Questions tagged [russian-revolution]

Questions related to the history of a series of revolutions in 1917 which eliminated the autocracy of the Tsars in Russia and helped establish the Soviet Union.

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Did Bolsheviks try to foster socialist revolution in Europe?

At the moment of the Socialist Revolution (or coup d'état) in October/November 1917 Russia was still mostly an agrarian society, whereas Marxist theory predicted Socialist revolutions in developed ...
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What is Lenin critically referring to here - presumably some actions by Trotsky?

What is Lenin referring to here? "Discerning reader”: note that this does not mean “blowing up bridges”, organising unsuccessful strikes in the war industries, and ·in general helping the ...
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To what extent did Russian bourgeoisie and capitalism continued to exist through the Soviet rule in the USSR? [closed]

During the Communist rule in Russia, the industry and land were mostly nationalized, and many of the previous landowners or industrialist were either exiled or physically exterminated. However, the ...
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What were Lenin's and Trotsky's roles in the October revolution of 1917?

Lenin spend the two months preceding the overthrow of the provisional government far away from Saint-Petersburg/Petrograd or Moscow - even the official Soviet version of events openly and readily ...
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When did Russian officially replace Old Slavonic?

When was Russian adopted as the official language of Russia? Background: Well into the XVIII-th (or even XIX-th) century Russian co-existed in a state of diglossia with Old Church Slavonic, based on a ...
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What was 250,000 rubles worth in 1918?

Circa 1918, during the Ukrainian War of Independence and the Russian Revolution, Nestor Makhno's army expropriated 250,000 rubles from a bank, per Skirda 2004. Is there a way to contextualize the size/...
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Who else has been credited as "grandfather of the Russian revolution"?

Kropotkin is known as "grandfather of the Russian revolution". Not sure who first gave him this title, but mass media of that time used it. Lenin got the title post-mortem. To my surprise, ...
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How did the Bolsheviks gain power outside Petrograd & Moscow following the 1917 October Revolution?

Every book I have read that deals with the 1917 October Revolution in Russia describes the Bolshevik seizure of power in Petrograd, and more briefly in Moscow, but says next to nothing about how the ...
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Why was Lenin's brother executed, when he himself was only banished?

Alexander was executed. But Lenin was sent abroad. He settled in Germany, before he came back for the Revolution (and, as some people say, to avenge his brother). (A related question.)
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Was the Kerensky Offensive doomed from the start?

I've been reading about Russia in the Great War during 1917, and what is quite surprising for me is the Kerensky Offensive. Primarily, what is surprising is that the army was in great material terms ...
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What was Louise Bryant's (John Reed's widow) view of the Soviet Union at end of her life?

American journalist and radical Louise Bryant (1885-1936), was, with her husband and fellow newspaper reporter John Reed, a sympathetic eyewitness to the 1917 October Revolution and beginning of the ...
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How did the Bolsheviks fund their government? [closed]

I came across this from a telegram sent by a Mr. Lindley in Russia to Mr. Balfour in London.— (Received November 28.) (Telegraphic.) Archangel, November 27, 1918. Principal reason why Bolsheviks have ...
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Who was part of the Raznochintsy class in 1800s Russia?

In the system of social estates of Imperial Russia, someone "of miscellaneous rank" was a member of the raznochintsy, at least until the category was abolished. В.Н.Разгон says this happened at the ...
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Was it ever possible to see students with burka/paranji having education at the schools and universities of the Uzbek Soviet Republic?

Despite strict 'hujum' (assault in English) policies against veiling as part of the liberation of women in Muslim populated less-developed areas of the Soviet Union during the early years of the ...
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Was Senegal involved in the 1918 Russian Revolution? [closed]

In the 1923 novel "The White Guard" by Mikhail Bulgakov there is a scene where Russian officers are lamenting that the Senegalese have yet to arrive on the battle front to help them (p. 44). They ...
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Who were the victims of the 1907 Tiflis bank robbery?

According to Wikipedia's 1907 Tiflis bank robbery, there were 40 people killed during an armed robbery to get funds for the "Bolsheviks to fund their revolutionary activities." I have found it ...
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Why didn't the abdication of the Nicholas Tsar II duing the Russian Revolution solve Russia's political and social problems? [closed]

Why didn't the abdication of the Nicholas Tsar II duing the Russian Revolution solve Russia's political and social problems? Can you give examples using primary or secondary sources? Thanks :)
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Are the Zemstvo Statistics Digitized?

There were massive statistics collected during the late Russian Empire (1861-1917)-- the "Zemstvo Statistics." They are available on microform at Yale (http://www.library.yale.edu/slavic/microform/...
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What political party did Stalin belong to? [closed]

What political party did Stalin belong to? I know he identified as a communist, but he didn't act like one: he occupied a somewhat large portion of the Baltic states(Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia). He ...
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What was the troop ratio between the Reds and the Whites in the Russian Revolution?

I am making a game over the Russian Revolution for English class. I want to make this game a somewhat accurate representation of the Russian Revolution. I have been able find the answers to all of my ...
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4 answers
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Help with identifying my great-grandfather's pre-WWI Cossack uniform

My great-grandfahter was a Cossack from "Then Russia" "Now Belarus" where the Belarus, Ukraine and Poland borders met, but I don't now which "type" like Don or Kuban etc. He fled from the place he ...
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Why didn't Lenin improve life in Russian villiages before his death?

I mean, it's universally agreed that farmers in rural areas in Russia suffered the most after 1917. Grain requisitioning during war communism had destroyed the economy in the villiages. Even after ...
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Did Russia and Lenin benefit from the Treaty of Versailles?

Russia suffered a substantial land loss and severe economic problems due to the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. However, the land Germany gained from Russia was to be independent according to Treaty of ...
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How did Lenin secure his regime? [closed]

As we know, Bolsheviks seemed to overthow Provisional Government easily in November Revolution. Many political parties are inspired and feel like taking over the same way. War Communism also ...
Ma Joad's user avatar
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Was there a precursor to the Bolshevik Party?

My family is originally from the Odessa, Russia area and my whole life I've been fed the following story about my great grandfather: My great grandfather, a man named Isaac Wasserman, who apparently ...
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Are there biographies on Boris Shumyatsky that included his history before 1921?

Zhang Guotao in his memoir recounted his meeting with Shumyatsky in 1921. The then King of Siberia was very busy but managed to treat Zhang with a private dinner in his home. After the dinner, Zhang ...
George Chen's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
702 views

Political opposition groups in the Russian revolution?

Ok, so I do understand that there were the Bolsheviks and the Mensheviks. In school we learned that Soviets consisted of the peasantry, the industrial workers, and the soldiers. But later on, the ...
user8365304's user avatar
10 votes
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735 views

How many troops would the White Armies have had at their peak during the Russian Civil War?

A couple of sketchy sources say between 2.3 and 2.4 million, but the books I've looked through are silent on the matter. Nevertheless, the maximum strength of the Red Army at around 5 million during ...
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"Peace, land, and bread!" Or not?

Vladimir Lenin is known for promising "Peace, land, and bread!" to the peasants of Russia. I have seen this quote in many forms, though, as Peace, land, and bread! Peace, bread, and land! Peace, land,...
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12 votes
3 answers
7k views

Did Lenin order the execution of the Romanovs?

Oddly, the Wikipedia page about the Executions has the soviet leadership saying that Lenin didn't have a part in it: They acknowledged the murders in 1926 following the publication of an ...
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1 answer
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Did any intelligence agents defect to the Cheka before 1921? [closed]

Did any intelligence agents defect to the Cheka (USSR secret police) before 1921? Does that have any historical precedent? If not, 1926. Either former Czarist agents, or spies working for other ...
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6 votes
3 answers
730 views

What did Mirsky mean by this quote (Russian Revolution 1905)?

I'm reading Orlando Figes' Revolutionary Russia. Prince Mirsky was appointed Minister for the Interior by Tsar Nicholas and was much more progressive than his predecessor. He convened a congress of ...
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What was the structure of the Russian army following reforms in 1917?

Found that although it's apparent that old titles were abolished it is unclear as to whether this was merely formal while retaining a hierarchy of command or whether the army did work collectively.
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How did the Czech Legion get home?

The Czech Legion was allied with the Russian Tsars just prior to the Russian revolution. After the Bolsheviks took power, they were unable to return via Europe. So they crossed the whole of Eurasia ...
Astor Florida's user avatar
4 votes
0 answers
305 views

What were the political goals of the United States' intervention in the Russian Civil War? [closed]

My understanding is that the United States sent two separate ground forces to take part in the Russian Civil War Polar Bear Expedition American Expeditionary Force Siberia Only the Polar Bear ...
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Diaries of Nicolas II

In a library of President Yeltsyn the originals of the diaries could be found. But they only cover the time until 1906. The printed editions of his diary cover his records until his last days in 1918. ...
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How many Old Bolsheviks outlived Stalin?

The term "Old Bolshevik" refers to those who joined the Bolshevik party before the Russian Revolution of 1917. According to D. A. Chygayev (as quoted by Mark Deutsch), in 1922 there were 44,148 ...
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6 votes
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556 views

When did the socialist movement start becoming noteworthy in Russian history?

I'm not a historian but I've always been intrigued by modern Russian history, from the socialist revolution to the present. I'm thinking of reading more on the subject and want to know how far back in ...
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Why was Tsesarevich Alexei's hemophilia a state secret?

Alexei inherited hemophilia from his mother Alexandra, a condition that could be traced back to her maternal grandmother Queen Victoria. In 2009 genetic analysis determined specifically that he ...
Felix Goldberg's user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
782 views

Statistics on pre-revolutionary Russian education

I'm looking for some statistics (and I know this may not even exist) about education rates in pre-revolutionary Russian society (by pre-revolutionary I'm looking for between 1890 and 1917). Someone ...
Often Right's user avatar
4 votes
0 answers
479 views

How much of the success of the Soviet forces in WWII can be attributed to the modernization efforts enacted by the Soviet/Bolshevik leadership? [closed]

The Bolsheviks took power in 1917 and were able to achieve significant progress in the industrialization and militarization of the country. Even to the point that Hitler said, “Had I known they had ...
Andrew Kloos's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
336 views

Did Ben-Gurion attend a lecture by Trotsky in New York in 1917?

I came across this statement: 1917 B-G (at 30) meets Russian-born Paula Munweis at Trotsky lecture, who works with B-G on political articles. In Dec. they marry in City Hall. The author of the ...
Felix Goldberg's user avatar