Questions tagged [soviet-union]

The Soviet Union or USSR (1922–1991) was a socialist state in Eurasia. After the 1924 death of founding leader Lenin (who led the October Revolution in 1917), Stalin established a planned economy and suppressed political opposition. After World War II, the Soviet Union emerged as one of the world's two superpowers, opposing the USA in the Cold War. 1980s leader Gorbachev attempted reform with perestroika and glasnost but the country collapsed in 1991.

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Is there any footage of the Chernobyl explosion?

I know there is a lot of footage of the aftermath of the Chernobyl accident, but is there any footage of the explosion itself? In a documentary about the Chernobyl disaster it was stated that there ...
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Did the US threaten a nuclear strike to defend Israel in 1973?

Did the US threaten a nuclear strike to defend Israel? In 1973, America and Russia Almost Fought a Nuclear War over Syria Soviet leaders were shocked by the American response. "Who could have ...
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Was the end date of Soviet-Japanese Border War the direct reason of starting Soviet invasion on Poland in 1939

The end date of the Soviet-Japanese Border War oddly coincides with the beginning date of the Soviet invasion on Poland in 1939. Was the end date of the Soviet-Japanese Border War the direct reason of ...
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Did the Red Army and German Army clash in Poland in 1939?

I found a youtube lecture by Stephen Kotkin. He is a professor of history, wrote 2 books on Stalin with a 3rd on the way, and has access to certain Russian archives. That's all I know about him, ...
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How were Soviet nuclear weapons controlled?

Gobrachev said that the reason he allowed the Soviet Union to collapse was to prevent a civil war involving nuclear weapons. I think Kazakhastan returned the nukes in its territory, well after the ...
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Why did Shock Therapy fail so badly?

Why did shock therapy fail during perestroika? Has shock therapy ever worked in other situations? Was it responsible for the creation of the nomenclature and oligarchs? Are there any authors who ...
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When did Josef Wissarionowitsch become “sexy” Stalin?

According to KnowYourMeme, among others, a relatively young Stalin is so good looking in a certain picture that he is often referred to as "sexy Stalin": This is indeed a pretty picture of a ...
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During WW2, what were working conditions of factory workers in Russia?

During WW2, what were working conditions of factory workers in Russia? By working conditions, I mean things like how many hours per week they worked, how many days off they got per month, if they ...
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Is there a Soviet equivalent to foundational Cold War documents such as the Long Telegram and NSC-68?

During the early days of the Cold War, the United States produced key documents like Kennan's Long Telegram and NSC-68 to recognize the existence of the new conflict, understand the Soviet strategy ...
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Were the events in Nemmersdorf a PR stunt of the Nazi propaganda?

Is there any hard, definitive, reliable evidence that it were the Soviets who committed the Massacre of Nemmersdorf (incl. crucifixions and nailing people on barn doors)? Several, primarily German ...
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Why did the Soviet Union name their strongest bomb Tsar Bomba?

The Soviet Union has/had the most powerful (Hydrogen) Bomb ever, the Tsar Bomb. Why did they name it Tsar Bomb, when they had freed themself from the Tsars before, and even executed Tsar Nicholas II?
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Ideological differences between Mensheviks and Bolsheviks

As I understand from this brief explanation, the main doctrinal difference was that the Bolsheviks were more radical (class struggle) while the Mensheviks were more in favor of class cooperation and ...
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How many rapes did the Wehrmacht commit in the Soviet Union during World War II?

German Wikipedia says that until 1944 5394 German soldiers were convicted for "moral crimes", but the Wehrmacht leadership regarded that sexual crimes in accordance with the racial ideology (...
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Could Battle of Stalingrad be won by Germany if they haven't lost so many aircraft in Battle of Britain? [closed]

So I come up with a question, maybe an irrational or a dumb one, but what effect would the Luftwaffe have had on the Battle of Stalingrad if they had had the ~ 2000 aircraft (lost in Battle of Britain)...
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Why was Stalin chosen as the First General Secretary in 1922?

At the 11th Party Congress, Stalin was voted into the position of General Secretary. This was the first time the party had a General Secretary. This was in 1922 Mar/Apr. Why was Stalin chosen? I ...
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How prevalent were American disinformation campaigns during the Cold War?

Numerous disinformation campaigns were spread about the US during the Cold War by the KGB. Some notable examples include Operation INFEKTION, which attributed the AIDS virus to the US's involvement, ...
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Why did the USSR annex Tannu Tuva?

Tannu Tuva was a little country between Russia and Mongolia. This state became independent after the Russian Civil War, but rejoined the USSR as an autonomous republic on 1944 Oct 11. Why? Was this ...
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Why didn't Japanese attack Soviet Union simultaneously as the Germans? [duplicate]

As everyone knows, the Japanese went south, conquering most of the Pacific and attacking Pearl Harbour. But why didn't the Japanese wait until Hitler went on the eastern campaign (attacking the Soviet ...
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In the Great Purge, how many purged military officers served in Tsarist times?

During the Great Purge, a lot of military men were removed (executed, imprisoned, exiled, expelled from the party). I have heard in countless documentaries that those on the list were "perceived as ...
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Did NATO promise Gorbachev not to accept membership applications from former Warsaw Pact nations?

There have been several claims that there was an agreement between NATO and USSR at the end of the Cold War. This agreement supposedly required NATO to reject any membership applications from the ...
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How much oil did the USSR export in the 1930's?

The Grozny-Tuapse Pipeline appears to be the first major crude oil pipeline in the USSR, built in 1927 - 1928. (Note, the Russian version of that article has more information.) Tuapse is a port city ...
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When did Soviet authorities first plan/conceive of migrating their industry if war broke out?

This comes from a related question. It seems Germany never conceived of the possibility that Russia might migrate its heavy industry to safe locations beyond the Urals. So now I want to know if Soviet ...
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When planning Barbarossa, did Germany conceive of the Soviet migration of heavy industry?

Wikipedia has a very tiny article on this. Basically, when Barbarossa was launched, the Soviet Union started evacuating the factories. They were migrated to places beyond the Ural Mountains. I'm ...
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The US and Soviet Soldiers story related to Normandy [closed]

This is from President Obama’s speech, and I have no idea what it means. It seems like a historical story, but I could not find anything on Google. Why did he think of it when he visited Normandy? And ...
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Did Soviet Union have the requirement that people submit yearly tax returns?

My understanding of Soviet Union is that private enterprise was not allowed and that everyone essentially 'worked for the government'. With this in mind, was there still an expectation that people ...
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Did Japan ever attack Vladivostok in WW2? Why or why not?

That's a screenshot from Battlefield Season 4 Episode 3. I added the location of Vladivostok. In all my readings, I have never found a Japanese attack on Vladivostok during or right before WW2. You ...
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How many were “deliberately” killed after Stalin's rule in Soviet Russia?

According to Wikipedia, the historian Timothy D. Snyder argues that Stalin might have deliberately killed about 6 to 9 million people. Other historians estimate a much higher number of deaths due to ...
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Did the Soviets cooperate with the Americans in catching criminals in post-war Vienna?

I'm writing a novel that is set in Vienna during the period when it was occupied by, among others, the Americans and the Soviets (1945-1955). The central district (grey in the image below) belonged to ...
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Why was the Cold War carried out over the whole world instead of between Siberia and Alaska?

I was wondering why the conflicts, missile deployments etc. throughout the Cold War were basically all taking place in Europe, Africa and Asia, when in fact the US and Soviet Union were only separated ...
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Was Kaliningrad offered to the Lithuanian SSR; was this offer rejected; and if so, why?

This is a follow up to this other question Why was Kaliningrad placed under the Russian SFSR rather than the Lithuanian SSR? Semaphore's answer states: ... a similar offer was made to give ...
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Why was Kaliningrad placed under the Russian SFSR rather than the Lithuanian SSR?

Kaliningrad was (and still is) Russia's only (non-trivial*) exclave. Why did Stalin and the Soviet leaders transfer Kaliningrad to the Russian SFSR rather than the Lithuanian SSR (with which ...
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When did the word “Holodomor” appear?

Holodomor (Голодомор) is a part of the Soviet famine of 1932–33. The events in Ukraine were called "Holodomor", but when did the word appear? Google Books Ngram Viewer shows no mentions of Holodomor ...
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What role, if any, did the Chinese Communist Party play in the Soviet invasion of Xinjiang?

The Soviets invaded Xinjiang to support their client, a warlord who had no connection to the CCP. Did the CCP support this invasion? Oppose it? Or just try to avoud talking about it? Related: were ...
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Why would chickens be blue in the Soviet Union?

A 2017-12-30 NYRB article mentions "blue chickens sold in state grocery stores". An anecdote about life in the Soviet Union also mentions that "[b]lue chickens would sometimes be sold outside" the "...
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Did West Russia really have a rock shortage in WW2? And if so, what was the cause?

I have a previous question that led to this one. There is an article talking about German rail activities in Russia during WW2, and it also talks about the state of the Russian rail network to begin ...
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What did the smaller values from the “Percentages Agreement” actually mean?

I am currently living in Romania and I have heard on several occasions about the Percentages agreement. The article mentions that it was a secret agreement, so most of the information about it was ...
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Did Stalin have full control of the government in 1936?

I know that Stalin was only one of several successors to Lenin (and not a favored one at that) when Lenin died. However, Stalin was able to quickly forge alliances within the Party to oust his most ...
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Why didn't Lenin improve life in Russian villiages before his death?

I mean, it's universally agreed that farmers in rural areas in Russia suffered the most after 1917. Grain requisitioning during war communism had destroyed the economy in the villiages. Even after ...
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How many trucks did Russia and Germany have at the start of Barbarossa?

I've seen many times the lend-lease help cited for Russia, about 450,000 trucks (actually they were "jeeps and trucks" so it's hard to know trucks exactly). However, what I've never seen is citing how ...
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Was Nikolai Bukharin told at trial his job was “to confess and repent, not to argue”?

A recent Economist article claims: As Nikolai Bukharin, a close Lenin ally, was told during his own trial, his job was “to confess and repent, not to argue”. I've searched without success for a ...
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Statement Issued by Communist Party regarding Collectivization: Contradictory?

As seen in the following statement issued by the Central Committee of the Communist Party: (https://www.loc.gov/exhibits/archives/e2livest.html) Addendum to point 20, Politburo minutes no. 94 ...
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What kind of heating did Moscow have in the early Soviet Union (1917 - 1930)?

I would like to know what kind of residential heating was prevalent in Moscow in the time period around 1917 - 1930. What kind of fuel was used? Did they have district heating back then? Otherwise ...
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How did Lenin secure his regime? [closed]

As we know, Bolsheviks seemed to overthow Provisional Government easily in November Revolution. Many political parties are inspired and feel like taking over the same way. War Communism also ...
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Was the East Prussian operation “unequalled in munitions expenditure”?

In his memoirs (text in Russian), Marshal Aleksandr Vasilevsky claims the following (emphasis added by me): I will note in passing that in terms of munitions consumption the East Prussian operation ...
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Why were Soviet attitudes towards Israel inconsistent in the late 40's and 50's?

What are the different theories explaining the inconsistent attitude Soviet Russia had towards the nascent State of Israel between the years 1947 and 1953? Communist Russia's hate of Zionism is well ...
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What happened to people's houses during the Soviets' reign?

With the adoption of Communism in the Soviet Union, what happened to private property and those who occupied it? Did landowners (including the oligarchy and simpler land owners) retain any rights to "...
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Income versus living expense in USSR during the 1980's and 1990's

My understanding of life in the USSR was that both the salaries and living costs were more or less state controlled and fixed with very little variation. I wanted to ask about the sizes of peoples ...
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Was there a “European Balance of Power Strategy” for Anglo-American interests in between 1925 and 1935?

There is a meme in the US about British meddling in Europe. It says, basically, that the British didn't want a single power to dominate the continent, so it would support the second strongest power to ...
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1answer
364 views

Did the Soviets have an alternate source of oil in Iran during World War II?

Much has been made of the fact that the area around the Caspian Sea was oil rich. Specifically, west of the Caspian Sea, with Soviet oilfields at Maikop, Grozny, and Baku, which were threatened by the ...
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Where and how did the allies scrounge enough food for the Soviets AND the British?

In many ways Hitler's push into the Soviet Union was similar to Napoleon's into Imperial Russia. Britain was happy a war was fought abroad, not on home soil and this sentiment was shared by the US. ...

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