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Questions tagged [turkey]

Country in Asia Minor, with a small part in Europe, a successor of the Ottoman Empire. Populated by ca. 75 million people (mostly Muslims), having Ankara as her capital and Istanbul as the largest city.

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31 votes
6 answers
2k views

Why didn't the silk road run north of the Black Sea?

I have read many times that the only way for Europeans to get to China, or vice versa, was through Anatolia and Persia. This gave Istanbul an advantage in throttling trade, as well as Mesopotamia and ...
social-biz's user avatar
26 votes
3 answers
8k views

Is rye bread Turkish?

Scandinavian airline SAS released a controversial advertising video titled What is truly Scandinavian? It claims that many things considered traditional in Scandinavian countries are actually ...
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25 votes
11 answers
78k views

Why didn't Germany attack Turkey during WW2?

Most of us might have heard something about the Geo-strategic position of Turkey. She connects two continents to each other and provides a bridge between the relatively advanced Europe and the ...
biri's user avatar
  • 502
22 votes
5 answers
27k views

Why is the capital of Turkey Ankara rather than Istanbul?

Turkey's predecessor state, the Ottoman Empire, had its capital in Istanbul. Are there any reasons for the capital's move when it became Turkey?
Anixx's user avatar
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21 votes
2 answers
1k views

How does Göbekli Tepe fit into the current picture of society development?

Göbekli Tepe is a huge archaeological site in Eastern Turkey, currently under excavation (make sure you click on "Pictures"). It is one of the oldest architectural complexes in the world, possibly the ...
astabada's user avatar
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20 votes
1 answer
4k views

Did the Axis try to "bribe" Turkey into joining them during World War II?

Not far from the Russo-Turkish border are the oil fields of Baku, which might have been "capturable" by a lightening strike of Turkish, German or joint German-Turkish forces. This oil could ...
Tom Au's user avatar
  • 104k
19 votes
5 answers
8k views

Why did the Turks adopt the Latin alphabet after WWI?

The Turks used to write their language using the Arabic alphabet. After WWI, when Mustafa Kemal revolutionized the country, he imposed the usage of Latin alphabet. Also the new writing system seems to ...
Bregalad's user avatar
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18 votes
2 answers
4k views

Did the Seljuk consider themselves Roman?

I recently learned that the Seljuk state in Anatolia was officially called Sultanate of Rûm, where Rûm means Rome. Does that mean that Seljuks considered themselves to be cultural heirs of Rome? ...
Ezekiel's user avatar
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17 votes
4 answers
1k views

Was it not clear to the WWI allies that they were over-reaching with the treaty of Sevres?

In the treaty of Sevres, the Ottoman Empire was made to cede not only all (?) territories outside modern-day Turkey, but also: Control of the Bosphorus straight and the Dardanelles Significant ...
einpoklum's user avatar
  • 622
16 votes
8 answers
9k views

What happened to those ethnic Greeks who converted to Islam during the Ottoman empire?

I got a little inspiration from a previous post on the History part: "Why were Albanians the only nation in the Balkans who converted to Islam during the Ottoman occupation?" Does anyone know ...
Ain Jalut's user avatar
  • 163
16 votes
1 answer
15k views

Is Kemal Atatürk responsible for Armenian Genocide?

There is a controversy discussed here about Atatürk's responsibility for the Armenian Genocide. However, yahoo answers says that that Atatürk actually may have ended it. I want to know about ...
user4951's user avatar
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14 votes
2 answers
2k views

How did Azerbaijan come to be allied with Turkey and Israel?

I'm reading a news article (in French) about the resurgence of conflict in Nagorno-Karabakh and I learn that Azerbaijan is predominantly a Shiite country. This, in my understanding of traditional ...
turbide's user avatar
  • 309
14 votes
2 answers
987 views

How did France worsen its relationship with Turkey?

Several years back Turkey barred some French companies to participate in one of its arms procurement tender. Turkey doesn't allow French military air-crafts or ships to pass its territorial space. ...
user avatar
14 votes
1 answer
623 views

What happened to Muslim spouses who converted to Christianity during the 1923 Graeco-Turkish population exchange?

The Greek - Turkish Population Exchange Convention was signed on 30 January 1923. The population exchange was based on religious identity - involving denaturalization of the Orthodox Christian ...
Can's user avatar
  • 757
13 votes
1 answer
4k views

Interaction between Ataturk and Lenin

Are there any records related to the relations between Turkey and USSR in 1920's? I know about the letter from Ataturk to Lenin (in Turkish) but nothing more.
Berkheimer's user avatar
12 votes
3 answers
504 views

Why were Muslims in Western Thrace and Christians in Constantinople excluded from the population exchange?

In the 1923 compulsory population exchange between Greece and Turkey, most Muslims living in Greece were forcibly moved to Turkey, and most Christians living in Turkey were forcibly moved to Greece. ...
hb20007's user avatar
  • 223
12 votes
1 answer
798 views

Does Little Hagia sophia still contain Greek mosaics under the plaster?

Little Hagia Sophia is a small church in Istanbul located close to the famous and large Hagia Sophia. It was built around the same time and is said to have contained very beautiful mosaics. At the ...
SMeznaric's user avatar
  • 859
12 votes
2 answers
499 views

Was the ancient Pontic city of Athenai (Ἀθῆναι) related to Athens?

The city of Athenai (Ἀθῆναι, modern Pazar, Turkey), in some contexts referred to as Pontic Athens, situated on the Pontic shore about halfway between Trapezus (modern Trabzon, Turkey) and Bathys Limen ...
mooncatcher's user avatar
  • 1,257
11 votes
1 answer
1k views

What would be the problem if Turkey admits Armenian Massacre? [closed]

Armenian massacre happened long before the establishment of Turkish republic. Can't Turkey just say that, "Yes, it happened. But since the Ottoman emperor Abdul Hamid is responsible for that, Turkey ...
user avatar
11 votes
1 answer
699 views

How was Christian intermarriage with the Muslim Turks viewed by the Byzantines?

While learning about the Battle of Manzikert (1071) I was surprised to hear that the emperor Romanos IV agreed in the aftermath to a political marriage by giving his daughter to be married to Sultan ...
SeligkeitIstInGott's user avatar
10 votes
4 answers
10k views

How did ethnic Turkish people embrace Islam?

How was Islam spread among Turkish population or in historical Turkey? How did ethnic Turkish people embrace Islam?
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10 votes
1 answer
1k views

Is Makarios III's harsh quote on Turkish Cypriots accurate?

There is a quote by Makarios III from 1964 (during the Crisis of 1963–1964), regarding a possible Turkish intervention in the island. It has been very infamous in Turkey, and has gained attention ...
buræquete's user avatar
  • 1,353
9 votes
2 answers
352 views

What are the ruins in Turkey near Kömürcü Köyü?

I am curious and I would like to know what the ruins are near Kömürcü Köyü in Turkey (38°15'27.8"N 34°33'05.5"E | 38.257711,34.551535)? I tried to search but I found nothing. It looks like ancient ...
Ehcnalb's user avatar
  • 191
9 votes
1 answer
484 views

Was Sofia really demolished by Bulgarians after 1878 and why?

I've heard many times that when Bulgaria became independent country in 1878, all the town was rebuilded from scratch. After the Russo-Turkish War, architects from Austria–Hungary were invited to shape ...
Darek Wędrychowski's user avatar
8 votes
2 answers
1k views

Why did the Russians lose to the Turks in 1711 after defeating them in 1700 and the Swedes in 1709?

The Russians captured Azov and Taganrog in a war with Turkey that ended in 1700. Then they decimated the Swedish army at Poltava in 1709, thereby crippling their main enemy, and freeing the bulk of ...
Tom Au's user avatar
  • 104k
8 votes
3 answers
562 views

Why did the Erdoğan government like to worsen Turkey's relationship with Israel? [closed]

Turkey has long been an ally of Israel. Turkey bought a lot of military products from Israel. If Turkey hates Israel, they could have handled the situation much differently. Israel was in the process ...
user avatar
8 votes
2 answers
2k views

What are the current obligations of Treaty of Lausanne?

The Turkish President Erdogan and his followers are always talking about that they should update the Treaty of Lausanne or even they are claiming that it will expire on 2023 and they are saying that ...
Ömer's user avatar
  • 182
8 votes
1 answer
339 views

Did Reza Shah Pehlavi know about Turkish offer to restore Ahmad Shah Qajar?

Ahmad Shah Qajar, Shah of Persia was deposed in a military coup by Colonel Reza Khan in 1921 and was subsequently exiled. While he was in exile, Kemal Ataturk summoned the Persian ambassador ...
NSNoob's user avatar
  • 8,195
8 votes
1 answer
3k views

What religion did Mustafa Kemal Atatürk self-identify as following?

He was born in the Ottoman Empire (later Turkey), so I assume he was a Muslim. But when I checked his attitude towards religion, it became clear that he saw religion as an obstacle in making ...
L. Peters's user avatar
  • 189
7 votes
2 answers
536 views

Why was religion used as the basis of Turkey-Greece population exchange instead of language, ethnicity, etc.?

In 1923, Turkey and Greece exchanged parts of their population, by forcibly denaturalizing certain population and expelling them to the other country. Interestingly, the criteria of being exchanged ...
user69715's user avatar
  • 7,090
7 votes
1 answer
482 views

Why did not UK assist Greece in 1919 war?

Why did not UK assist Greece against Turks in 1919 war? Greece had historical ties with UK. But no significant assistance by UK was provided to Greece during the war. As far as I know British Armies ...
John Sewell's user avatar
7 votes
4 answers
2k views

How did Turkey achieve such a quick military rebound after World War I?

The Ottoman military had a very weak performance in World War I (1914-1918), completely defeated in the Middle Eastern theatre and ended up losing almost all of its non-Anatolia possession. This was ...
Fitri's user avatar
  • 3,352
5 votes
2 answers
840 views

Did the Ottomans conquer Poland-Lithuania?

Türk Tarihi | History of Turks claims that the Ottomans took Poland-Lithuania as a vassal in the late 1570s. Where did they get this from? I searched everywhere but I couldn't find anything.
Kamal Saleh's user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
275 views

Why did General Gürsel plea to forgive Adnan Menderes after overthrowing him in coup?

According to Wikipedia, General Gürsel, one of the key military personnel behind the first military coup in Turkey in 1960, plead to save the life of Adnan Menderes, the deposed prime minister. Why ...
amphibient's user avatar
  • 1,193
5 votes
2 answers
352 views

Was the Russian Black Sea fleet strong enough to help with land operations on the southern shore in World War I?

The Russian Black Sea Fleet was stronger than the Turkish Black Sea fleet for most of the 19th century. But the successful flight of two German ships to the Black Sea greatly strengthened the Turkish ...
Tom Au's user avatar
  • 104k
5 votes
1 answer
752 views

What was the fate of Gülbahar, the chief consort of Sultan Suleyman of 16th century?

Could someone outline the basic timeline of Gulbahar's history with respect to her exile from the old palace harem and death in line with her son's execution? I'm writing a tragic-comedy stageplay on ...
J. Alexander's user avatar
5 votes
2 answers
895 views

What's the difference between Potur and Şalvar?

I'm researching the clothing of 16th-century Ottoman clothing, and I keep getting Potur and Şalvar as "trousers." Was there a difference between them or were the words synonymous?
Daniel Bensen's user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
251 views

Did the Austrians win a "great victory" at Belgrade in 1738?

While researching the history of the Taaffe family (see also this question) I realized that a lot of the information about it in the wikipedia comes from a 1833 English noble almanach. Among other ...
Felix Goldberg's user avatar
5 votes
0 answers
176 views

What is this griffin-like creature labelling a lunar mansion in the Zubdat al-Tawarikh?

While looking for astronomy-related things I found out about this Turkish history manuscript from 1583 called the Zubdat al-Tawarikh or "History of the World". One of the first things in it is an ...
Takumi's user avatar
  • 51
4 votes
1 answer
710 views

What were the racial views of the Nazis towards the Greeks?

I was going through this article on the Greek Genocide (1914-1922), and stumbled upon this quote from the 1935 publication, Ankara: An interpretation of the new becoming in Turkey, by Norbert Bischoff:...
Andreas's user avatar
  • 202
4 votes
2 answers
491 views

How did NATO handle the military coups and juntas in Greece, Turkey and Portugal?

Since the founding of NATO three of its members had military coups and juntas: Greece from 1967 to 1974 Portugal from 1974 to 1975 Turkey from 1960 to 1961 in 1971 from 1980 to 1983 Since NATO ...
Martin Schröder's user avatar
4 votes
2 answers
228 views

What percentage of relocated Armenians died?

What percentage of those forced to relocate actually died as a result of the relocation?
user4951's user avatar
  • 5,519
4 votes
2 answers
1k views

What percentage of modern day Turks are of Bulgarian/Circassian/Greek/Serbian descent?

I asked a question before about Greek Muslims and what happened to them, I wonder also what percentage of modern day 'Turks', especially the light skinned ones in western Turkey, are of Balkan descent?...
tourkokritikoi's user avatar
4 votes
0 answers
788 views

Did the Kayı tribe fight the Templars at any point?

The highly popular Turkish TV drama series Diriliş: Ertuğrul has Ertuğrul and his Kayı tribe fighting the Templars based in a "castle" which apparently should be identified with the real-...
Felix Goldberg's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
1k views

What race were the invading Turkish armies of Anatolia? [closed]

I only ask because the vast majority of Turkey speaks an Altaic language, but they look completely different from Turkic-language speakers in Central Asia, i.e. Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Altai Republic, ...
Five Points's user avatar
3 votes
2 answers
253 views

Did Turkey invade Cyprus to keep the USSR out? Is there really CIA files that prove this for real? [closed]

I have watched an video about the invasion but one of the comments made me think a little bit different. The real reason behind the Cypriot War of 1974 was to prevent the (Greek) Cypriot ...
Delta Oscar Uniform's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
105 views

What was Syrian side of the story for the 1989 shooting of a Turkish aircraft?

Wikipedia briefly notes: In October 1989, 2 Syrian Mig-21's flew 12 miles (19 km) into Turkish airspace where they shot down a Turkish aircraft. Most of the articles linked there are dead links by ...
got trolled too much this week's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
185 views

What are these Ottoman artifacts and what, if any, is their significance and inscriptions?

A relative has these items - what is the metal thing used for, and what language is inscribed on it? Does the belt have any naval importance?
DallaLiyly's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
173 views

Who started the Great Fire of Smyrna in 1922?

I wish to know if there is historical evidence that definitively identifies who started the fire in Smyrna in 1922, or, whether we can conclude given the available evidence, or if it is more ...
Andreas's user avatar
  • 202
2 votes
2 answers
1k views

Why was there such tension between the Ottoman Empire and Russia during the Armenian genocide?

I'm researching the Armenian genocide on a very basic level, and I've learned that a lot of the tension between Armenians and the Turks was because the Armenians were seen as supporting the Russians, ...
米凯乐's user avatar
  • 1,696