Questions tagged [soviet-union]

The Soviet Union or USSR (1922–1991) was a socialist state in Eurasia. After the 1924 death of founding leader Lenin (who led the October Revolution in 1917), Stalin established a planned economy and suppressed political opposition. After World War II, the Soviet Union emerged as one of the world's two superpowers, opposing the USA in the Cold War. 1980s leader Gorbachev attempted reform with perestroika and glasnost but the country collapsed in 1991.

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Does anyone know the name of the student who died during the Hungarian Revolution of 1956? If not, why not?

I'm reading up on the Hungarian Revolution of 1956, and it seems that if that one student hadn't died, the revolution never would have started. The revolt began as a student demonstration, which ...
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Why did the Hungarians protest and react so much about Khrushchevs secret speech? [closed]

I know that Khrushchev made a secret speech but I don't really understand what the speech was about and why it made the Hungarians so angry to protest. I know that the protest was about the lack of ...
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269 views

Why did Americans oppose Richard Nixon's visit to China? What “past policies” were Nixon going against? [closed]

Many people opposed Nixon's visit to China. Why? I read an article saying people complained that Nixon's visit to China was going against past policies. What policies were they referring to? Article ...
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What did Yuri Gagarin do while waiting for his ride?

So I found out from a post on skeptics:SE that when Yuri Gagarin landed from being the first human in space during the Vostok 1 mission, he parachuted down and landed in the Soviet Union near the ...
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Did the USSR pledge support to Czechoslovakia before the Munich Agreement?

Did the USSR pledge support to Czechoslovakia before the Munich Agreement (1938 Sep 29 - 30)? If so, what kind of support did it pledge? The reason I ask is because I recently came across this ...
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Who taught Russian in Eastern-bloc satellite countries?

After the USSR gained many satellites countries in central/eastern Europe in 1945, Russian became obligatory at school. It seems those Russian courses were highly unpopular and only a small minority ...
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What was the reason for the ubiquitous pigeon farms in Soviet cities?

They were in just any district.
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Who was the general Ivan Tscherniakowski? [closed]

I have been reading Ian Kershaw's Hitler 1936–1945: Nemesis. At a certain point, he writes: “On 16 October, the ‘3rd White Russian Front’, led by General Ivan Tscherniakowski, had broken through into ...
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Is there documentary evidence that Stalin intended/prepared to fight Germany after the Nazi-Soviet pact?

It's often said the peace was only both sides buying time. There's ample evidence Hitler always intended to break the pact. Did Stalin? Suvorov's thesis that Stalin was preparing for an offensive ...
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Why did India sign the Indo-Soviet Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation?

India had a policy of non-alignment during the cold war. But just before war broke out between India and Pakistan in December 1971, India signed the treaty in August 1971. What were the reasons that ...
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Did Yuri Gagarin really hear a ticking sound during his journey into outer space?

In the movie, Another Earth, Rhoda told John that Yuri Gagarin heard a ticking sound during his journey into outer space. He couldn't find the source, and eventually came to love that ticking sound. ...
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Did the Soviet Union investigate greenhouses in the early 1920's?

The Soviet Union had major food problems in the 1920's, what with the civil war and an attempt at forced requisitions. Their solution was the NEP, which used grain taxes instead of total requisition, ...
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Why was the capital of Ukraine moved in 1934?

The Russian Revolution is fairly famous for moving the capital from Petrograd (St. Petersburg) to Moscow. But I was surprised to learn that the capital of Ukraine was Kharkiv until it was switched to ...
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Did Moscow have natural gas in the early era of the Soviet Union (1917 - 1930)?

Did apartments in Moscow have natural gas in the years 1917 to 1930? If so, were they supplied by utility pipelines underground? I am curious because underground utility pipes are expensive to build ...
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How was it possible for the Ukrainian SSR to be one of the founding members of the UN if it was basically a Province of the USSR? [closed]

This one thing was always troubling me. How and why could the Belorussian and Ukranian SSRs gain so much of theoretical autonomy so as to have their own autonomous Foreign Policies while other states ...
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What is this SSR of the USSR in 1923?

USSR was created Dec 30 1922. I could only find a list of 4 SSR's: Russian, Belorussian, Ukranian, and Transcaucasian. The Central Asian region was largely a part of Russian SSR, or RSFSR at this time....
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Is there evidence people outside USSR were involved in attacks, within Soviet borders, between c.1928 and Stalin's death in 1953?

As is well known, the Soviet system under Stalin confected countless false reports of sabotage, insurrection, and things of a like kind. It also committed innumerable acts of oppression and violence ...
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Why did Stalin and the Soviet leadership have Leon Trotsky assassinated?

Leon Trotsky was killed with a mountaineering ice axe in Mexico. The method of murder chosen was interesting. If he was a political fugitive in far off Mexico, why bother dealing with him? What about ...
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What was the lowest available population to the Soviet Union in WW2?

According to official census data, Soviet Union had around 168 million people in 1939, and around 196 million in 1941 (annexation of Baltic states and part of Poland). Germany (Third Reich) had around ...
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Allied assistance of the Soviets during WW2 [closed]

Why did the Allies share Ultra intel with the Soviets about the imminent Battle of Kursk, and why did the US support the USSR through "Lend Lease". I understand that at the time it wasn't very clear ...
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Did the Chief of Soviet General Staff really say this?

The quotation, appearing in a 1992 New York Times opinions article, is as follows: "We cannot equal the quality of U.S. arms for a generation or two. Modern military power is based upon technology,...
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627 views

Was Brezhnev's rule an “era of stagnation” [closed]

Reading my IB textbooks, they say Brezhnev's rule was an "era of stagnation". However they are only able to cite evidence of economic stagnation when claiming that would require "stagnation" in ...
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What was the basic structure of power in the CPSU and how were the politicians at each level chosen?

I'm aware of the very-basics like the General Secretary, the Politburo and Central Commitee, but could someone give me a simple rundown of the lower levels to the bottom? Also, I'm particularly ...
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What do Marxists mean by “class basis of law”? As seen in linked article

R. Judson Mitchell's article The Brezhnev Doctrine and Communist Ideology uses the term "class basis of law". I'm not sure but I think: Because this concept almost always appears hand in hand with "...
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Did Joseph Stalin ever attempt to assassinate or launch a coup against Josip Broz Tito?

Did Joseph Stalin ever attempt to assassinate or launch a coup against Josip Broz Tito? If so, which of these coup or assassination attempts almost succeeded? How did Tito respond to Stalin's ...
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What was the Soviet response to accusations surrounding the Lin Biao incident?

According to the official Chinese narrative, Lin was planning to topple Mao with Soviet military help. When this failed, he tried to escape to the USSR. Did the Soviets bother to respond to these ...
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When did the Soviets get the ability to drop a nuclear bomb on the United States?

I'm researching the history of the Cold War and I have the impression that the Soviets failed to develop a bomber capable of flying from Russia to the United States until 1956, when the Tu-95 bomber ...
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Is there evidence that Stalin stopped religious persecution during WW2? [closed]

I read in some articles that during WW2 the Soviets reopened the churches and allowed their people to do their religious practices. Is there any evidence to confirm such things? If yes up to which ...
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Is Russia a direct successor of the USSR? Could the USSR be considered to continue existing under a different name?

Consider this: before WWII, France controlled a vast number of colonies around the globe. They have since lost most of their territory, however their official name remains as French Republic and they'...
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Did any intelligence agents defect to the Cheka before 1921? [closed]

Did any intelligence agents defect to the Cheka (USSR secret police) before 1921? Does that have any historical precedent? If not, 1926. Either former Czarist agents, or spies working for other ...
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How much impact did US Policy of containment have?

This will border dangerously close to a discussion rather than question/answer, but I would like to know whether there exists any consensus regarding the effects of the United States' policy of ...
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805 views

Why were countries which were clearly aligned to one of the two power blocs during cold war a part of the non-aligned movement?

Countries like the DPRK and others joined the Non-Aligned movement despite showing clear proofs of support towards power blocs were and still are a part of the Non-aligned movement. During the Korean ...
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How successful was Odessa GubCheKa against criminal gangs in the 1920s?

If you use the lens of popular culture (books and especially folk songs), one may come out with the impression that the criminal culture basically ran Odessa around 1920s, with Law Enforcement (...
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506 views

Is there evidence to suggest the CIA didn't want Reagan to end the Cold War?

Paul Craig Roberts writes: The US military/security complex did not want Reagan to end the Cold War, as the Cold War was the foundation of profit and power for the complex. The CIA told Reagan that ...
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In Russia, are the anniversaries of the various events that occurred in 1917 and '18 observed according to the Old Style or the New Style calendar?

In Russia in 1917 and 1918, a number of important events, including the abdication and assassination of Czar Nicholas, and the Menshevik and Bolshevik revolutions occurred while the Old Style (Julian) ...
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Which was the last major war in which horse mounted cavalry actually participated in active fighting?

Which was the last major war in which horses were used for frequent fighting? Why were these horses used, and about how many were there? This is not a duplicate of the question (When was the last ...
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Did Stalin give special treatment for his home country?

Did Stalin during his reign gave any special interest or priviliges to Georgia and the Georgian people?
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Is Malenkov wearing some sort of uniform in this picture?

Or just a mildly ridiculous sailor suit? He is the third from the right.
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Did 20% of the Soviet Population use a Latin script in 1935?

Did 20% of the Soviet Population use a Latin script in 1935? The literacy campaigns in the Soviet Union between 1917 and 1940 taught many people to read. Many people who did not speak Russian had no ...
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Why did the Soviets refuse to help Nur Mohammed Taraki?

In 1970s Afghanistan was a communist state. The leader Nur Mohammed Taraki was much like a puppet of the Soviets. When the policies (education, land distribution etc.) initiated by the Soviets proved ...
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In WW2, how long could a submarine stay submerged if it wasn't moving?

For a submarine in the WW2-era, how long could it stay submerged if it was not running its engine? This is a question of crew size, oxygen, food/water, and CO2 scrubbers, and maybe other stuff I'm not ...
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was communism a weaponized idea deployed against Imperial Russia? [closed]

I remember a lecture by a historian praising Imperial Germany for defeating Imperial Russia by both political (financing and "deploying" Lenin) and military means, a feat that both Napoleon and Hitler ...
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How is the “Blitzkrieg” different from the “glubokaya operatsiya”

I am asking this question from memory. I remember to keep hearing and reading that the Soviets, in the final stages of WWII, advancing into Germany, have "learned" the "Blitzkrieg" from the Germans. ...
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Was Isserson a good commander on the field?

Isserson is one of the fathers of the deep battle doctrine and was one of the most brilliant minds of the Soviet Army. (According to Joukov's memoir) However, Isserson was also described as an awful ...
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Why did the Soviet–Japanese Neutrality Pact take 2 years to sign after the Battle of Khalkin Gol?

The Battle of Khalkin Gol took place in 1939 May - Sep and was the last border battle between Japan and USSR. It was a major victory for the Soviets. But the Soviet–Japanese Neutrality Pact was not ...
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Why was Japan not worried about Soviet invasion during WWII?

I just visited the Australian War Memorial in Canberra during my break. When I was walking in the WWII section, showing portraits of Australia battling against Japanese troops, I wondered why Japan ...
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Who made this Sino-Soviet Propaganda Poster?

Who made this Sino-Soviet Propaganda Poster? And, why was it made so early? By the left armpit, there is a signature: The Who: I believe this says "ВИКТОР ИВАНОВ" which google says translates to "...
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How many tons of steel were produced in Russia during the Russian Civil War?

I have a specific question that I'm highly interested in. Did Russia have any steel industry during its Civil War (1917 - 1922)? And if so, how big was it? I know Russia built the trans-siberian ...
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Why was there a 2nd version of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact that gave Lithuania to USSR?

I was shocked to read this at Wikipedia's article on the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact: Lithuania, adjacent to East Prussia, would be in the German sphere of influence, although a second secret protocol ...
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Why the Rzhev battle is not as famous as Stalingrad? [closed]

Since the 4 operation on the EasternFront ( Mars, Saturn, Jupiter and Uranus ) are linked, why is the Rzhev battle so unknown ? Didn't Model requested most of the backup to defend his salient ? ...