Questions tagged [russia]

The largest country in the world, spanning territory from the eastern edge of Europe to Siberia in northern Asia.

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262 views

Who left Fort Ross to defect to Mexico?

Remarks by Kirill Khlebnikov reproduced in "California Through Russian Eyes" by Gibson, p. 332, say that one defector from Fort Ross had headed to Mexico. Who was the unnamed defector?
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What uniform is my great great Cossack grandfather wearing?

The man bellow with the medals and the beard is my great great grandfather. He was a cossack in the Urals, I have been looking for ages but I can not find what Cossack uniform he is wearing. I really ...
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What medals is my Cossack Great Grandfather wearing?

The man in the centre with the medals and the moustache is my great great grandfather. Ive been trying to figure out what Medals he's been wearing, I know he have 4 crosses of st George on the left of ...
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132 views

Who issued the passports for travel to Russian America?

Employees of the Russian-American Company were supposed to have seven-year passports to travel from Russia to the Company's colonies. Officials endeavored to stay in compliance, though it's clear that ...
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The Russian-American Company in Valparaíso

The Russian-American Company bought a lot of grain in Spanish and Mexican California. In 1829 or 1830, not enough was available, and the ship Baikal under captain Etholén continued south to Chile. ...
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What is this book about the Avar and Khazar Turks from the early 20th century?

I came across a book on the internet that connected the Avars to the Khazars. It was written sometime during the 1920's-40's, I think the mid 20's, by a European scholar. It never became popular. This ...
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Where other than Kronstadt did the Russian American Company train its employees?

The Russian American Company used to send students of navigation to study at an Imperial college in Kronstadt, then obligate them to work for the Company for a period of years. This was very expensive,...
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460 views

Did the defense of the Brest fortress make sense?

I came across an opinion of an alternative "historian"/conspiracy theorist who claims that the defense of Brest fortress did not make sense. According to his theory, its inhabitants should have left ...
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711 views

Is this a true quote of Engels about vague Russian leaders and their vague followers?

In the recent movie "The Young Karl Marx", Engels refers to Russian communist leaders being confused and finding confused followers. Is this a true quote and if yes, whom did he mean?
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425 views

Why was Stalin chosen as the First General Secretary in 1922?

At the 11th Party Congress, Stalin was voted into the position of General Secretary. This was the first time the party had a General Secretary. This was in 1922 Mar/Apr. Why was Stalin chosen? I ...
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755 views

Were people happy under Ivan the terrible?

I do know that the Russian nobility faced great terror under Ivan IV. The movie by Sergei Eisenstein, "Ivan the terrible" shows him as a benevolent ruler as far as people are concerned. I wish to know ...
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What is a difference between the revolution in Egypt that sprung recently and the Russian Revolution of 1917

What is a difference between the revolution in Egypt that sprung recently and the Russian Revolution of 1917 i need to find a difference between the revolution that happened recently in Egypt, ...
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365 views

What evidence is there that Lenin died because he was poisoned?

Many historians, such as Massie, mention that Lenin may have abruptly become ill in 1922, and died two years later, because he was poisoned. However, nobody ever mentions why this is thought, who may ...
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257 views

Would an Illegitimate child of a monarch have been recognized at the Russian court?

For purposes of a novel I am writing I would like to know if an illegitimate son or daughter of a 19th century Russian tsar would have been recognized by the court. Would it matter if the birth was ...
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125 views

When did Europeans make their first well-attested visit to mainland Alaska?

To my surprise, I could not find a straightforward answer to this question. When did Europeans first set foot in mainland Alaska? I could easily find that: Vitus Bering, a Dane of Russian allegiance, ...
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213 views

How did the Russian-American Company hire serfs?

In the Russian Empire until 1861 the estate of serfdom kept most of the country's population the property of others. This cheap labor was attractive to capitalist enterprises like the Russian-American ...
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237 views

How to attack Fort Ross

Imperial Spain was upset when the Russian-American Company founded its Californian outpost Fort Ross. Local Spanish officials always stayed cordial with the Russians, though. Both sides were remote ...
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140 views

What is the English name for the “Исламский джихад - Джамаат моджахедов” organization?

Russia's list of designated terrorist organizations contains a list of names that are easily identifiable, except this one that I can't identify: Исламский джихад - Джамаат моджахедов I could find ...
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311 views

Under Catherine the Great were all officers appointed for five years?

I noticed that the chief commandants of Kamchatka seemed to serve terms of about five years (Koselev 1802-1807, Petrovskii 1807-1813, Rudakov 1813-1817). Their rank (IV) qualified them to be made ...
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298 views

Why was Highway One routed right through Fort Ross?

California's coastal Highway One was completed in the 1930s. Until about 1970, the roadway actually passed through the stockade of the Russian colony, Fort Ross. Later the Fort became a state park. ...
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202 views

How did the Russian-American Company respond to employee desertion?

The Russian-American Company (head office: St. Petersburg) monopolized transit and commerce with the Russian American colonies and outposts. Almost the only people carried on Company voyages were ...
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188 views

Why did Iturbide choose Fernández for the mission to California?

After Mexican independence, Emperor Agustín I took power. During his short reign he understandably sent a representative to the Californias to procure and check on their loyalty. The representative, a ...
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125 views

New surnames for baptized natives

During the colonial era, Christian missionaries on remote frontiers around the world chose new Christian names for the natives they baptized. Apparently the monks who missionized Kamchatka also ...
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107 views

Did Herman Melville help write his uncle's book?

Captain John D'Wolf II (1779-1872), member of a prominent slave-trading family of Bristol, Rhode Island, was the uncle of author Herman Melville (1819-1891). D'Wolf informed Melville's view of life at ...
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125 views

How many criminal exiles were sent to Kamchatka?

Exile in Siberia was a well-known punishment for criminals in Imperial (and Soviet) Russia. Exiles, who could be common criminals or political prisoners, were forced to walk in irons to their new job ...
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What are the chances that my ancestor from Massachusetts in 1670 was a Russian Jew?

I have family who claim that their ancestor who was in Massachusetts by 1670 was from Russia, and was Jewish! What are the chances?
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229 views

Which lover of a Russian Empress obtained the highest rank?

There were numerous well-known male lovers of Russian Empresses, particularly those of Catherine the Great. Such a role often meant receiving sumptuous gifts such as beautiful apartments, the status ...
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724 views

Why was there such tension between the Ottoman Empire and Russia during the Armenian genocide?

I'm researching the Armenian genocide on a very basic level, and I've learned that a lot of the tension between Armenians and the Turks was because the Armenians were seen as supporting the Russians, ...
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201 views

Was there a battle were Russians forces rallied around a religious icon to achieve victory?

I remember on my last visit to Moscow, there was an incredible art piece where a group of priests carrying orthodox icons are surrounded by soldiers with spears and swords. I remember the legend ...
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755 views

Has the training of Russian troops improved since 1989? [closed]

Recently, USA has excluded Pakistan from military training list. On the flip side, Pakistan has signed an agreement with Russian Federation for the training of its officers. My personal assessment is, ...
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147 views

From which Russian-American Company ship did Osip Volkov defect to Mexico?

Several books and articles indicate that Osip Volkov defected from a Russian ship at Monterey around 1815, midway through the Mexican War of Independence. Naturalized as Jose Antonio Bolcof, he served ...
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148 views

Were “The People's Will” referred to as “terrorist” by their contemporaries?

Narodnaya Volya (The People's Will) was the organization responsible for the assassination of Tsar Alexander II in in March 1881. Is there any evidence (preferably online sources) which point to the ...
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460 views

Political opposition groups in the Russian revolution?

Ok, so I do understand that there were the Bolsheviks and the Mensheviks. In school we learned that Soviets consisted of the peasantry, the industrial workers, and the soldiers. But later on, the ...
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259 views

Were Russian recruits ever chained?

This paper contains the following remark: Recruits were then marched off, without proper care, to a destination that might be hundreds of miles away; initially they were branded and even ...
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332 views

Is this story about the Tsar's encounter with a sergeant true?

I once read a story (about why one should not be rude to strangers or rude in general) in a local magazine that, once Tsar Peter I asked about directions from a Sergeant. Sergeant (not knowing whom ...
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254 views

Did the Ukraine and Moldova belong to Russia between 1905-1918? [closed]

Between the years of 1905-1918? Were the countries of Moldova and Ukraine part of the Russian Federation? Or were they their own independent state / country.?
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245 views

What was the social class of priests' children in Imperial Russia?

Imperial Russia considered all its subjects to fall within a social class or estate (petty burgher, noble, privately held serf, native, etc.) Most of these categories are hereditary, but a couple ...
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68 views

Who was arrested at El Cojo with Eliot de Castro?

According to Bancroft's "History of California" II:274, Spanish authorities acting on Governor Sola's orders detained Eliot de Castro, working for the Russian-American Company, along with "an American ...
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226 views

Connection between U.S. entry into WW1 and Germans sending Lenin back to Russia

The Germans sent Lenin back to Russia ten days after U.S. entry into WW1. Does anyone know of primary source evidence that the Germans thought of Lenin as a possible way to counter U.S. entry by ...
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575 views

When did the Polovtsy convert to Islam?

Polovtsy is a name used to refer various Turkic tribes living to the East of Kievan Rus. I wonder at what point those Turkic peoples became Muslim?
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112 views

For how many years in the eighteenth century were Russian soldiers present within the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth borders?

For modern Poland, the answer is rather simple. Russian, and later Soviet soldiers, were stationed inside the Polish borders for almost the whole 19th and 20th centuries (with a notable exception for ...
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147 views

Wreck of the Juno

K.T. Khlebnikov wrote a biography of his boss, Baranov: Chief Manager of the Russian Colonies in America. In this book he described the wreck of the Juno as taking place November 3, 1811 (O.S.), "not ...
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78 views

Are the Zemstvo Statistics Digitized?

There were massive statistics collected during the late Russian Empire (1861-1917)-- the "Zemstvo Statistics." They are available on microform at Yale (http://www.library.yale.edu/slavic/microform/...
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221 views

Did the Russian alcohol monopoly in the 1700s cover the whole Russian territory?

Crownhart-Vaughan's introduction to her translation of Krasheninnikov's Explorations of Kamchatka mentions an Imperial monopoly on liquor, and the state's difficulty in enforcing it, in 1750s ...
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428 views

How and why did Aleksotas became part of the Russian Empire in 1864? [closed]

I am interested in Hermann Minkowski and, according to Wikipedia, he “was born in Aleksotas, a village in the Kovno Governorate of the Russian Empire” in 1864. Wikipedia also says that ...
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243 views

How did Kolmogorov help protect Moscow in WW2?

I have been reading this blog post which mentions that: during World War II Kolmogorov applied his mathematical gifts to artillery problems, helping to protect Moscow from German bombardment. So,...
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72 views

Which Imperial Russian officials created and verified passports?

In Imperial Russia (as in other states) passports were required for interior travel. They were issued to individuals and had a finite duration. I'm guessing that being found away from home without a ...
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193 views

What did Russia do about Caucasus oil after the collapse of the Soviet Union?

During World War II, something like 72% of the Soviet Union's oil came from Baku, Azerbaijan, in the Caucasus. More like 86% if you count Grozny (Chechnya), and other Caucasus territories, leaving ...
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77 views

Location of Hagemeister's six-language diaries

Leontii A. Hagemeister (or Gagemeister) was a Baltic German navigator of the Russian navy and briefly governor of the Russian-American company. The best work on him in English is by Richard Pierce, ...
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106 views

What was the commandant of Okhotsk's involvement in Russian-American Company hiring?

The Russian-American Company was a privately funded concern which obtained a royal monopoly on exploration and settlement in America. It sponsored and managed the Russian presence from the Aleutians ...