a book I'm writing. There is a great list, just what I need, here on Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virtue#...
3
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755 views

Is there any sort of list of Roman senators?

I am looking for records on Roman senators (specifically around 100 B.C., around the time Ceasar was born) Googling for it I only find various wikipedia articles on how the Roman senate worked, but no ...
3
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1answer
140 views

Were the republican legati pro praetores appointed by the governors?

I am not referring to the Legati Augusti pro praetores of the Empire. In republican Rome, provincial governors chose their own legates quite freely. I found here https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/...
3
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164 views

What Was the Constitutional Basis that Made Pompey “Consul Without Colleague” for 52BC

From my understanding, the Senate had no prerogative in naming a consul. At best they could appoint an interrex among themselves. What was the constitutional basis that enabled the Senate to appoint ...
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366 views

What was the role of the college of consuls in Ancient Rome?

Wikipedia says: By law, only three persons were required to create a legal collegium; the only exception was the college of consuls, which included only the two consuls. I wonder what was the ...
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Is Zonaras' epitome of Cassius Dio the fullest surviving ancient annalistic account of Roman history for the period 292–265 BC?

Is the Byzantine historian Zonaras' epitome of Cassius Dio's Roman History (as presented alongside Dio's fragments in the Loeb edition of the Roman History) our fullest surviving ancient annalistic ...
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What is the latest case of employment of Cretan archers in Antiquity?

It is known that Cretan archers were widely used (presumably as mercenaries) across Mediterranean by Greek armies and were occasionally included in Roman armies of Republic and of Imperial period. I ...
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1answer
152 views

Punishment for deserting lictors

Assume the following scenario: In the late days of the Roman Republic a consul is assaulted on the streets of the city by an angry mob, abetted by his political enemies. His lictors run away, leaving ...
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2answers
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How democratic was the ancient republic of Rome? [closed]

So in ancient Rome Republic elections where done every year and two consuls were elected, however I see sometimes the same consuls elected again and again, same seems to happen with the senators. ...
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1answer
151 views

Can someone clarify Livy's argument in Book 21, Chapter 19 of Ab Urbe Condita Libri?

Can someone clarify the following passage from Book 21, Chapter 19 of Livy's Ab Urbe Condita Libri? [This is the translation of Rev Canon Roberts, taken from the Perseus website] This ...
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1answer
113 views

Did Roman citizens vote in more than one legislative assembly?

During the Roman Republic, did Roman citizens vote in more than one legislative assembly (namely the Curiate, Centuriate, Tribal Assemblies, and the Plebeian Council)? For example, was a plebeian ...
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1answer
107 views

Were debts owed or outstanding debts factored into the Roman census?

In the Roman Republic were debts and loans taken into account by the Censors when calculating the worth of a citizen's property? If yes, how were these checked?
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1answer
475 views

How did the Romans build their armies for the First Punic War?

The Romans built a great and vast empire, my question is what were some of the military techniques they used to build, train, and use their army? Specifically during the period of the First Punic War. ...
2
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1answer
229 views

Who were some Greek Plebeian Gentes, especially from Magna Graecia?

I'm looking for foreign influences on the Plebeians. Who are some Plebeian Gentes that were Greek, perhaps from Magna Graecia or Sicily? I vaguely recall reading about one from Campania, who came in ...
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2answers
309 views

Fulvia in Sallust's Catiline Conspiracy the same Fulvia as Mark Antony's wife?

I found this book that said they were not the same woman, but the author didn't give any evidence: Squires, S. (Ed.). (1990). Asconius Commentaries on Five Speeches of Cicero. Bolchazy-Carducci ...
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201 views

How did the Romans salute the Republic?

Are there any known phrases that were used by Romans to celebrate or cheer for the Republic? I've searched for some phrases I came up with, like Ave Res Publica, and some other derivatives I've ...
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181 views

A comparison between the reforms of Athens and Rome

Question: What made it possible that, during the times of Solon, Athens underwent reforms characterized by isonomia, — that is, equality among citizens, — whereas their approximately contemporary ...
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248 views

What was the Constitutional Basis for Gaius Julius Caesar's Dictatorship

In the early republic, a dictator was usually appointed for a reason such as presiding over an election or defending the city against a foreign invasion. I remember reading somewhere that Sulla's ...
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1answer
490 views

Did Romans piss into aqueducts as a joke?

Are there any historical references to this being done? Either for fun, as revenge of some kind or for any other reason? If this was common practice; did anyone try to prevent it from happening or ...
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2answers
230 views

How many Romans would use an average-sized balneum every day?

How many Romans would use an average-sized balneum every day, if the people coming to the balneum only went to that balneum once a day? I have already tried researching about this question using ...
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2answers
910 views

Why Marcus Aurelius did not restore the Roman Republic? [closed]

I'm wondering why Marcus Aurelius, who could be considered as one of the most wise emperors of Roman Empire, did not restore Roman Republic constitutions? I read somewhere that the functionality of ...
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1answer
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How did Carthage Lose the First Punic War to Rome?

(264 to 241 BC) Carthage seemed to have many significant strategic advantages at the beginning of the conflict. Carthage Generals were both experienced and accomplished. Carthage had a larger and ...
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1answer
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What percent of the Roman Republic's population were citizens in various centuries? [closed]

Does anyone have any sources mentioning the percentages of citizens at various times, or the populations of citizens and corresponding total populations so I can calculate percents? I looked at dozens ...
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1answer
737 views

Why didn't the Romans set up breeding mechanisms as a main source to supplement their population of slaves instead of relying on defeated enemies? [closed]

By the time of the Flavians there were large reductions in the supply of slaves, both those peacefully imported from outside the Empire and those captured in military campaigns. It was a time of ...
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1answer
351 views

What happened to Marcus Licinius Crassus' Gold?

Marcus Licinius Crassus (from the First Triumvirate) was considered to be richest man ever. After his death however, what happened to his immense fortune? It seems like a treasure like that would be ...
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What was the source of the idea of a republic?

Where did the Greeks or the Romans find the idea of a "Republic"? What was the source of the idea? Did the idea come from philosophers, or citizens, etc.?
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Christian and Etruscan end of times [closed]

I believe I've read somewhere, that the Etruscans (anymore knows any sources?) devoted ever more thought to the afterlife, as the Roman republic encroached on their territory. Similarly the Romans ...