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Questions tagged [turkey]

Country in Asia Minor, with a small part in Europe, a successor of the Ottoman Empire. Populated by ca. 75 million people (mostly Muslims), having Ankara as her capital and Istanbul as the largest city.

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97 views

What exactly happened in 1974 during the invasion of Cyprus by the Turks? [closed]

This is very recent history and I want to make up my opinion on this. What exactly happened during the invasion of Cyprus in 1974 from Turkey? There are 2 sides of this story but historically which ...
12 votes
3 answers
502 views

Why were Muslims in Western Thrace and Christians in Constantinople excluded from the population exchange?

In the 1923 compulsory population exchange between Greece and Turkey, most Muslims living in Greece were forcibly moved to Turkey, and most Christians living in Turkey were forcibly moved to Greece. ...
22 votes
5 answers
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Why is the capital of Turkey Ankara rather than Istanbul?

Turkey's predecessor state, the Ottoman Empire, had its capital in Istanbul. Are there any reasons for the capital's move when it became Turkey?
2 votes
2 answers
289 views

Why is Nouruz celebrated all over the Turkic states of the former Soviet Union, but not in Turkey?

Nouruz is an old Iranian festival, basically the Iranian or Persian New Year. However, it is not only celebrated by speakers of Persian and closely related languages (i.e. not only among Iranians, ...
1 vote
1 answer
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Why did marriage and multiple children make Hurrem Sultan special?

As far as I have learnt there was a princess named Ayesa (Hatun), daughter of Meñli I Giray of Crimean, who was first married off to Shehzade Mehmed, brother of Sultan Selim 1. After the death of the ...
5 votes
2 answers
832 views

Did the Ottomans conquer Poland-Lithuania?

Türk Tarihi | History of Turks claims that the Ottomans took Poland-Lithuania as a vassal in the late 1570s. Where did they get this from? I searched everywhere but I couldn't find anything.
3 votes
0 answers
105 views

What was Syrian side of the story for the 1989 shooting of a Turkish aircraft?

Wikipedia briefly notes: In October 1989, 2 Syrian Mig-21's flew 12 miles (19 km) into Turkish airspace where they shot down a Turkish aircraft. Most of the articles linked there are dead links by ...
16 votes
8 answers
9k views

What happened to those ethnic Greeks who converted to Islam during the Ottoman empire?

I got a little inspiration from a previous post on the History part: "Why were Albanians the only nation in the Balkans who converted to Islam during the Ottoman occupation?" Does anyone know ...
2 votes
1 answer
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What is the earliest record of smallpox inoculation in Turkey?

In 1721, Lady Mary Wortley Montague introduced the practice of smallpox inoculation to England. She had learned about the procedure in Turkey, where she had already survived the illness as well as ...
4 votes
1 answer
699 views

What were the racial views of the Nazis towards the Greeks?

I was going through this article on the Greek Genocide (1914-1922), and stumbled upon this quote from the 1935 publication, Ankara: An interpretation of the new becoming in Turkey, by Norbert Bischoff:...
20 votes
1 answer
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Did the Axis try to "bribe" Turkey into joining them during World War II?

Not far from the Russo-Turkish border are the oil fields of Baku, which might have been "capturable" by a lightening strike of Turkish, German or joint German-Turkish forces. This oil could ...
3 votes
0 answers
185 views

What are these Ottoman artifacts and what, if any, is their significance and inscriptions?

A relative has these items - what is the metal thing used for, and what language is inscribed on it? Does the belt have any naval importance?
2 votes
2 answers
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Why was there such tension between the Ottoman Empire and Russia during the Armenian genocide?

I'm researching the Armenian genocide on a very basic level, and I've learned that a lot of the tension between Armenians and the Turks was because the Armenians were seen as supporting the Russians, ...
16 votes
1 answer
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Is Kemal Atatürk responsible for Armenian Genocide?

There is a controversy discussed here about Atatürk's responsibility for the Armenian Genocide. However, yahoo answers says that that Atatürk actually may have ended it. I want to know about ...
4 votes
0 answers
783 views

Did the Kayı tribe fight the Templars at any point?

The highly popular Turkish TV drama series Diriliş: Ertuğrul has Ertuğrul and his Kayı tribe fighting the Templars based in a "castle" which apparently should be identified with the real-...
3 votes
0 answers
173 views

Who started the Great Fire of Smyrna in 1922?

I wish to know if there is historical evidence that definitively identifies who started the fire in Smyrna in 1922, or, whether we can conclude given the available evidence, or if it is more ...
0 votes
1 answer
321 views

Are there any records of Turks settling in Anatolia before the 11th century?

I know the mass Turkic Migration into the Middle East occurred during the 10th-11th centuries but are there any records of Turks settling in Anatolia before the Seljuq invasion?
14 votes
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How did Azerbaijan come to be allied with Turkey and Israel?

I'm reading a news article (in French) about the resurgence of conflict in Nagorno-Karabakh and I learn that Azerbaijan is predominantly a Shiite country. This, in my understanding of traditional ...
0 votes
1 answer
329 views

Why did the Ottomans 'never' enter wars during Napoleon's invasions? [closed]

Without knowing about the subject, why Turkey never entered the fray during the Napoleonic wars? It is true that they fought against the Russians around 1800's, but as far as I know, the engagement ...
12 votes
2 answers
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Was the ancient Pontic city of Athenai (Ἀθῆναι) related to Athens?

The city of Athenai (Ἀθῆναι, modern Pazar, Turkey), in some contexts referred to as Pontic Athens, situated on the Pontic shore about halfway between Trapezus (modern Trabzon, Turkey) and Bathys Limen ...
8 votes
1 answer
338 views

Did Reza Shah Pehlavi know about Turkish offer to restore Ahmad Shah Qajar?

Ahmad Shah Qajar, Shah of Persia was deposed in a military coup by Colonel Reza Khan in 1921 and was subsequently exiled. While he was in exile, Kemal Ataturk summoned the Persian ambassador ...
2 votes
2 answers
3k views

Is there a relationship between Gobekli Tepe and Stonehenge?

I was just reading an article about Stonehenge and about how the archaeological community is essentially agreed that the builders were a people who came from Anatolia (Turkey) around 6000 years ago. ...
1 vote
1 answer
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Why did the USA revoke the arms embargo or sanction on Turkey only after 3 years of the invasion of Cyprus?

Turkey is still occupying almost half of the island of Cyprus. According to Wikipedia: United States arms embargo on Turkey and the Republic of Cyprus After the hostilities of 1974, the United States ...
25 votes
11 answers
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Why didn't Germany attack Turkey during WW2?

Most of us might have heard something about the Geo-strategic position of Turkey. She connects two continents to each other and provides a bridge between the relatively advanced Europe and the ...
18 votes
2 answers
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Did the Seljuk consider themselves Roman?

I recently learned that the Seljuk state in Anatolia was officially called Sultanate of Rûm, where Rûm means Rome. Does that mean that Seljuks considered themselves to be cultural heirs of Rome? ...
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2 answers
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Why was Turkey allowed to keep Constantinople after WW1? [closed]

Why was Turkey allowed to keep Constantinople after WW1? Greece was on the winning side, weren't they? Wouldn't it have made sense for the European great powers to support a Greek demand on ...
11 votes
1 answer
694 views

How was Christian intermarriage with the Muslim Turks viewed by the Byzantines?

While learning about the Battle of Manzikert (1071) I was surprised to hear that the emperor Romanos IV agreed in the aftermath to a political marriage by giving his daughter to be married to Sultan ...
26 votes
3 answers
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Is rye bread Turkish?

Scandinavian airline SAS released a controversial advertising video titled What is truly Scandinavian? It claims that many things considered traditional in Scandinavian countries are actually ...
5 votes
2 answers
352 views

Was the Russian Black Sea fleet strong enough to help with land operations on the southern shore in World War I?

The Russian Black Sea Fleet was stronger than the Turkish Black Sea fleet for most of the 19th century. But the successful flight of two German ships to the Black Sea greatly strengthened the Turkish ...
8 votes
1 answer
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What religion did Mustafa Kemal Atatürk self-identify as following?

He was born in the Ottoman Empire (later Turkey), so I assume he was a Muslim. But when I checked his attitude towards religion, it became clear that he saw religion as an obstacle in making ...
17 votes
4 answers
1k views

Was it not clear to the WWI allies that they were over-reaching with the treaty of Sevres?

In the treaty of Sevres, the Ottoman Empire was made to cede not only all (?) territories outside modern-day Turkey, but also: Control of the Bosphorus straight and the Dardanelles Significant ...
14 votes
2 answers
986 views

How did France worsen its relationship with Turkey?

Several years back Turkey barred some French companies to participate in one of its arms procurement tender. Turkey doesn't allow French military air-crafts or ships to pass its territorial space. ...
7 votes
4 answers
2k views

How did Turkey achieve such a quick military rebound after World War I?

The Ottoman military had a very weak performance in World War I (1914-1918), completely defeated in the Middle Eastern theatre and ended up losing almost all of its non-Anatolia possession. This was ...
5 votes
1 answer
275 views

Why did General Gürsel plea to forgive Adnan Menderes after overthrowing him in coup?

According to Wikipedia, General Gürsel, one of the key military personnel behind the first military coup in Turkey in 1960, plead to save the life of Adnan Menderes, the deposed prime minister. Why ...
10 votes
1 answer
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Is Makarios III's harsh quote on Turkish Cypriots accurate?

There is a quote by Makarios III from 1964 (during the Crisis of 1963–1964), regarding a possible Turkish intervention in the island. It has been very infamous in Turkey, and has gained attention ...
3 votes
2 answers
253 views

Did Turkey invade Cyprus to keep the USSR out? Is there really CIA files that prove this for real? [closed]

I have watched an video about the invasion but one of the comments made me think a little bit different. The real reason behind the Cypriot War of 1974 was to prevent the (Greek) Cypriot ...
10 votes
4 answers
10k views

How did ethnic Turkish people embrace Islam?

How was Islam spread among Turkish population or in historical Turkey? How did ethnic Turkish people embrace Islam?
5 votes
2 answers
893 views

What's the difference between Potur and Şalvar?

I'm researching the clothing of 16th-century Ottoman clothing, and I keep getting Potur and Şalvar as "trousers." Was there a difference between them or were the words synonymous?
19 votes
5 answers
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Why did the Turks adopt the Latin alphabet after WWI?

The Turks used to write their language using the Arabic alphabet. After WWI, when Mustafa Kemal revolutionized the country, he imposed the usage of Latin alphabet. Also the new writing system seems to ...
9 votes
2 answers
352 views

What are the ruins in Turkey near Kömürcü Köyü?

I am curious and I would like to know what the ruins are near Kömürcü Köyü in Turkey (38°15'27.8"N 34°33'05.5"E | 38.257711,34.551535)? I tried to search but I found nothing. It looks like ancient ...
-1 votes
2 answers
9k views

Did gun control in Turkey in 1911 lead to the Armenian Genocide? [closed]

A photo making the rounds on Facebook posits that Turkey established gun control in 1911 and from 1915 to 1917 millions of Armenians were killed because they were unable to defend themselves. The ...
4 votes
2 answers
1k views

What percentage of modern day Turks are of Bulgarian/Circassian/Greek/Serbian descent?

I asked a question before about Greek Muslims and what happened to them, I wonder also what percentage of modern day 'Turks', especially the light skinned ones in western Turkey, are of Balkan descent?...
1 vote
1 answer
388 views

Military capacity of Turkey during the Cuban missile crisis (1962)?

I am doing a Model United Nations Security Council, as the head of Turkey with the agenda Cuban Missile Crisis; or simply put I am playing the role of Turkey in reshaping world history during the time ...
13 votes
1 answer
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Interaction between Ataturk and Lenin

Are there any records related to the relations between Turkey and USSR in 1920's? I know about the letter from Ataturk to Lenin (in Turkish) but nothing more.
8 votes
2 answers
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What are the current obligations of Treaty of Lausanne?

The Turkish President Erdogan and his followers are always talking about that they should update the Treaty of Lausanne or even they are claiming that it will expire on 2023 and they are saying that ...
5 votes
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What is this griffin-like creature labelling a lunar mansion in the Zubdat al-Tawarikh?

While looking for astronomy-related things I found out about this Turkish history manuscript from 1583 called the Zubdat al-Tawarikh or "History of the World". One of the first things in it is an ...
7 votes
2 answers
535 views

Why was religion used as the basis of Turkey-Greece population exchange instead of language, ethnicity, etc.?

In 1923, Turkey and Greece exchanged parts of their population, by forcibly denaturalizing certain population and expelling them to the other country. Interestingly, the criteria of being exchanged ...
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4 answers
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Why are Turkish people and other Turkik people considered of Mongolic race if their language is not in the Mongolic language family? [closed]

I saw that Turkish people are considered of Mongolic race even though Mongolic and Turkic are separate language families? Why are those races considered the same but their languages are so different ...
8 votes
2 answers
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Why did the Russians lose to the Turks in 1711 after defeating them in 1700 and the Swedes in 1709?

The Russians captured Azov and Taganrog in a war with Turkey that ended in 1700. Then they decimated the Swedish army at Poltava in 1709, thereby crippling their main enemy, and freeing the bulk of ...
4 votes
2 answers
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How did NATO handle the military coups and juntas in Greece, Turkey and Portugal?

Since the founding of NATO three of its members had military coups and juntas: Greece from 1967 to 1974 Portugal from 1974 to 1975 Turkey from 1960 to 1961 in 1971 from 1980 to 1983 Since NATO ...