All Questions

2
votes
0answers
7 views

Was Woodrow Wilson really a Liberal?

In a related question Ben Crowell asked, Was World War I a war of liberals against authoritarians? in that discussion, Woodrow Wilson was called a liberal. I have always believed, this has become a ...
3
votes
3answers
70 views

What is the period/term used describe Giuseppe Arcimboldo's style of painting?

Giuseppe Arcimboldo was best known for creating portrait heads entirely up of objects. Here are some examples: He is described as a '16th century Mannerist' and the 'Grandfather of Surrealism'. ...
-3
votes
1answer
29 views

Were the British lucky during WW2? [on hold]

When WW2 started, the Nazi's quickly swept much of Mainland Europe under their control thanks to the Blitzkrieg. NOW UK WAS NEXT But as we know, the UK fought back and defeated the Nazis. Now my ...
5
votes
2answers
17k views

How many soldiers did Ghengis Khan field?

I'm looking for the number of soldiers the Mongol Empire had at the time of Genghis Khan. What percentage of them were ethnically Mongolians?
28
votes
6answers
7k views

Was World War I a war of liberals against authoritarians?

An essay by Robert Kagan in the Washington Post, March 14, 2019, argues for rethinking the big theme of 20th-century history as a struggle between liberalism and authoritarianism, and for an ...
1
vote
0answers
14 views

What Happened to the Undergrad Students who Attended the Feynman Lecture Series in 1961-63?

In the academic years of 1962-2 and 1962-3, Richard Feynman gave his celebrated series of lectures to a cohort of undergraduate physics students at Caltech. It has been claimed, probably tongue in ...
2
votes
2answers
214 views

Why didn't Anne Boleyn consent to divorce?

In the recent past I've seen two televised depictions of the life-and-times of Henry VIII: The Tudors and Wolf Hall. Henry VIII wanted out from his marriage to Anne Boleyn because she failed to ...
1
vote
2answers
92 views

Did princess Maria von Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen -Belgian king Albert's mother- have a child out of wedlock?

Maria Luise von Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen in German. She was married to prince Philip of Belgium and was the mother of king Albert I. Just one source and no other more -Wikipedia in Spanish - claims ...
-2
votes
1answer
161 views

What is antisemitism? Was it ever anti-“Semitic”? [on hold]

Off-Topic Reason Correction: The referenced Wikipedia article does not in fact address whether the history of antisemitic sentiment in Europe was exclusive to Hebrews or was also inclusive of Arabs. ...
21
votes
2answers
1k views

Why does a Star of David appear at a rally with Francisco Franco?

In this web page, a photo from a repertory of photos from the Spanish Civil War, at the website of the archive of Italian Istituto Luce, shows a rally with Francisco Franco within a theatre. From the ...
6
votes
1answer
74 views

Where are the agrarian reforms of Basil II codified?

I am interested in Byzantine law, especially under Basil II. Much weight is always attached to his agrarian reforms. I would like to read some of his laws in the original. I guess these reforms were ...
30
votes
7answers
4k views

Did the communication lag become a problem for the ever expanding Roman Empire?

There is a dispute among historians over whether the Roman Empire collapsed because of its increasing size and system-imminent flaws which were not suited for this size. The bigger the territory, the ...
0
votes
0answers
43 views

When was 'reason' first revered as one of the great human faculties?

Generally the answer to this question returns, squarely, as 'the Greeks'. Wikipedia says The proposal that reason gives humanity a special position in nature has been argued to be a defining ...
3
votes
1answer
88 views

How young of a child could do significant labor?

I've been trying to find out whether, in some cultures historically, a child of age 3 or 4 could do enough work to "pay for their keep", so to speak. In the search I've found out that modern child ...
0
votes
6answers
383 views

Did Europe experience forest deficits prior to 19th century?

I would like to understand if there were issues with forests in Europe prior to 19th century and, if so, what were the reasons behind them? Two versions that I have are overusing forests as the ...
4
votes
3answers
1k views

Did Portuguese fisherman frequent New England prior to 1492?

This might blow your mind a little bit, but one thing I notice, living in New England as I do, that there are the remnants of a tiny Portuguese community here going way, way back. For example, there ...
0
votes
0answers
59 views

Britain's position on American Civil War [on hold]

What was the position of the British Empire on American Civil War that broke out between North and South from 1861 to 1865 ?
80
votes
2answers
13k views

How did people distinguish slaves from free people in Ancient Rome?

I've tried to find some information about it, but failed. Let's say there is an educated slave living in a relatively rich household of Rome. What would prevent him from fleeing, going to some smaller ...
3
votes
1answer
146 views

Can anyone help to identify and date this uniform or the medals?

Found in my late Aunt's possessions. Photograph of unidentified uniform:
14
votes
2answers
3k views

Who was Richard of York at the Battle of Grunwald?

Gloria.TV states that "the foreign knight,...Richard of York" fought, and was killed, at the Battle of Grunwald (Tannenberg) in 1410. I can find no one from the house of York who might have been at ...
47
votes
5answers
7k views

What is the significance behind “40 days” that often appears in the Bible?

Several times within the Old and New Testament of the Bible there are notes pertaining to a long time as "40 days," as in 40 days of fasting, rain, traveling, etc. Why 40? Is there a factual ...
4
votes
1answer
157 views

Are there any histories of indigenous Americans who were brought to Europe?

I have read brief accounts of indigenous Americans who were brought to Europe in the wake of Columbus's arrival, including a family of Inuit who were brought to meet Elizabeth I but died shortly after ...
6
votes
1answer
853 views

What was the average age of first marriage in 18th century Russia?

I found the following claim on Wikipedia (Women in Russia) and I wonder if it is true: Early in the eighteenth-century, the average age for peasant girls to marry was around twelve years old. In ...
15
votes
2answers
519 views

What is the meaning of a glove on the tail of monsters in illuminated manuscripts?

I've seen several images from illuminated manuscripts depicting odd-looking creatures with gloves showing two raised fingers on their tails: What is the meaning if this device?
5
votes
2answers
123 views

Did bronze metallurgical development peak by the end of the bronze age?

There is a lot of talk, books, and science about the development of iron into increasing qualities and types of steel, but I do not see the same attention given to bronze. This is not counting the ...
6
votes
1answer
147 views

Have any artifacts or archaeological remains from the White Ship disaster of 1120 ever been recovered?

After the White Ship disaster, which claimed the lives of all on board (except one), including William Adeline, the heir to the English throne, England was plunged into a civil war known as the ...
-1
votes
0answers
110 views

What is the oldest man-made smell? [on hold]

What is the oldest man-made smell on record? When was the first spice burned for its aromatic properties?
13
votes
3answers
2k views

Did the Founding Fathers of the USA really make a distinction between a Republic and a Democracy (and despised the latter)?

I've come across this video that makes a distinction between a Democracy (rule of majority) vs Republic (rule of law). It contests that a Republic is a state that is designed to protect the rights of ...
18
votes
1answer
1k views

What's the meaning of a knight fighting a snail in medieval book illustrations?

Someone sent me this really weird picture of a medieval illustration. It depicted a knight fighting a snail, and was basically a viral snarky commentary about how weird medieval ideas were. I tried ...
36
votes
10answers
7k views

Why did it take so long to abandon sail after steamships were demonstrated?

1807, Robert Fulton's Clermont the first ship to demonstrate the feasibility of steam propulsion for commercial use, but it also carried sail. 1819, The first steamship to cross the Atlantic was the ...
2
votes
1answer
127 views

How is this pattern from Pompeii also in Cappella Sansevero?

The labyrinth tiles in Capella Sansevero where built between the mid 1760s to c. 1771 (according to http://www.museosansevero.it/floor/?lang=en). They look like this: I saw the same pattern in Villa ...
8
votes
3answers
1k views

Why, during the Spanish reconquista, did King Ferdinand not take over Portugal?

After unifying Castile, Leon, Navarre, and Aragon through marriage, Ferdinand I proceeded to conquer the Emirate of Granada and almost unify the Iberian Peninsula, but left Portugal alone. Is there ...
6
votes
3answers
1k views

Did Ferdinand Magellan circumnavigate the globe?

As we know, Magellan died on the Philippines, so he did not circumnavigate the globe. However, I found an opinion claiming that he actually did, because he'd made some travels to east Asia before his ...
11
votes
2answers
2k views

Was the British Empire bigger than the combined empires of the Iberian Union in terms of claimed land area?

The Iberian Empire (1580-1640 AD), under Phillip II, a Habsburg, was a period when there was only one crown in the Iberian Peninsula. The 16th Century had been an Age of Discovery and Exploration for ...
24
votes
5answers
9k views

Why did the Dutch, French & British acquire minor colonies in South America?

We know that South America was partitioned between Spain and Portugal in the early days of empire when Spain and Portugal were the major powers. Later, in the 19th century, when Spain and Portugal ...
1
vote
0answers
65 views

Were prisons in Maine mixed race in 1947?

In the movie The Shawshank Redemption, white Andy Dufresne (played by Tim Robbins) and black Ellis "Red" Redding (played by Morgan Freeman) are in the same prison. I don't remember if it was said ...
8
votes
4answers
4k views

Spain's tributary empire vs. Portugal's seaborne empire

While the Spanish built a huge colonial empire in the Americas, why didn't Portugal colonize the South Asian coast and only aimed at controlling trade? Why did these empires pursue such different ...
16
votes
5answers
3k views

What did other European powers say when Portugal and Spain signed the Treaty of Tordesillas?

In 1494, Portugal and Castile (succeeded by Spain) divided all lands outside Europe, including the newly "on-discovering" Americas, between them signing the Treaty of Tordesillas. What were the ...
15
votes
2answers
620 views

Why did the Spanish take the island of Annobon in the Treaty of El Pardo in 1778?

The conditions of the Treaty of El Pardo (1778) have always been a mystery to me. From Wikipedia: The Treaty of El Pardo was signed on March 11, 1778 between Queen Maria I of Portugal and King ...
52
votes
3answers
7k views

Why didn't Portugal found universities in its colonies like Spain?

Imperial Spain and Portugal conquered and developed huge empires. Both monarchies were Catholic and seized huge amounts of land in the 1500s. Both European motherlands had numerous universities, but ...
0
votes
0answers
39 views

Are there descriptions of the weapons of the Nubian Empire?

Are their any descriptions or images of the weapons of Kushite /Nubian Empire? I have tried looking for sources but have been unable to find any, other than them just saying sword or spear or ...
2
votes
1answer
158 views

What present-day monarchs descend from Rodrigo de Borgia, a.k.a., Pope Alexander VI?

I understand all enthroned and dethroned Catholic royal families (except for the Grimaldis) and even some Protestant German royal families like Hessen, Mecklenburg and the Prussian Hohenzollern ...
11
votes
2answers
323 views

Are any archeological remains found from the Yellow Sea, China

During the last ice age when the sea level was lower, much of the continental shelf was exposed. For example, the North Sea was previously a low-lying region which is called "Doggerland". There are ...
12
votes
2answers
600 views

What land did Polish nationalists claim in 1914?

In the early 20th century, Poland was split between Russia, Austria-Hungary and Germany. However, clear borders of the "country" did not exist. When the country was finally re-created after the Great ...
0
votes
1answer
64 views

Schism of 1054 - what were the positions of Jerusalem, Alexandria and Antioch?

Q1 Given that the validity of the Western legates' act is doubtful since Pope Leo had died and Cerularius' excommunication only applied to individuals, why was the schism allowed to continue to the ...
3
votes
2answers
2k views

What is the title of a medieval mayor?

In the medieval/renaissance era what is the title of a person who runs a city in his king's kingdom? Like he isn't the king but he serves him by running the city. I think they could be called a ...
38
votes
6answers
8k views

What is the pre-schism Christian church called today?

I've come upon numerous instances where a pre-11th century person or artifact is associated with either the Orthodox or Catholic church. The most recent example is in Francis Fukuyama's "The Origins ...
11
votes
1answer
383 views

Are there any cases of rewarding an enemy commander for sparing a city from looting?

According to Wikipedia, after the Battle of Lübeck (1806) [...] the city became the target of large-scale looting and rampage by the French soldiers. [Marshal] Bernadotte, struggling desperately to ...
7
votes
4answers
2k views

Why are the “Three Musketeers” called musketeers?

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Three_Musketeers_%281987_TV_series%29 They fight with sabres all the time. No musket. So why?
12
votes
1answer
341 views

Did Arabs actually raise a red flag on the dome of their commander's marquee during the Haraam months?

This answer to the question What is the purpose of putting a red flag on the dome of Hussain ibn Ali(as)'s shrine? states that if Arabs were at war with each other, during the Haraam months there ...

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