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Questions tagged [science]

Part of human activity related to gaining, classifying and improving knowledge about the world. There exist commonly adopted rules and requirements to make a method scientific. The history itself is one of humanity sciences.

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Today, do we celebrate anniversaries of events that happened in time of Julian calendar, on Julian date or at corresponding Gregorian date?

Today do we celebrate anniversaries of events that happened in time of Julian calendar, on the Julian date or at the corresponding Gregorian date? Do historians write the dates of scientific works in ...
22flower's user avatar
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-2 votes
1 answer
138 views

Exactly what year did Newton first write about calculus, 1664, 1665 or 1666? [closed]

Exactly what year did Newton first write about calculus? I find from different sources three years; 1664 citation needed , 1665 and 1666, but which year is correct? 1665 source 1666 source 1665 source ...
22flower's user avatar
  • 125
4 votes
0 answers
264 views

Why didn't eclipses cause mass vision damage in historical societies?

We recently had an eclipse in the US and the accompanying warnings about potential vision damage from looking at the eclipse directly outside of the full totality. What I'm wondering is how eclipses ...
Emmett Palaima's user avatar
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0 answers
89 views

Did the quality of prisms affect the acceptance of Newton's light experiments?

My question starts with the following statement from a book I'm reading "Moreover, repetition of a well-established experience could give results that made it be called into question: an ...
madame p's user avatar
5 votes
2 answers
193 views

How would our ancestors have judged which days were solstices or equinoxes?

I have no idea if there is any evidence or even informed speculation about this, so I thought I'd ask the community most likely to know. Megalithic and other prehistoric structures are widely ...
Andrew's user avatar
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12 votes
1 answer
3k views

What is/was a 'cardsetting engine'?

V. 1, Ch. 15 of Capital discusses carding machines extensively. Footnote 6 mentions [Only recently have] machine tools been made in England by machinery, and not by the same manufacturers who make ...
shea's user avatar
  • 123
3 votes
1 answer
119 views

How can I review Cole MSS XXXIII, the description of the English polymath John Michell?

On the wikipedia page for the polymath John Michell, it gives a description of him. The source for this description is “Cole MSS XXXIII, 156, British Library.” According to this article on Harvard’s ...
Curious Layman's user avatar
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0 answers
106 views

Who was this person in the Early Modern Period who wrote a manual on writing "good science"?

In a history lecture a while back the teacher spoke about a person who wrote something that (to me) sounded like an instruction manual on how to write "good science". The basic point was ...
ReaderGuy42's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
339 views

Has anyone ever used an eclipse to scare people?

It is a recurring theme in fiction that a knowledgeable person scares off some ignorant person/people by pretending that the solar eclipse is caused by the wrath of gods, or similar. For example, see ...
domotorp's user avatar
  • 411
9 votes
1 answer
2k views

How did PHS researchers prevent Tuskegee experiment participants from obtaining treatment on their own?

According to the Wikipedia article: During World War II, 256 of the infected subjects registered for the draft and were consequently diagnosed as having syphilis at military induction centers and ...
JonathanReez's user avatar
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1 vote
2 answers
161 views

What train route did the 200 inch Hale telescope mirror blank take from Corning NY to Pasadena CA in 1936? Did it go through or near Elmira NY?

My father either claimed to have thrown rocks at the 200 inch cast Pyrex mirror blank destined for the Hale telescope on Mt. Palomar being shipped by train from Corning, NY (or at least he joked that ...
uhoh's user avatar
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-1 votes
2 answers
116 views

How significant was poetry as mnemonic device in technical / philosophical / scientific texts in classical Rome and Greece? [closed]

This starts because I remembered that he works of one of the classical Greek philosophers was lost, but what was kept was an adaptation of the work into poetic form. This is highly unlikely in the ...
fffff's user avatar
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1 vote
0 answers
72 views

What did the study plan of a early 20th century mathematics major look like?

I am interested in what subjects and activities mathematics major were involved in the beggining of the 20th century. Most subjects mathematics majors study at an intermedium and advanced level now ...
Kham Bodrogi's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
248 views

How often was the 'abominable mystery' used to attack Darwin's evolution theory?

Darwin coined the words "abominable mystery" for the comparatively sudden appearance of flowering plants in the fossil record, and considered it a weak point in his evolution theory. But ...
Qiulang 邱朗's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
187 views

Did the teaching of evolution in the US suffer greatly from the Scopes Monkey trial?

After reading the story of the Scopes Monkey Trial, I learned that the teaching of evolution in the US suffers greatly from it. To quote some words from the wiki item, at the section Anti-evolution ...
Qiulang 邱朗's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
160 views

Is there any documentation of the use of scientific knowledge or technology in pagan temples?

One of the great rabbinic scholars from the Geonic period, Rabbi Hai Gaon (939-1038 CE) wrote a responsum wherein he mentions as something "well-known" that that idolatrous temples would set ...
Reb Chaim HaQoton's user avatar
27 votes
1 answer
11k views

Why was uranium mined in the 1500s, but only "discovered" in 1789?

This Guardian article talks about how uranium was mined at the beginning of the 1500s. The Guardian is a pretty reputable newspaper as far as I’m aware, so I am willing to believe them. Out of ...
Puffafish's user avatar
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1 vote
0 answers
116 views

How difficult would it have been for a European to obtain access to US scientific journals in 1945?

On May 1, 1945, volume 158 of the Journal of Biologic Chemistry was published. I'd like to establish to what degree –and how soon thereafter– its content may have been accessible in continental Europe ...
m.a.a.'s user avatar
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2 votes
2 answers
201 views

Since when has there been a clear distinction between sciences?

Since what historical event or what exact date is there a clear distinction between sciences? According to my knowledge in antiquity there were many scientists who were all mathematicians, physicists, ...
Jane B.'s user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
209 views

Who placed first on entrance exam 1805 at École Polytechnique?

Wikipedia:Cauchy and Biography of Cauchy say that in 1805 Augustin Cauchy placed second of 293 applicants on the entrance exam at École Polytechnique. Who placed first?
Andris Krauze's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
365 views

Did Nazi Germany conduct systematic experiments on prisoners on what it takes to kill/injure a human with electricity?

I live in Denmark and work within the electrical industry. Both at education, at work and on the Internet, I have heard people mention that Nazi Germany conducted all sorts of experiments on prisoners ...
Mads Skjern's user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
531 views

Why did water stored on premodern ships "go brackish" or "go bad" while at sea?

I have read in several Napoleonic historical fiction novels that water stored on ships would somehow spoil over time. The water is described as completely unpalatable if not undrinkable, and alcohol (...
Pink Sweetener's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
134 views

Why did Gödel think the Viennese Academy of Sciences was founded earlier?

Mathematician Karl Menger, a colleague of famous mathematician Kurt Gödel, says this on pages 222-223 of his book “Reminiscences of the Vienna Circle and the Mathematical Colloquium“: Meanwhile, ...
Keshav Srinivasan's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
204 views

Who proclaimed separation of science from philosophy?

Historically (since 2500 years ago), philosophy - "love of wisdom" in Greek - encompassed all intellectual endeavors, and natural philosophy was seen as its part. However, these days the ...
sds's user avatar
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5 votes
1 answer
385 views

Who was Professor Henri Andre and what did he publish?

Looking at the history of electrochemical batteries, I came across this article from NASA where it says: In the late 1920s, French Professor Henri André finally made the first practical silver-zinc ...
DrZ214's user avatar
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5 votes
0 answers
184 views

Was there an alchemical symbol given for pitchblende?

In 1789 Martin Klaproth isolated uranium from pitchblende for the first recorded time, however uranite was used in dying glass in the first century. Through the age of alchemy, I have not been able to ...
Vogon Poet's user avatar
27 votes
2 answers
4k views

How did Hedy Lamarr acquire scientific education?

Hedy Lamarr was a famous actress and an inventor. According to Wikipedia, her inventions included: Improved traffic stoplight. Tablet that would dissolve in water to create a carbonated drink. ...
HeyJude's user avatar
  • 471
25 votes
2 answers
4k views

What language did Brahe talk with Kepler?

What language did Tycho de Brahe use to talk with Johannes Kepler? Latin? They met in February 1600 and Brahe died in October 1601. Brahe was Danish, Kepler was German, i.e. a different nationality.
Jan's user avatar
  • 267
2 votes
1 answer
147 views

Where can I find fully translated letters from János Bolyai and Farkas Bolyai?

The mathematicians János Bolyai occupies an interesting place in the history of mathematics for the development of hyperbolic geometry. Certain quotations from letters between him and his father (the ...
Naysh's user avatar
  • 129
2 votes
1 answer
272 views

Did Empedocles think that plants have sexes?

I was reading the book Flora Unveiled: The Discovery and Denial of Sex in Plants by Lee Taiz and Lincoln Taiz published by Oxford. In Chapter 8, "Plant sex from Empedocles to Theophrastus", ...
Abhishek Yadav's user avatar
-2 votes
2 answers
338 views

Will we ever be able to understand history with 100% accuracy [closed]

First of all, I am not a historian or anything of the like, but this question was bothering me for quite some time. As far as I understand, the current methodology historians use to explain our ...
Michael Munta's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
112 views

How much faster is the theoretical rate of progress than the historical rate of progress? [closed]

Any technological, scientific, philosophical, creative milestone had certain prerequisites before it could realistically occur. We build on the past. This doesn’t mean that once these prerequisites ...
z5h's user avatar
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-1 votes
1 answer
116 views

Are there any books on the recruitment of scientists from the Third Reich (Operation "Paperclip" and others)? [closed]

Please advise the literature on the recruitment of scientists of the Third Reich after World War II ("Paperclip" and other operations). Language: preferably Russian, but also English will do....
dtn's user avatar
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9 votes
1 answer
484 views

When was it first noticed that airplane passengers really seemed to like tomato juice?

There is this observation/theory that during flights, people really like to drink much more tomato juice than while on the ground. "A small study" (as Wikipedia calls it) from 2015 tries to ...
LаngLаngС's user avatar
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5 votes
1 answer
273 views

Who is "Rhadir of Seville"?

I'm studying Nicolaus Copernicus' work, and this certain website mentions multiple people who inspired his heliocentric theory. Among the people mentioned, there's Peuerbach, Heraclides, Muller and ...
RafaSeii's user avatar
6 votes
2 answers
1k views

Did the US really consider demonstrating the atomic bomb to the Japanese by "blowing the top" off of Mt. Fuji?

In reading this Washington Post article titled Five myths about the atomic bomb, it's mentioned: The decision to use nuclear weapons is usually presented as either/or: either drop the bomb or land on ...
spacetyper's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
477 views

Was there Church opposition to heliocentrism in 1600?

According to the Stanford encyclopedia (entry: Copernicus): Pope Clement VII (r. 1523–1534) had reacted favorably to a talk about Copernicus’s theories, rewarding the speaker with a rare manuscript. ...
Mikael Jensen's user avatar
6 votes
1 answer
175 views

How did Taiwan participate in the International Geophysical Year of 1957-58?

Wikipedia's International Geophysical Year begins: The International Geophysical Year (IGY; French: Année géophysique internationale) was an international scientific project that lasted from 1 July ...
uhoh's user avatar
  • 1,775
68 votes
3 answers
10k views

How and when did the word "nuclear" replace the word "atomic"?

In the early "Atomic Age", nuclear technology was generally termed "atomic" in English. There was "A-bomb", "atomic reactor" and "Atomic Energy Commission&...
b.Lorenz's user avatar
  • 4,354
7 votes
1 answer
240 views

Did Averroes really try to bury light in an attempt to create gold, or was that invented by Victor Hugo?

In The Hunchback of Notre Dame, Frollo relates a story that supposedly Averroes buried light in order to create gold from it, as, according to him, gold is light, but that it would not be for ...
user1675016's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
96 views

Was Al-Tusi's observatory (1262) the first specific-purpose-driven international research institution (like CERN)?

In the biography of Nasir al-Din al-Tusi (1201-1273), among other sources, we learn that: The observatory at Maragheh (Persia) became operational in 1262. The Persians were assisted by Chinese ...
Yulia V's user avatar
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32 votes
1 answer
6k views

Were the first sonic booms predicted?

Applying the Doppler Effect to the breaking of the sound barrier would have allowed scientists to predict that a shockwave (a "boom") would be created before pilots began actually breaking the sound ...
user312440's user avatar
9 votes
1 answer
563 views

When did Europeans realize Native Americans had weaker immunity to Old World diseases?

The question is fairly simple: when did Europeans come to a general knowledge that the Native Americans had weak immunity specifically to Old World diseases? I'm looking for the first person to ...
shiningcartoonist's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
305 views

What is the earliest recorded reference to a bubble floating in the air?

What is the earliest reference to a bubble floating in the air?
Tim's user avatar
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72 votes
4 answers
13k views

Did ancient peoples ever hide their treasure behind puzzles?

I just saw the film Dora and the Lost City of Gold, in which there is a somewhat meta running commentary over whether so-called "jungle puzzles", intellectual challenges typically requiring explorers ...
Robert Columbia's user avatar
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16 votes
1 answer
2k views

Where was Carl Sagan working on a plan to detonate a nuke on the Moon? Where was he applying when he leaked it?

At 18:49 in Scott Manley's video The Craziest Things You Can Do With Nuclear Weapons he says: This was an idea to… it was a number of ideas; they thought it could raise morale with the US. The idea ...
uhoh's user avatar
  • 1,775
2 votes
2 answers
5k views

When did the spherical shape of the Earth become common knowledge?

It's well-known that intellectuals in the West have accepted a spherical Earth since antiquity, but I'm not sure how long it took for this to become common knowledge, worldwide. So a more concrete ...
Obus's user avatar
  • 437
5 votes
1 answer
274 views

What were the international space arrangements and scientific purposes Eisenhower spoke of in October 1957?

Background: Explorer 1 was successfully launched into orbit by the US 1958-02-01 about four months after Sputnik 1 was successfully launched by the Soviet Union 1957-10-04, and Vanguard 1 wasn't ...
uhoh's user avatar
  • 1,775
2 votes
1 answer
194 views

What was Richard Owen's status within the Royal Society in 1858?

I'd like to know if Sir Richard Owen was still a distinguished fellow of the Royal Society by 1858. The information I have collected is controversial. The RS website shows his being VP in 1849-1850 ...
black-clover's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
338 views

Was there any politization of "hard" science (math, physics, chemistry, biology) in the Asian communist countries?

Where proven science results contradict political views, the most obvious solution is to try to discredit those results, by creating your own versions. It has been done multiple times in history, for ...
Yasskier's user avatar
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