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An armed conflict between state actors, typically for a political or economic aim. Use this tag for specific wars.

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1answer
217 views

How did the Filipinos lose the Philippine-American War? [closed]

The Americans were fighting a war thousands of miles away from their country, against the Filipinos who just won a war of independence against Spain. Change the Filipinos to Vietnamese and Spain to ...
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0answers
83 views

Why were there different effects of these 2 factors in the Korean and US-Vietnam wars?

Over the years I've repeatedly read about two factors claimed to mitigate against US success in the Vietnam war: The South Vietnamese government lacked popular support because it was extremely ...
3
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0answers
101 views

Can you identify this military uniform? Montana 1850-1920

Portrait taken in Montana-best guess between 1850 and 1920. WWI?? Slouch hat. Single-breasted coat with 5 or 6 buttons. Breast pocket on each side; diagonal, flap with button. Knee-high boots. Curvy ...
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3answers
140 views

Has any ideology ever had an internal war?

Democracies are alleged to never declare war on each other. Is this true for any ideology? No Stalinist states have ever fought each other? No maoist states have fought each other? No fascist states? ...
9
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1answer
875 views

How many officers on board Type VII-C U-boat? [closed]

As the topic states I am curious of how many offiers were on board a type VII-C U-boat during WW2. I know the crew size was typically 42 to 48, but what was the breakdown of the crew? Bonus points ...
1
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1answer
63 views

Is/was it an Indonesian tradition or custom to drink your victims' blood?

In Joshua Oppenheimer's The Look of Silence (2014) (sequel to The Act of Killing [2012]), at least two of the killers speak (rather casually and openly) about drinking the blood of victims. They said ...
2
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2answers
218 views

Are there any surviving military textbooks from the Napoleonic era?

Napoleon attended school for military officers, so it stands to reason they would have some books around which they based their curriculum. Are there any complete and publicly available recordings of ...
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2answers
290 views

Egyptian Khopesh - Why has it never been used since then?

The ancient Egyptians used a weapon called the khopesh. It was a curved blade that was excellent for getting around shields and puncturing body parts like kidneys. Why did no other army in the ...
2
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0answers
144 views

Why did the French return all the Dutch Colonies to the Netherlands in Paris Treaty?

It seems to me that France helped Holland a lot in the Fourth Anglo-Dutch War. And also gave all Dutch colonies back to Holland in the 1783 Treaty of Paris? I was wondering why was that and what ...
4
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4answers
335 views

How did pastoral nomads keep winning battles/wars? When did the tide turn against them for settled societies?

From the Huns to the Mongols, pastoral nomads keep coming up in history books. Entire empires have fallen to them, from Rome to various Chinese dynasties to Persians. And yet, when these nomads settle ...
47
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9answers
15k views

How did pilots know when to release bombs on airplanes during World War2?

Given that during this time computing technology wasn't advanced enough to calculate when to drop bombs accurately on a target, I recall hearing something about bomber pilots using a modified watch to ...
2
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1answer
162 views

Could Romania have remained neutral in WWII? [closed]

Romania was neutral at the beginning of WWII, but then Marshall Antonescu (as he liked to be called) went to visit Hitler and then joined the war on the German side. Things have happened as they ...
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2answers
159 views

What's the origin of differentiating between civilians' and soldiers' “rights” in war? [closed]

In ancient Western times civilians were considered legitimate spoils of war for the victor. Sometime in Western Europe that seems to have changed. While Otto von Bismarck waged symbolic wars in Europe ...
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0answers
72 views

What were the incentives for war during the Warring States Period?

I've been reading about the Warring States Period in Li Feng's 'Early China', and I don't know if I missed a passage but I can't seem to figure out why the period was so violent. I've been searching ...
60
votes
4answers
7k views

How has hearing loss been avoided in war?

Guns are very loud, even in an open field. In a trench or inside a city, I can only imagine they would be louder, and quite capable of causing hearing loss. How have armies ensured that their troops ...
6
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1answer
472 views

Was Roman expansion & casus belli as just as they claimed?

Every time I read about Rome conquering some other land or nation, it always says that they were the ones attacked and then won that fight. And I find it a bit too convenient and Rome's greatest ...
0
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0answers
50 views

When did 石井 四郎 (Shirō Ishii) start medical school?

石井 四郎 (Shirō Ishii) was a surgeon in the Japanese Army, making the rank of General and earned the Order of the Golden Kite, Fourth Class. He committed war crimes, but made a deal with the U.S. to give ...
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0answers
127 views

Are these Spanish American War uniforms?

Can anyone identify the uniforms these men are wearing? The young man in this picture may be my Grandfather, who fought in the Spanish American War. He was underage when he joined to fight.
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2answers
283 views

How could the USS Maine explosion have been investigated?

After the explosion of the USS Maine in 1898, was it possible for the United States to ask Spain if their mine had sunk the USN Battleship?
1
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2answers
362 views

Was any war started by a country (both of its people and leadership) knowing defeat was inevitable? [closed]

Most Japanese people today wonder why Japan started a war against USA because it seems to them that it had no chance of winning. Susumu Nishibe, who died suddenly last month, often said in his TV ...
20
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1answer
5k views

Has any medieval army ever fought 3 or more distinct battles on the same day?

In the fantasy fiction A Song of Ice and Fire/Game of thrones, during Robert's Rebellion, three battles were fought in the same day, in the same place. There where particular conditions that lead to ...
7
votes
4answers
575 views

Why did Russians have guns towards the end of the Mongol Yoke, but not the Mongols?

Russian soldiers first used firearms in 1382, against the Mongols (it is not mentioned in the article whether the Mongols also had guns). This would prove to be an insufficient advantage at the time, ...
0
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1answer
190 views

Why didn't the Pakistani military try to gain Kashmir from India in 1971 instead of launching an offensive in Rajesthan?

In the 1971 India-Pakistan war, while the Indian Army with the help of the Bengali guerillas were making inroads into East Pakistan, the Pakistan Army launched an offensive through the Rajesthan ...
2
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2answers
526 views

Did ancient/medieval armies have music/chants to march to?

During battles or marching into battles did armies (like the Spartan or Eastern European armies) have music/chants to march to?
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6answers
3k views

Why didn't horse-mounted archers dominate the world until Genghis Khan?

Genghis Khan's military dominance was due largely to the horse and the Mongolian composite bow. So I was surprised to learn that Inner Asian horsemen were using composite bows more than 1,500 years ...
3
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1answer
189 views

Did international laws on wars of conquest change in 1945?

From a comment on what victors can do to losers in a war: Since this is a history site, we should also note that wars of conquest are no longer legal after 1945, so "most of history" no longer ...
6
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1answer
270 views

Jerusalem 1187: How would Saladin's army have laid siege to the walls?

BACKGROUND In fall of 1187 Saladin's "12,000 professional cavalrymen [and] 30,000 volunteers" arrived at Jerusalem and began a two week siege, assaulting the walls with towers, arrows, rocks, and ...
10
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1answer
519 views

Jerusalem 1187: How did ethnicity impact Saladin's army?

This is intended to be the first (and longest) of a series questions about the Siege of Jerusalem in 1187. It was originally one massive question, but the community rightly recommended that I break it ...
6
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2answers
428 views

Why didn't Pakistan try to wrest Kashmir from India in 1962 but tried to do so in 1965?

In 1962, India and China fought a war in a region east of Bhutan where the two countries shared a border. Am I right? And, in that war, the Indian army was totally outclassed by the Chinese, something ...
5
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3answers
781 views

Why was Eisenhower chosen to be Supreme Allied Commander in Europe?

Dwight D. Eisenhower "Ike", graduated from West Point in 1915 ranked 61st in a class of 164 better known for his abilities on the football field than in the classroom. Upon graduation from West Point ...
3
votes
1answer
211 views

Did NATO ever make plans for an unprovoked attack at the Soviet Union?

The Warsaw Pact is known to have made plans for an aggressive, unprovoked invasion of NATO. Are there any known serious NATO plans for an aggressive, all-out attack on the Soviet Union? I am sure both ...
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2answers
1k views

Beside the USSR and the Chinese communist history, have there been other counterintelligence operations that turned into large scale witchhunt?

Few people realize that, when war is elected to settle disputes, one's comrades are just as dangerous as their enemies due to counter-intelligence operations. Allegations are often made to settle ...
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2answers
249 views

Was the Korean King Chungnyeol instrumental in persuading Kublai Khan to invade Japan?

The Mongol invasions of Japan were costly failures. According to Wikipedia, the Korean King Chungnyeol (by this time a vassal of the Mongols) was ...known as the fixer who instigated Mongol ...
3
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2answers
528 views

Was the US Army during the WW2 Western Front a motorized army, a mechanized army, or neither?

(Inspired by Was the Wehrmacht a motorized army?) In World War II, during the American invasions of France and Germany, to what degree was the US army motorized and/or mechanized? My impression is ...
34
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5answers
11k views

Was the Wehrmacht a mechanized army?

I read random descriptions of Germany's attack on the Soviet Union, and I got the impression that besides tanks, the armies carried with them millions of horses and that the bulk of the soldiers were ...
3
votes
1answer
208 views

Was John S. Mosby the model/motivation/template for John Carter?

I've always suspected this but have never seen any concrete proof. Was the fictitious Edgar Rice Burroughs character John Carter based on the civil war hero/villain John S. Mosby? Mosby was arguable ...
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1answer
283 views

US Israeli relations before and after the USS Liberty Attack? [closed]

Average total aid between the United States and Israel over years given inclusively. $ 60 million dollars annually 1949-1958 $ 73.4 million dollars annually 1957-1966 $ 1 billion dollars annually ...
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0answers
69 views

Was the Sri Lankan Civil War primarily a religious or an ethnic conflict? [closed]

Was the Sri Lankan Civil War of 1983-2009 strictly an ethnic conflict between the Sinhalese and the Tamils, or was it more of a religious rivalry between Buddhists and Hindus?
0
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1answer
215 views

Polytheism and war

James Hillman argues that polytheism reduces the chances of war. I have not been able to find evidence for this. Is there any historical evidence that polytheism reduces the chances of sacred or ...
2
votes
2answers
320 views

What is the largest number of battles that took place in the same place in the same war?

I have been reading about the 12 battles of the Isonzo river during world-war-one. I believe it is an extreme statistic to have 12 battles in the same place during the same war. Are there any ...
7
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1answer
348 views

Why was the War of the League of Cambrai such a hot mess?

The War of the League of Cambrai was fought from 1508-1516 by...basically everyone who had any interest in Italy at the time (which was most of Europe). It was a mess: It's been described by one ...
3
votes
1answer
391 views

Names of the 'little ships' requisitioned by Navy for Dunkirk Evacuation?

Since the small ships requisitioned for the evacuation of Dunkirk were selected by the Royal Navy or a branch of the Admiralty, there must be a list of vessels so requisitioned. I ask for this ...
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3answers
916 views

Did the military industrial complex play a role in LBJ's decision to increase America's involvement in Vietnam?

Path to War (2002) starts with LBJ's election victory in 1964 and shows him making somewhat irrational decisions, against the well-argued advice of some of his advisers, leading to the War in Vietnam. ...
6
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1answer
314 views

What were officers' casualty rates among the major powers of WWII?

Out of the major powers of WWII (Germany/Japan/Italy, USSR/US/UK/China, perhaps others), what were their officers' casualty rates? Were any unusually low or high? Officers are important parts of ...
17
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1answer
798 views

How common was it for monasteries to attack other monasteries in the early medieval period in western Europe?

Recently, I saw this passage in M & H. Whittock, ‘The Viking Blitzkrieg’ (referring to Ireland) of the 113 attacks on monasteries between 795 and 820, only twenty-six were carried out by ...
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2answers
217 views

What was the true status of Hessian Mercenaries?

Were the Revolutionary War Hessian mercenaries that fought with the British pressed into service by the Hessian government in Hesse. or were they truely voluntary mercenaries that had signed up with ...
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3answers
310 views

Why didn't global trade and investment prevent World War I from erupting in Europe? [closed]

It has often been said that world trade and investment between nations makes war between nations an irrational act. If your trading partner is hurt, it hurts your own wallet as well because you lose ...
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2answers
113 views

What was the main driver of conquest and wars in ancient times? Why were they so frequent? [closed]

The, perhaps naive, impression of someone who had history classes in high school is that the human society in the past put a lot of effort into expanding borders. Empires and kingdoms rose and fell ...
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0answers
95 views

What was the number of native casualties in the Muslim invasion of Hispania?

Where can I find information about the number of casualties of native people produced by the Muslim invasion of Hispania? Strangely it's very easy to get an estimate of the numer of casualties in ...
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3answers
681 views

Did two unquestionably democratic states ever engage in war? [closed]

I was just reading A.fm.'s comment on this question. [...] and history shows democratic states don't fight one another. At first I thought this statement was wrong, but thinking further I couldn't ...