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Questions tagged [soviet-union]

The Soviet Union or USSR (1922–1991) was a socialist state in Eurasia. After the 1924 death of founding leader Lenin (who led the October Revolution in 1917), Stalin established a planned economy and suppressed political opposition. After World War II, the Soviet Union emerged as one of the world's two superpowers, opposing the USA in the Cold War. 1980s leader Gorbachev attempted reform with perestroika and glasnost but the country collapsed in 1991.

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15
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3answers
9k views

Did Yuri Gagarin really hear a ticking sound during his journey into outer space?

In the movie, Another Earth, Rhoda told John that Yuri Gagarin heard a ticking sound during his journey into outer space. He couldn't find the source, and eventually came to love that ticking sound. ...
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2answers
268 views

Did the Soviet Union investigate greenhouses in the early 1920's?

The Soviet Union had major food problems in the 1920's, what with the civil war and an attempt at forced requisitions. Their solution was the NEP, which used grain taxes instead of total requisition, ...
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3answers
821 views

Why was the capital of Ukraine moved in 1934?

The Russian Revolution is fairly famous for moving the capital from Petrograd (St. Petersburg) to Moscow. But I was surprised to learn that the capital of Ukraine was Kharkiv until it was switched to ...
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1answer
171 views

Did Moscow have natural gas in the early era of the Soviet Union (1917 - 1930)?

Did apartments in Moscow have natural gas in the years 1917 to 1930? If so, were they supplied by utility pipelines underground? I am curious because underground utility pipes are expensive to build ...
3
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1answer
171 views

How was it possible for the Ukrainian SSR to be one of the founding members of the UN if it was basically a Province of the USSR? [closed]

This one thing was always troubling me. How and why could the Belorussian and Ukranian SSRs gain so much of theoretical autonomy so as to have their own autonomous Foreign Policies while other states ...
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3answers
939 views

What is this SSR of the USSR in 1923?

USSR was created Dec 30 1922. I could only find a list of 4 SSR's: Russian, Belorussian, Ukranian, and Transcaucasian. The Central Asian region was largely a part of Russian SSR, or RSFSR at this time....
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3answers
483 views

Is there evidence people outside USSR were involved in attacks, within Soviet borders, between c.1928 and Stalin's death in 1953?

As is well known, the Soviet system under Stalin confected countless false reports of sabotage, insurrection, and things of a like kind. It also committed innumerable acts of oppression and violence ...
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6answers
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Why did Stalin and the Soviet leadership have Leon Trotsky assassinated?

Leon Trotsky was killed with a mountaineering ice axe in Mexico. The method of murder chosen was interesting. If he was a political fugitive in far off Mexico, why bother dealing with him? What about ...
5
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2answers
558 views

What was the lowest available population to the Soviet Union in WW2?

According to official census data, Soviet Union had around 168 million people in 1939, and around 196 million in 1941 (annexation of Baltic states and part of Poland). Germany (Third Reich) had around ...
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1answer
369 views

Allied assistance of the Soviets during WW2 [closed]

Why did the Allies share Ultra intel with the Soviets about the imminent Battle of Kursk, and why did the US support the USSR through "Lend Lease". I understand that at the time it wasn't very clear ...
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2answers
452 views

Did the Chief of Soviet General Staff really say this?

The quotation, appearing in a 1992 New York Times opinions article, is as follows: "We cannot equal the quality of U.S. arms for a generation or two. Modern military power is based upon technology,...
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2answers
616 views

Was Brezhnev's rule an “era of stagnation” [closed]

Reading my IB textbooks, they say Brezhnev's rule was an "era of stagnation". However they are only able to cite evidence of economic stagnation when claiming that would require "stagnation" in ...
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2answers
283 views

What was the basic structure of power in the CPSU and how were the politicians at each level chosen?

I'm aware of the very-basics like the General Secretary, the Politburo and Central Commitee, but could someone give me a simple rundown of the lower levels to the bottom? Also, I'm particularly ...
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3answers
2k views

What do Marxists mean by “class basis of law”? As seen in linked article

R. Judson Mitchell's article The Brezhnev Doctrine and Communist Ideology uses the term "class basis of law". I'm not sure but I think: Because this concept almost always appears hand in hand with "...
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1answer
438 views

Did Joseph Stalin ever attempt to assassinate or launch a coup against Josip Broz Tito?

Did Joseph Stalin ever attempt to assassinate or launch a coup against Josip Broz Tito? If so, which of these coup or assassination attempts almost succeeded? How did Tito respond to Stalin's ...
5
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1answer
440 views

What was the Soviet response to accusations surrounding the Lin Biao incident?

According to the official Chinese narrative, Lin was planning to topple Mao with Soviet military help. When this failed, he tried to escape to the USSR. Did the Soviets bother to respond to these ...
17
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1answer
3k views

When did the Soviets get the ability to drop a nuclear bomb on the United States?

I'm researching the history of the Cold War and I have the impression that the Soviets failed to develop a bomber capable of flying from Russia to the United States until 1956, when the Tu-95 bomber ...
2
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2answers
472 views

Is there evidence that Stalin stopped religious persecution during WW2? [closed]

I read in some articles that during WW2 the Soviets reopened the churches and allowed their people to do their religious practices. Is there any evidence to confirm such things? If yes up to which ...
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3answers
1k views

Is Russia a direct successor of the USSR? Could the USSR be considered to continue existing under a different name?

Consider this: before WWII, France controlled a vast number of colonies around the globe. They have since lost most of their territory, however their official name remains as French Republic and they'...
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1answer
147 views

Did any intelligence agents defect to the Cheka before 1921? [closed]

Did any intelligence agents defect to the Cheka (USSR secret police) before 1921? Does that have any historical precedent? If not, 1926. Either former Czarist agents, or spies working for other ...
2
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1answer
3k views

How much impact did US Policy of containment have?

This will border dangerously close to a discussion rather than question/answer, but I would like to know whether there exists any consensus regarding the effects of the United States' policy of ...
2
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2answers
796 views

Why were countries which were clearly aligned to one of the two power blocs during cold war a part of the non-aligned movement?

Countries like the DPRK and others joined the Non-Aligned movement despite showing clear proofs of support towards power blocs were and still are a part of the Non-aligned movement. During the Korean ...
5
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1answer
454 views

How successful was Odessa GubCheKa against criminal gangs in the 1920s?

If you use the lens of popular culture (books and especially folk songs), one may come out with the impression that the criminal culture basically ran Odessa around 1920s, with Law Enforcement (...
8
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1answer
499 views

Is there evidence to suggest the CIA didn't want Reagan to end the Cold War?

Paul Craig Roberts writes: The US military/security complex did not want Reagan to end the Cold War, as the Cold War was the foundation of profit and power for the complex. The CIA told Reagan that ...
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2answers
306 views

In Russia, are the anniversaries of the various events that occurred in 1917 and '18 observed according to the Old Style or the New Style calendar?

In Russia in 1917 and 1918, a number of important events, including the abdication and assassination of Czar Nicholas, and the Menshevik and Bolshevik revolutions occurred while the Old Style (Julian) ...
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6answers
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Which was the last major war in which horse mounted cavalry actually participated in active fighting?

Which was the last major war in which horses were used for frequent fighting? Why were these horses used, and about how many were there? This is not a duplicate of the question (When was the last ...
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2answers
487 views

Did Stalin give special treatment for his home country?

Did Stalin during his reign gave any special interest or priviliges to Georgia and the Georgian people?
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1answer
717 views

Is Malenkov wearing some sort of uniform in this picture?

Or just a mildly ridiculous sailor suit? He is the third from the right.
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2answers
384 views

Did 20% of the Soviet Population use a Latin script in 1935?

Did 20% of the Soviet Population use a Latin script in 1935? The literacy campaigns in the Soviet Union between 1917 and 1940 taught many people to read. Many people who did not speak Russian had no ...
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1answer
247 views

Why did the Soviets refuse to help Nur Mohammed Taraki?

In 1970s Afghanistan was a communist state. The leader Nur Mohammed Taraki was much like a puppet of the Soviets. When the policies (education, land distribution etc.) initiated by the Soviets proved ...
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4answers
7k views

In WW2, how long could a submarine stay submerged if it wasn't moving?

For a submarine in the WW2-era, how long could it stay submerged if it was not running its engine? This is a question of crew size, oxygen, food/water, and CO2 scrubbers, and maybe other stuff I'm not ...
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1answer
271 views

was communism a weaponized idea deployed against Imperial Russia? [closed]

I remember a lecture by a historian praising Imperial Germany for defeating Imperial Russia by both political (financing and "deploying" Lenin) and military means, a feat that both Napoleon and Hitler ...
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1answer
449 views

How is the “Blitzkrieg” different from the “glubokaya operatsiya”

I am asking this question from memory. I remember to keep hearing and reading that the Soviets, in the final stages of WWII, advancing into Germany, have "learned" the "Blitzkrieg" from the Germans. ...
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0answers
107 views

Was Isserson a good commander on the field?

Isserson is one of the fathers of the deep battle doctrine and was one of the most brilliant minds of the Soviet Army. (According to Joukov's memoir) However, Isserson was also described as an awful ...
3
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2answers
499 views

Why did the Soviet–Japanese Neutrality Pact take 2 years to sign after the Battle of Khalkin Gol?

The Battle of Khalkin Gol took place in 1939 May - Sep and was the last border battle between Japan and USSR. It was a major victory for the Soviets. But the Soviet–Japanese Neutrality Pact was not ...
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2answers
4k views

Why was Japan not worried about Soviet invasion during WWII?

I just visited the Australian War Memorial in Canberra during my break. When I was walking in the WWII section, showing portraits of Australia battling against Japanese troops, I wondered why Japan ...
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2answers
3k views

Who made this Sino-Soviet Propaganda Poster?

Who made this Sino-Soviet Propaganda Poster? And, why was it made so early? By the left armpit, there is a signature: The Who: I believe this says "ВИКТОР ИВАНОВ" which google says translates to "...
5
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1answer
312 views

How many tons of steel were produced in Russia during the Russian Civil War?

I have a specific question that I'm highly interested in. Did Russia have any steel industry during its Civil War (1917 - 1922)? And if so, how big was it? I know Russia built the trans-siberian ...
8
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2answers
1k views

Why was there a 2nd version of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact that gave Lithuania to USSR?

I was shocked to read this at Wikipedia's article on the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact: Lithuania, adjacent to East Prussia, would be in the German sphere of influence, although a second secret protocol ...
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1answer
498 views

Why the Rzhev battle is not as famous as Stalingrad? [closed]

Since the 4 operation on the EasternFront ( Mars, Saturn, Jupiter and Uranus ) are linked, why is the Rzhev battle so unknown ? Didn't Model requested most of the backup to defend his salient ? ...
8
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2answers
1k views

Did one or both sides of the cold war plan to strategically attack the others' food production?

I'm basically defining 'Cold War', for the purpose of this question as the whole stretch of time between 1947 and 1991. During this time did either side plan to attack the other's food production on a ...
3
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4answers
732 views

How often were Soviet records faked?

In Viktor Suvorov's books, most notably The Liberators, Inside The Soviet Army, Inside Soviet Military Intelligence, a bleak picture is painted of a system where official figures were exaggerated or ...
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1answer
159 views

What was the structure of the Russian army following reforms in 1917?

Found that although it's apparent that old titles were abolished it is unclear as to whether this was merely formal while retaining a hierarchy of command or whether the army did work collectively.
17
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6answers
819 views

In the 1980s, did any Western expert, scholar, official, or politician predict the impending collapse of the Soviet Union?

This claim was made by Foreign Policy in 2011: In the years leading up to 1991, virtually no Western expert, scholar, official, or politician foresaw the impending collapse of the Soviet Union I ...
10
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2answers
391 views

What happened to Soviet citizens living abroad?

Before the formation of the Soviet Union and/or before international travel restrictions were imposed, were there Russian, Ukranian, etc. citizens living legally in foreign countries (i.e., as ...
10
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3answers
1k views

How did the Czech Legion get home?

The Czech Legion was allied with the Russian Tsars just prior to the Russian revolution. After the Bolsheviks took power, they were unable to return via Europe. So they crossed the whole of Eurasia ...
6
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1answer
557 views

Did US and Soviet nuclear war policies allow for a pause?

In the HBO made-for-tv movie "By Dawn's Early Light", the commander of the navy (codename "Harpoon") explains to the US President that USAF nuclear bombers are at their positive check points and await ...
46
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12answers
13k views

Why did the Soviet Union have multiple airplane manufacturers?

Generally, Communism believed in economic central planning, with each field being serviced by one "company" (to avoid waste). Why was it that the Soviet Union had multiple airplane manufacturers, ...
4
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4answers
1k views

Clarification about the 1991 referendum on the future of the Soviet Union

In 1991, the Soviet Union held a referendum about its future political structure. The results of that referendum are presented in this inforgraphic, or here. What was the purpose of this referendum? ...
12
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2answers
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At the time of Sputnik, what kind of radios were common in the Soviet Union?

Sputnik was launched 1957 Oct 4. At that time, what kind of radios were common in the Soviet Union? I'm interested in what kind of radios were privately owned and kept in people's apartments. What ...