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Questions tagged [united-kingdom]

Formally known as the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland these questions relate to the history of events that have happened in the countries that make up the United Kingdom; such as England, Wales, Scotland, Northern Ireland, and various territories; or the United Kingdom's dealings with other sovereign nations around the world.

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Tony Blair said Saddam Hussein 'killed 12,000 people in one day through the use of chemical weapons' [closed]

Re the 2003 US/UK invasion of Iraq: When did Saddam Hussein kill 12,000 people with chemical weapons as Tony Blair said last year in 2023Mar? Tony Blair: Putin can't use Iraq invasion as ...
BCLC's user avatar
  • 177
16 votes
1 answer
3k views

What was this television history series?

Back in the 80's or 90's I used to watch a history show on TV. It may have been a BBC series but it definitely had a British host. He'd normally start off talking about one thing in history, like the ...
MrInfinity's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
255 views

How have historians calculated the total number of votes in general elections which had plural voting?

note: a good answer would track down the source of these figures (possibly from the books below) and explain the methodology behind counting them In the 1830 general election to the parliament at ...
Ne Mo's user avatar
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1 vote
0 answers
161 views

What proportion of UK civilians killed in the first and second world wars were women and children?

I recently learnt that the number of UK civilians killed in the first world war is around 2,000. This seems surprisingly low but understandable when we realize that the UK wasn't subject to a land ...
Mozibur Ullah's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
702 views

What about dairy pasteurisation might have made the issue so important to Lord Rothschild?

It’s known that in 50+ years of Lordship, Lord Rothschild only addressed the house twice: Once was about the Zionist question The other was about instituting compulsory pasteurisation of dairy It’s ...
TylerDurden's user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
694 views

Why were there more Catholics in Lancashire than other parts of England around the time of the Jacobite rebellions?

The abstract of this article begins "Historians are generally agreed that Lancashire was the most Catholic and the most Jacobite county in England at the time of the 1715 rebellion". The ...
thosphor's user avatar
  • 501
2 votes
2 answers
302 views

When did the United Kingdom become "United" rather than merely united? (I.e., that word became part of its name.)

In 1707 the two British kingdoms of England and Scotland became one kingdom. I naively thought that that was when the name "United Kingdom" first came to be used as the proper official name ...
Michael Hardy's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
222 views

Did the IRA attempt to point out the innocence of the Guildford 4 or Birmingham 6?

While the Guildford Four or Birmingham Six were wrongfully imprisoned for bombings carried out by the IRA, did the IRA themselves try to tell anyone - (e.g. the authorities or the media) - that the ...
komodosp's user avatar
  • 920
1 vote
1 answer
285 views

What events or situations of WW1 led to a Nazi fascination with Anglo-Saxon powers?

In the book Hitler, a world biography of Brendan Simms, it is said that Hitler and Nazi leaders were fascinated by the "power of the anglo-saxon countries". It is also mentionned that this ...
totalMongot's user avatar
  • 6,791
1 vote
1 answer
241 views

Was there a British Royal tradition associated with the name Elizabeth?

My high school history teacher once told me that apperently there was a tradition (superstition?) among the various Royal Families of the United Kingdom that the British Empire would last "from ...
Bennet's user avatar
  • 187
0 votes
0 answers
348 views

What kind of uniform is this, with a closed collar on a WWI British General?

The British Army's Service Dress uniform "has been referred to as No. 2 Dress, with the tunic being swapped out for a jacket with an open collar for wear with collared shirt and tie." King ...
user61793's user avatar
9 votes
4 answers
587 views

Why was the BEF so ill-prepared for WW1?

I'm reading Peter Hart's The Great War: A Combat History of The First World War. I'm very new to studying history, but making my way. One thing that's stood out to me is how ill-prepared the British ...
GMoss's user avatar
  • 273
4 votes
2 answers
480 views

Who of the British military had access to the ULTRA messages of the Enigma in September 1944?

Access to the decrypted messages of the German Enigma, called ULTRA, was very limited. Everyone working for Bletchley Park (BP) or in contact with BP had to sign a life-long secrecy act with stiff ...
user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
256 views

What was the role/duties of a "Constable of the Castle" in 1600?

I'm researching a property in Ruthin, North Wales which was originally built for the Constable of the Castle. I'd like to know more about their role. What did they do? Were they gentry? Were they ...
Newton73's user avatar
6 votes
2 answers
510 views

Why in the 70s and 80s was the United Kingdom called Great Britain in the international naming conventions?

I am not sure whether this is the right group for this question because it is about the recent past. But I didn't find a more suitable forum. Checking old articles and documents from my country I saw ...
FluidCode's user avatar
  • 238
16 votes
5 answers
5k views

Has a hereditary peer ever been promoted or demoted to a higher or lower rank?

The hereditary peerage of the United Kingdom consists of dukes, marquesses, earls, viscounts, and barons. The same is more or less true of the peerages of England, Scotland, Ireland, and Great ...
Psychonaut's user avatar
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8 votes
1 answer
764 views

How could nonconformist Protestants be buried in graveyards controlled by the established Church before 1880?

Further to my question here, I am attempting to continue to research the wider family of the individual memorialised by a gravestone in St Bridget's Church, near Cockermouth. This church, and the ...
CDJB's user avatar
  • 1,168
4 votes
1 answer
245 views

Did Ramsay Macdonald have a Vietnamese mistress living near Downing Street?

An article from the Guardian contains this intriguing sentence: Ramsay MacDonald allegedly had a long relationship with a Vietnamese woman in a house a short walk from Westminster. However, I cannot ...
Macdonald-Q's user avatar
4 votes
3 answers
418 views

Prior to 1963 did a British nobleman ever disclaim or renounce his title? What would have happened if someone had tried?

British nobles could not disclaim their titles prior to 1963, and even then it had to be done within a year of succeeding to to the peerage. Why did the British make it so difficult to relinquish a ...
Nick Gidaro's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
175 views

Looking to Identify a pin/ badge

I am looking to identify this badge that my grandfather was wearing in this picture I know it’s blurry but never seen it before and don’t know where to start looking for a way to identify it. He would ...
Tash's user avatar
  • 1
6 votes
1 answer
245 views

What is the royal cypher printed on the UK budget box?

The dispatch box used by the Chancellor of the Exchequer bears a royal cypher for Elizabeth II on it: This differs from the usual cypher used in that the numerals " II " appear below the ...
Will's user avatar
  • 473
2 votes
3 answers
343 views

How long has British women royals' solemn ceremonial dress included a sword?

In this photograph: from the recent funeral service of Queen Elizabeth II in London, England, in the row of attendees nearest to the queen's coffin, three attendees are wearing blue sashes. According ...
user90413's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
124 views

What role did Elizabeth II play in actions of the British Empire during her reign? [closed]

Much of the critical commentary on Elizabeth II's legacy following her death has concerned actions of the British state in its colonies during her reign. An historically significant number of these ...
Will's user avatar
  • 473
2 votes
2 answers
521 views

At the time of her death, were there any surviving witnesses to the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II?

Title says it all. My guess is that some of the page boys maybe? or perhaps some members of the choir? Even someone in their early teens at the time would have had to make it through to their mid-...
ConanTheGerbil's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
254 views

When in 1885 did Stafford Northcote cease to be Commons leader of the Conservatives?

Northcote was leader in the Commons until 1885. Wikipedia says: On Benjamin Disraeli's elevation to the House of Lords as Earl of Beaconsfield in 1876, Northcote became Leader of the Conservatives in ...
Ne Mo's user avatar
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0 votes
0 answers
91 views

Can anyone identify this UK Victorian uniform?

I wondered if anyone could identify this uniform. I know little about it other than it is a friend's ancestor. It looks late 19th century to me.
Mark Ratcliff's user avatar
5 votes
3 answers
1k views

How did British people cope with damp/mould without central heating in the past?

Having read a bit about damp and mould issues in poorly heated homes, I was wondering whether this was an issue for Britain in the past, where few houses have central heating systems. Presumably the ...
cacaki's user avatar
  • 63
2 votes
1 answer
166 views

What was the Kanturk Massacre/Thernagree Affray?

I found brief mention of 5 people killed in Kanturk, Ireland in this 22 March 1833 edition of the Brookville Inquirer and wanted to know more, and now that I do, I thought I'd share an interesting ...
Curious Layman's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
119 views

Was Jerome K Jerome Vice President of the Oxford University Labour party?

In his autobiography, My Life and Times (page 102), Jerome said I was a die-hard Tory at twenty-five... Now I am a Vice-President, I believe, of the Oxford University Labour Party. He says 'I ...
Ne Mo's user avatar
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10 votes
1 answer
1k views

What was the "high Commissioner of the Police in Scotland" in 1777?

I was reading old newspapers, and I came across this mention of what I believe to be "high Commissioner of the Police in Scotland". I am sure of all of the words but "high", it ...
Curious Layman's user avatar
4 votes
0 answers
118 views

What was Northern Ireland electoral law pre-1972?

I have seen claims that the voting system used in Northern Ireland pre-1972 was discriminatory. In particular, I've seen the claim that voting was allocated per household and not per person; I have ...
pjc50's user avatar
  • 863
7 votes
1 answer
375 views

What was the process to join the army in WW2 England?

I'm currently (at the beginning of) researching the process people would go through for joining the British army (including the RAF and navy) during WW2 in England for a story I'm writing. ...
Adam Carter's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
702 views

Where and why did the colourful houses of Bristol start?

Bristol has a reputation for rows of colourful terraced houses, like those on Clifton Terrace: Nobody seems to know where and why is started: Nobody’s entirely sure when or why houses in the ...
AncientSwordRage's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
118 views

Public acceptance of posthumous beheading of Oliver Cromwell? [closed]

It is quite well documented that Oliver Cromwell's body was exhumed from Westminster Abbey in 1661. The Act of Indemnity, Pardon, and Oblivion was passed on August 29, 1660 and Cromwell's body was ...
Suddhasattwa Ghosh 's user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
277 views

Why did Lord Mountbatten shrink the timeline for the withdrawal of British troops from India?

Britain's exit from India and a peaceful transition of power was supposed to take place gradually over a period of 5 years but it was shrunk to 4 months by Lord Mountbatten. It was his negotiations ...
ksinkar's user avatar
  • 151
9 votes
1 answer
2k views

What's the date of this army uniform?

I have two photos of man and women. Guessing sweethearts. I’m thinking 1800s, there is writing on the back but I can’t read it.
Alex's user avatar
  • 99
5 votes
1 answer
327 views

Why did the Balfour Declaration of 1926 and Statute of Westminster (1931) only deal with Dominions?

I have been reading about the abdication of Edward VIII. I understand that due to recent changes brought about by the Statute of Westminster, changes to crown succession - including abdication - ...
bertieb's user avatar
  • 255
5 votes
1 answer
218 views

What uniform is General Redvers Henry Buller VC GCB GCMG wearing in this colored photo?

Colored studio photograph circa 1900 of General Redvers Henry Buller VC GCB GCMG in uniform with decorations. Is it that of a General in the Kings Royal Rifle Corps? Confirmation or other ...
Quentin Goodbody's user avatar
8 votes
1 answer
369 views

What did 'bookseller' cover as an occupation on British census documents during Victorian times?

I have been researching some of my husband's ancestors who lived in the poorest parts of Liverpool during the second part of the 19th century. Two of his female relatives who had been widowed turned ...
Catherine 's user avatar
5 votes
2 answers
735 views

Which superior officer did Princess Elizabeth II report to during her service as a junior officer in WW2?

Prior to her reign, Queen Elizabeth II served in the Auxiliary Territorial Service of the British Army during World War 2. She held the rank of a junior officer (with a promotion to a Junior Commander ...
Sid's user avatar
  • 169
3 votes
1 answer
150 views

Do the Chadwyck-Healey baronets have a coat of arms?

The Chadwyck-Healey baronets are one of the more obscure British dynasties. The title is extant - at the time of writing, we're on the fifth baronet - but only the first baronet was notable enough to ...
chancellorofpaphos's user avatar
27 votes
2 answers
7k views

Who said "If I want the opinion of the middle classes, I'll ask Her Majesty"?

The notion that the British royal family are not necessarily at the apex of British society in terms of good breeding, sophistication or taste, is an old one. I'm sure that I once read a piece that ...
tea-and-cake's user avatar
-2 votes
1 answer
238 views

Is the former adviser to the prime minister Dominic Cummings related by marriage to Andrew Wakefield? [closed]

Is Dominic Cummings, the British prime minister's former chief adviser, related by marriage to Andrew Wakefield, director of the 2016 film "Vaxxed"? Dominic Cummings, the former adviser to ...
user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
145 views

Was there a tax advantage for ex-pats to stay out of the UK, even for brief visits?

The question Was there a British tax for British citizens staying abroad in the fifties reminded me of a plot point in the play-within-a-play in Noises Off. The play was written in the 1970's, and the ...
Buddha Buck's user avatar
10 votes
1 answer
2k views

What was the error in 1790, if any, of the lat. and long. of Greenwich Observatory of 1783?

A YouTube video by Brady Haran, Mapping the Meridians - Objectivity 97, ended in a cliff hanger (the answer not found by Brady, and Keith Moore of The Royal Society). It's with regard to the Anglo-...
ymb1's user avatar
  • 409
1 vote
1 answer
184 views

Does anyone know the names of schools in 1870/71 London (potentially near Brixton) where wealthy Americans traveling abroad would enroll their sons?

I am looking for schools in the London area operating in the years 1870/71 at a minimum where Americans traveling at length abroad might have placed their teenage sons to further their education. ...
Toni Chappell's user avatar
7 votes
1 answer
590 views

Has this rock been engineered by humans and, if so, what was its use?

I found this rock in my garden (Cheshire, UK) and wondered whether it had been fashioned by humans for some use. If so what was it used for and what is its history? The two largest holes on either ...
Helena Johnson's user avatar
6 votes
0 answers
211 views

What is this decorative metal object with overlapping squares?

Can anyone identify this object? Found in a rockpool, exposed at low tide, just East of the entrance to Plymouth Sound, South West UK. It feels like it's made of metal. There's a square in the centre ...
Ben Pascoe's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
182 views

Why exactly eight days of mourning for Prince Philip’s death?

Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh opted out for his state funeral. Thus, an 8-day mourning period was issued instead in the United Kingdom. I can’t figure out why that period was determined exactly in ...
Filippof's user avatar
  • 943
2 votes
0 answers
83 views

What's a major 19th Century history of the American Revolution from a British perspective?

I recently read McCaulay's History of England, which he initially projected to cover in detail events up to the reign of Queen Victoria. I was excited to see his take on the American revolution, ...
Jedediah's user avatar
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