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Questions tagged [united-kingdom]

Formally known as the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland these questions relate to the history of events that have happened in the countries that make up the United Kingdom; such as England, Wales, Scotland, Northern Ireland, and various territories; or the United Kingdom's dealings with other sovereign nations around the world.

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What's the origin of the movement to withdraw the United Kingdom from the European Union?

Who first proposed that the UK should leave the EU, and why? How did this movement grow in support?
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How common was gun ownership by Londoners in the early 20th century?

By Londoners, I mean laypeople in London, England. I was reading about the Tottenham Outrage on Wikipedia which mentions policeman borrowing pistols from bystanders or the public three times, which ...
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2answers
295 views

Can anyone help to identify and date this uniform or the medals?

Found in my late Aunt's possessions. Photograph of unidentified uniform:
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2answers
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Why did Jodrell Bank assist the Soviet Union to collect data from their spacecraft in the mid 1960's?

I've just listened to the short BBC News audio podcast clip How British academics spied on the superpowers: Tim O’Brien from the Jodrell Bank radio telescope discusses 50 year old recordings which ...
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0answers
226 views

Is this coin a reject or a fake or what? [closed]

It is a UK 2000 £2 coin. It has the letter 'R' struck in the centre of the reverse. In all other respects it appears to be normal. Have you any idea how this 'R' got impressed on the coin?
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1answer
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What is the social history of British popular opposition to Thatcher over the miner’s strike?

I tend to watch a lot of UK panel shows and while most of the comedians are Labour/liberal I'm still surprised at just how much they seem to hate Margaret Thatcher. Particularly this seems to be about ...
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Are there any sources of historical land use/land cover data for the United Kingdom and Ireland?

Are there any sources of historical land use/land cover data for the United Kingdom and Ireland? (Not just Northern Ireland) I'm specifically interested in datasets that, for each point/area in the UK/...
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1answer
88 views

What was the inheritance tax rate in the UK during WWI and WWII?

I've read somewhere that rich people were heavily taxed during World War I and World War II. What was the inheritance tax rate like in the UK at the time?
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1answer
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What was the income tax rate in the UK during WWI and WWII?

I found that the highest income tax rate was 99.25% during the Second World War, but I can't find anything related to the income tax during the First World War. Would you have some numbers to give ...
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1answer
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Why did the British take Hong Kong instead of any other of the later treaty ports?

The aftermath of the first Opium War declared that Hong Kong and the island of Kowloon should be ceded to the UK as a port for refitting ships and storing cargo. It also meant there was easy access ...
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1answer
538 views

The WWI Christmas truce of 1914 resulted in no consequences, in spite of clear warnings against such beforehand - why were there no courts-martial?

British and German Soldiers photographed together during 1914 Christmas Truce. Source: The Daily Mirror, Friday January 8, 1915. Question What factors led to no courts-martial charges being pursued ...
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Did anyone face consequences (charges / court-martial) for the 1914 Christmas truce in WWI?

A copy of the Daily Mail from Dec. 31, 1914 reports on the Christmas truce. Source: The Star As a follow-up to this question about impromptu football / soccer games between troops from opposite ...
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In the “Christmas truce” of 1914 were there any football (soccer) matches between British and German troops?

British and German troops meeting in no man's land during the unofficial truce. Source: Wikipedia As the holiday season is upon us again this year, I am reminded of the 1914 Christmas truce (German: ...
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3answers
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What did the post world war two civilian food ration consist of in the UK?

I can see rationing ended in 1954 and I can see some indication of what was being rationed per person during the war but what exactly did the post-war ration consist of? i.e. food items and ...
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3answers
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Were women the property of men prior to 1919 in the UK? [closed]

It was suggested in a TV interview that I saw that prior to 1919 in the UK, women were owned by men. An example to solidify this, was women taking on their husbands last name. My question is: Were ...
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How many instances of the Writs of Assistance were there? Are there any documented instances?

I have been in general frustrated by the lack of easily available documentation surrounding the 1760 Writs of Assistance, and the Writs of Assistance as they appear today in UK legislation, as pointed ...
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1answer
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Who Is to Be Served First, Duchess or Son?

Suppose this is England in the Victorian Era and there are two individuals, a duchess and her son, dining together. The son, roughly thirty or so years of age, is seated across the table from his ...
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1answer
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Where was the site of Mary Seacole's store in Aldershot?

Mary Seacole is best known for running a boarding-house for officers and their families during the Crimean War. I have found a few reliable sources suggesting that on her return to England she briefly ...
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Why did public transport in London and Northern Ireland avoid privatisation?

In the 1980s Margret Thatcher embarked upon the privatisation of British industry. Part of this was the sale of previously state owned public transport across the country. However, this did not ...
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1answer
298 views

What were the last words of Charles the First, and Oliver Cromwell's response after his execution?

I need to know what Charles the First's last words were and preferably what Oliver Cromwell said afterwards.
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2answers
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Nursing in Bude, Cornwall, UK during WW2

I am working on a writing project and the main character is a young nurse in Bude during WW2. I'm not quite sure how to put her there or get her there -- would there have been nurses stationed at RAF ...
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Was currency used in England, before the Roman occupation? [closed]

And if so, were coins from 200 BC were still being used in year 1 AD? If not, how was commerce done?
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4answers
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Which German cities does this article in The Economist allege that Britain destroyed?

The Wikipedia article about the Nuremberg trials (section Criticism) contains the following text (source: 'The Nuremberg Judgment' editorial, ' The Economist (London), 5 October 1946, p. 532.; see ...
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1answer
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Hiring professionals to transcribe historical documents

I'm sorry if this question sounds strange but I'm not sure where else in the world to post it. I have an eighteenth-century will that I'd like to be able to read, but I have very little practice in ...
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2answers
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Did any British working class men have the vote before 1918?

I was watching the film Suffragette recently and she mentioned her husband having the vote. I thought he looked too poor to already have the vote, but this didn't look like a film to just ignore ...
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1answer
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In Britain, what was the “Junior Service” in 1913?

I read a marriage notice from 1913, which noted that the father of the groom "has four sons abroad, three having served with distinction in the junior Service". (West Sussex Gazette, Thu 13 Feb 1913, ...
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1answer
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Can the assignment “Depot Battalion” in Hart's Annual Army List be linked to a specific regimental assignment?

In this question I asked about the meaning of the assignment "depot battalion" in Hart's Annual Army List, a book that lists the assignments of every British officer in the Victoria era, each year. ...
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What does “Depot Battalion” mean in Hart's Annual Army List?

Copies of Hart's Annual Army List are available online, and consist of a list of all British army officers employed in a given year. Some of the listings are self-explanatory (e.g. so-and-so with ...
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1answer
244 views

In Edwardian England, did poor families arrange to have their children buried in the graves of unrelated adults?

In Max Arthur’s Lost Voices of the Edwardians, a "compilation of memories from the turn of the century" (1901 - 1910), one Florence Hannah Warn relates how her brother Gilbert was buried: When a ...
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1answer
725 views

How historically accurate was the Queen's trip to Ghana portrayed in Episode 8 of The Crown?

OK let me be more specific. In episode 8 of The Crown (Netflix), it is implied that Queen Elizabeth II went to Ghana (because she heard a sly comment from JFK's wife) to prevent the country from going ...
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1answer
502 views

Who actually paid for the American State Visit Brooch?

Headlines this week in major media outlets this week are musing if Queen Elizabeth might have been 'trolling' President Trump by wearing the American State Visit Brooch gifted to her on a visit by ...
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1answer
181 views

Is it legit to say that allied forces in Market Garden were: USA, British and Polish? [closed]

Is it legit to say that allied forces in Market Garden were: USA, British and Polish? Because I met this statement in a book and I know that Canadian forces were in XXX Corps. Maybe this is due to ...
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1answer
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Was a passport needed to travel between UK and France in 1972?

In Hitchcock's 1972 film Frenzy (at about the time 00:54:55) a character says: We can get a day trip to France. You don't need a passport. (He is a commoner, no diplomatic status etc, in fact a ...
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1answer
302 views

Why did Black and Asian immigrants from the Empire not come to Britain in substantial numbers until after WW2?

The Windrush saga in the British media has thrown light on the situation of post-WW2 migrants from the British Empire - particularly the Caribbean, India and Pakistan - who came to the UK in the ...
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2answers
286 views

What uniform is in this picture?

Believe he was in the Somerset Light Infantry based at Jellallabad camp Taunton sometime between 1890 and 1914. Any help from anyone appreciated. We cannot find his birth or death as he used ...
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1answer
158 views

Travelling from England to China in 1810

I'd like to know what would have been the most common route to travel from England to Canton, China, in 1810 and how long the journey would have taken.
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1answer
209 views

Where did Operation Bogart take place?

The British 4th Commando Brigade seems to have made a raid across the River Maas into German-occupied territory on 30th November 1944. Their leader was Brigadier B. W. Leicester, nicknamed "Jumbo." ...
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2answers
1k views

Why is the heir to the British throne called “Prince of Wales”?

The heir apparent to the British throne (England, then Great Britain, then United Kingdom) is usually conferred the title of Prince of Wales. According to Britannica and Wikipedia, this tradition ...
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1answer
523 views

During WW2, how dependent on Swedish Ball Bearings was Britain?

A slightly related question spawned this one. Sweden made a lot of ball bearings during WW2, which it exported to Britain and Germany. How many tons of ball bearings were imported from Sweden to ...
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Why did Chamberlain remain Prime Minister of Britain until 10 May, 1940?

WW2 officially began on 1 September 1939, but Churchill did not become Prime Minister until 10 May 1940. Neville Chamberlain, the same leader of appeasement with Hitler, remained Prime Minister all ...
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1answer
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Can you tell me if my Father, a Lt Colonel, was paid during WW2?

Can you tell me if my Father, a Lt Colonel, was paid during active service in the Middle East and Europe, and if so how much and was the pay given to his spouse in England or direct to the officer ?
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Is there a list of bills in the reign of George III & onwards?

I am researching the history of trackways, canals mines and railways from the reign of George 3rd through to the end of Queen Victoria’s reign. Is there a list of all bills presented to Parliament ...
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1answer
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Queen Victoria and the Tsar’s faberge egg

In the movie Victoria and Abdul Queen Victoria say’s she regrets shattering the Tsars faberge egg. Which Tsar was it and why did she shatter it?
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Were there ever instances of sailors pressed into British service in Europe ending up in the Caribbean?

I am working on a story in which I wanted to include a character who was pressed into the British Navy in 1790's England, and ended up on a ship headed to the Caribbean. This is a pretty integral ...
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2answers
203 views

What did the smaller values from the “Percentages Agreement” actually mean?

I am currently living in Romania and I have heard on several occasions about the Percentages agreement. The article mentions that it was a secret agreement, so most of the information about it was ...
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1answer
324 views

What was the biggest shipbuilding centre in Europe during the Second Industrial Revolution?

I'm specifically interested in the United Kingdom, though I'd love to get a comparison between countries. I would like any answer to cite records of number or tonnage of ships built. I'm interested ...
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1answer
185 views

Who lived on Golden Square in London in the 18th century?

Is there a database or an archive where I could find London Golden Square's inhabitants in the 18th century. I know that a famous musician of that time was living on that square, and I'm trying to ...
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2answers
606 views

Who thought there might be a war between the British Empire and the United States of America in the 1920s?

A naval arms race in the 1920s grew ugly enough that commentators on both sides of the Atlantic were claiming war “not unthinkable.” This quote is from a lecture by an academic called John Moser; ...
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3answers
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Was there a Princess of Wales between 1727 and 1736?

In 1705, Caroline of Ansbach married Georges Augustus. In 1714, she moved to London with her husband as he becomes Prince of Wales. She, thus, becomes Princess of Wales. Her husband became king ...
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Why did few French and no Dutch pilots (but many Poles and Czechs) take part in the Battle of Britain?

Among the non-British pilots, at least 141 were Polish, 84 Czech and 28 Belgian, but only 13 were French and none were Dutch, Norwegian or Danish. The reasons why there were many Polish, Czech and ...