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4
votes
1answer
544 views

When did Tsar Nicholas II become Tsar of Russia?

I'm having trouble understanding the technicalities of throne inheritance in the Tsardom. Did Nicholas II become Tsar after his fathers' death on the 1st of November 1894, or did he become Tsar after ...
6
votes
3answers
416 views

What percentage of the Nazis were highly educated men?

Generally when I think about the Nazis, I tend to think of them as thugs; and hence, uneducated thugs; but of course, this must be quite wrong. The Nazis were an unpopular movement but membership ...
0
votes
0answers
50 views

How can I research relatives in the Italo-Turkish War 1911-1912 online? [migrated]

I'm trying to find out if my great-grandfather was in the Italo-Turkish War 1911-1912.
1
vote
2answers
393 views

Why did Hitler order counter-attacks as late as 21/04?

On the 21st April 1945, Hitler ordered the Armeeabteilung Steiner (and the ninth Army) to execute a counter-attack on the approaching Soviet forces. How and why did Hitler become deluded enough to ...
1
vote
0answers
78 views

Were there demands for compensation to colonies for their participation in World Wars on Behalf of the British? [closed]

I recently heard an Indian perspective of the quantification of the amount of pressure the British Empire created on it's colonies to meet the demand for World War 1 and 2. I also found out that ...
0
votes
1answer
184 views

Were there US troops on the WW1 eastern front?

I would like to know more about the first world war, especially about the involvement of the USA on the eastern front. Were there any US troops in eastern front present, if so how many? Thanks in ...
2
votes
1answer
117 views

How long was a coach journey from Coburg to St Peterburg in 1790s?

If someone had to get from Coburg to St Petersburg in the 1790s? Would they travel overland by stagecoach or go up to the north German coast and get a boat round to the Gulf of Finland and enter ...
-1
votes
1answer
130 views

Why does the Balfour declaration refer to Palestine, as opposed to the Land of Israel or the Holy Land? [closed]

The Balfour Declaration states that His Majesty's government view with favour the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, and will use their best endeavours to ...
34
votes
7answers
9k views

How were Martello towers supposed to work?

Having recently seen a Martello tower on the East coast of England, I tried to find-out what the defensive strategy was supposed to be - but the internet seems very short on information. The South-...
4
votes
0answers
98 views

Why was the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo signed there?

The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo which ended the Mexican-American War was signed "at the main altar of the old Basilica of Guadalupe", or possibly in an adjacent building. This is a major Catholic ...
2
votes
1answer
111 views

Can you help me identify the rank and patch on this Royal Italian Army uniform?

Can you help me identify the rank and patch on this uniform on the far right? It's from around 1910. Thank you very much.
-1
votes
0answers
165 views

What does this hieroglyphic writing mean?

a friend of a friend is an Egyptian and he found a wooden piece in a well it has some Hieroglyphic writings Is there anyone can tell me what does it mean?
5
votes
1answer
104 views

What was the reason the Maronites lobbied for a state of Greater Lebanon?

I'm currently reading A House of Many Mansions: The History of Lebanon Reconsidered (1988) by Kamal Salibi. In the first chapter he argues that it was initially the Christian minorities of historic ...
-4
votes
1answer
260 views

To what extent was Christianity responsible for the dark ages of Western Europe?

Some sources assert that Christianity caused the dark ages of Western Europe. But actually, to what extent Christianity was actually responsible for the dark ages of Western Europe? I know this can ...
2
votes
2answers
236 views

Did some chemical weapons from the military end up in private hands after WWI?

It is a common, well-documented knowledge, that chemical weapons were widely used during the Great War. It is also quite common knowledge, that soldiers like to take "souvenirs" from the battlefield - ...
-2
votes
1answer
256 views

Are there any communist countries that were model high functioning societies? [closed]

low pollution rate high living standards Are there any historically model communist countries?
43
votes
1answer
11k views

When did “&” stop being taught alongside the alphabet?

I've recently discovered that "&" was taught alongside the alphabet letters. While not being considered a letter per se, many students must have seen '&' as effectively the 27th letter of the ...
18
votes
1answer
4k views

Did the Ottoman empire suppress the printing press?

I overheard this conversation a while back that the Ottoman Empire which flourished in all fields during the Golden Age of Islam were left behind after the introduction of the printing press in Europe ...
4
votes
1answer
340 views

Were Communists drafted for the Vietnam war?

Given that it wasn't illegal to be a member of a Communist party in the US, how did the military handle draftees who might be sympathetic to North Vietnam? Were men who were members of the Communist ...
1
vote
1answer
108 views

Which party did early trade unions identify with in the antebellum USA?

According to wikipedia, the first unions in the USA date to before the American Civil War. Were these organisations, and their members, more likely to side with the Democrats or with their opponents? ...
0
votes
1answer
213 views

Why the belt or strap in some plate armor and some other armor exposed in the middle front side?

(the belt or strap locate at the middle side of the breastplate or the plackart) Won't the belt become easy target to be cut or to be worn out? Making the armor prone to break up or unable to cover ...
1
vote
3answers
314 views

What is the real origin of the stereotype that associates fried chickens with African Americans?

I knew for a long time very vaguely that there were some connections between fried chickens and African Americans. And it started by listening this product of the celebrity Key & Peele. And he ( ...
1
vote
1answer
131 views

Please suggest a book that contains a historical (factual) account of Jesus' life [closed]

Can someone suggest a book about Jesus that contains only aspects that can be corroborated by scientific and historical evidence? In other words, I don't want to read about so-called miracles or other ...
13
votes
5answers
565 views

Why are most of the world's oldest buildings in Europe and not in the Fertile Crescent?

Looking at the list of the world's ten oldest surviving human constructed buildings are in Europe while the oldest building in what (with a generous interpretation of the concept) could be called the ...
1
vote
0answers
115 views

Did a sumo referee ever actually commit ritual suicide over a reversed decision?

The sport of Sumo wrestling has picked up quite a few traditions during its long history. One of these traditions is that the tate-gyoji, the two most senior referees, wear a knife. This knife ...
5
votes
0answers
115 views

Is the Western Wall the only remaining portion of the Second Temple?

I saw a travel blog post recently that claimed that the Western Wall is the only remaining portion of the Second Temple in Jerusalem. At first, I thought this was just a mistake on the part of the ...
0
votes
0answers
44 views

What are some important female names who participated in the first human genome sequencing project?

Specifically, females involved in the human sequencing project, from between 1990 and early 2000s (I'm especially interested in medical doctors, but tech experts or of other branches of science are ...
0
votes
0answers
56 views

Did James Madison sign all copies of the Bill of Rights?

I'm aware that James Madison wrote the Bill of Rights but then 13 copies were distributed to the 13 original colonies to review and edit. Is it James Madison's signature on the copies that were sent ...
1
vote
1answer
85 views

What was Richard Owen's status within the Royal Society in 1858?

I'd like to know if Sir Richard Owen was still a distinguished fellow of the Royal Society by 1858. The information I have collected is controversial. The RS website shows his being VP in 1849-1850 ...
16
votes
1answer
3k views

Why did Robert F. Kennedy loathe Lyndon B. Johnson?

Robert Kennedy despised Lyndon Johnson but it's not clear to me why. Johnson was a dutiful vice-president and honored JFK's legacy by passing the civil rights act that Kennedy would likely have been ...
1
vote
0answers
96 views

Is this a Qing costume and did it have a purpose?

According to this article, clothing during was very codified during the Qing dynasty. Is it reasonable to think this suit may be of Qing dynasty, and if so, what would have been its wearer status and ...
4
votes
1answer
252 views

Were early mosques originally oriented on Petra instead of Mecca according to archaeological record?

I have come across a claim that in early Islam, the focal point of orientation for prayers was not Mecca but was originally supposed to be Petra, and that originally Qiblas used to point in that ...
2
votes
0answers
94 views

Was this kind of porcelain service common during some Chinese dynasty?

Here is a Chinese porcelain service of particular (lotus ?) shape : The squared cup actually doesn't belong to the same set, but the fact that it fits perfectly makes me wonder : was this kind of ...
-6
votes
1answer
114 views

What caused the rise of international anti-semitism during the early 20th century? [closed]

In the years before 1914 violent pogroms were directed against Jews, who were made scapegoats for the problems of the Russian Empire. The flight of Jews from the east, first to escape the violent ...
0
votes
1answer
74 views

Who kept official records in 19th century America? [closed]

I'm curious about records and archives in America during the 19th century. Was there any record keeping done? Who did it? Was there a place people could have gone to view public records? For example ...
2
votes
0answers
94 views

What was the most expensive war of the 20th century? [closed]

Putting aside the enormous "cost" of wars in terms of human life and suffering, what about the economic costs? Once I studied the Vietnam war and Gabriel Kolko in one of his books described how much ...
1
vote
0answers
173 views

Why were Elizabethan English concerned about vagabonds?

I have an assessment soon, and part of my revision is on poverty in Elizabethan England. This includes Explaining why Elizabethans were worried about Vagabonds. I am unsure on this topic, but I have ...
7
votes
0answers
102 views

When was someone condemned to slavery for the last time in the United States?

These question and answer have established than even after the abolition of slavery by the Thirteenth Amendment to the US Constitution, felons have been sentenced to be "sold as slave" for a given ...
0
votes
2answers
96 views

Revolutions of communication

Different from other revolutions which took place just once like Harari's cognitive revolution agricultural revolution unification of mankind scientific revolution revolutions of communication took ...
4
votes
1answer
122 views

Did the Portuguese Crown sponsor Brazilian gold-seeking expeditions (bandeiras) in the 17th century?

The end of the 17th century is the beginning of the gold rush in Brazil. Shortly before there were expeditions (bandeiras) of explorers (later called bandeirantes) who were seeking precious minerals ...
1
vote
6answers
364 views

Was there a nation/state which conquered other ones to gather forces and fight against an even greater enemy?

I'm writing a fictional story and basically that's the case of one of the kingdoms there: conquering others to become more powerful and fight another nation. I'm asking this question to get some ...
3
votes
2answers
406 views

Was there an occasion when nazis turned their backs on a national anthem?

Brexit party members today turned their backs during the playing of the EU anthem at the opening of the EU parliament. This was commented on in the newspapers. A below-the-line commenter there, ...
5
votes
1answer
322 views

How was the border between Vichy and German Occupied France decided?

The border between Vichy France and German-Occupied France strike me as exceptionally strange. The stated intent for Germany separating the two was to give Germany exclusive control of all areas ...
4
votes
2answers
178 views

What happened to Saxe Altenburg circa 1827?

I have a dataset that says that Saxe Altenburg was part of some other entity (simply coded "263") until 1827. I have been trying to figure out what the entity "263" is, but have not been able to do ...
25
votes
2answers
5k views

Has chattel slavery ever been used as a criminal punishment in the USA since the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment?

The Thirteenth Amendment to the US Constitution provides (my emphasis): Section 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly ...
23
votes
2answers
11k views

Did Stalin kill all Soviet officers involved in the Winter War?

Did Stalin kill all of the Soviet officers involved in the Winter War, when it ended? A documentary called "Warlords: Hitler vs Stalin" made this claim, but Wikipedia doesn't seem to mention this. ...
16
votes
2answers
4k views

What is meaning of 4 letter abbreviations in Roman names like Titus Flavius T. f. T. n. Sabinus?

I am reading about Titus Flavius Sabinus (consul AD 47) and cannot find meaning of T. f. T. n. in his full name as written in Wikipedia, "Titus Flavius T. f. T. n. Sabinus." All I have found is a ...
-1
votes
0answers
88 views

What method(s) where used to date cuneiform as being as old as 3200 BC?

If anyone could provide the source(s) too that would be great
5
votes
0answers
203 views

Did an Irishman talk a German unit out of a bridge in World War 2?

A friend of mine has often related a somewhat humourous story of an Irishman in World War 2 (presumably fighting in the British Army) who captured a bridge using "The Gift of The Gab". Apparently he ...
6
votes
3answers
364 views

Were there a pharaoh who believed in any of the Abrahamic religions?

There are many stories in religious books about Abraham meeting pharaoh of Egypt. Also Jacob, Josef, Moses, etc. Did any of these pharaohs believed in Abrahamic religions? Was there any proof from ...

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