All Questions

2
votes
0answers
8 views

Was Woodrow Wilson really a Liberal?

In a related question Ben Crowell asked, Was World War I a war of liberals against authoritarians? in that discussion, Woodrow Wilson was called a liberal. I have always believed, this has become a ...
1
vote
0answers
14 views

What Happened to the Undergrad Students who Attended the Feynman Lecture Series in 1961-63?

In the academic years of 1962-2 and 1962-3, Richard Feynman gave his celebrated series of lectures to a cohort of undergraduate physics students at Caltech. It has been claimed, probably tongue in ...
-3
votes
1answer
29 views

Were the British lucky during WW2? [on hold]

When WW2 started, the Nazi's quickly swept much of Mainland Europe under their control thanks to the Blitzkrieg. NOW UK WAS NEXT But as we know, the UK fought back and defeated the Nazis. Now my ...
3
votes
3answers
74 views

What is the period/term used describe Giuseppe Arcimboldo's style of painting?

Giuseppe Arcimboldo was best known for creating portrait heads entirely up of objects. Here are some examples: He is described as a '16th century Mannerist' and the 'Grandfather of Surrealism'. ...
0
votes
0answers
43 views

When was 'reason' first revered as one of the great human faculties?

Generally the answer to this question returns, squarely, as 'the Greeks'. Wikipedia says The proposal that reason gives humanity a special position in nature has been argued to be a defining ...
3
votes
1answer
88 views

How young of a child could do significant labor?

I've been trying to find out whether, in some cultures historically, a child of age 3 or 4 could do enough work to "pay for their keep", so to speak. In the search I've found out that modern child ...
0
votes
0answers
59 views

Britain's position on American Civil War [on hold]

What was the position of the British Empire on American Civil War that broke out between North and South from 1861 to 1865 ?
6
votes
1answer
74 views

Where are the agrarian reforms of Basil II codified?

I am interested in Byzantine law, especially under Basil II. Much weight is always attached to his agrarian reforms. I would like to read some of his laws in the original. I guess these reforms were ...
5
votes
2answers
123 views

Did bronze metallurgical development peak by the end of the bronze age?

There is a lot of talk, books, and science about the development of iron into increasing qualities and types of steel, but I do not see the same attention given to bronze. This is not counting the ...
-1
votes
0answers
110 views

What is the oldest man-made smell? [on hold]

What is the oldest man-made smell on record? When was the first spice burned for its aromatic properties?
-2
votes
1answer
161 views

What is antisemitism? Was it ever anti-“Semitic”? [on hold]

Off-Topic Reason Correction: The referenced Wikipedia article does not in fact address whether the history of antisemitic sentiment in Europe was exclusive to Hebrews or was also inclusive of Arabs. ...
6
votes
1answer
853 views

What was the average age of first marriage in 18th century Russia?

I found the following claim on Wikipedia (Women in Russia) and I wonder if it is true: Early in the eighteenth-century, the average age for peasant girls to marry was around twelve years old. In ...
3
votes
1answer
146 views

Can anyone help to identify and date this uniform or the medals?

Found in my late Aunt's possessions. Photograph of unidentified uniform:
2
votes
1answer
127 views

How is this pattern from Pompeii also in Cappella Sansevero?

The labyrinth tiles in Capella Sansevero where built between the mid 1760s to c. 1771 (according to http://www.museosansevero.it/floor/?lang=en). They look like this: I saw the same pattern in Villa ...
1
vote
0answers
65 views

Were prisons in Maine mixed race in 1947?

In the movie The Shawshank Redemption, white Andy Dufresne (played by Tim Robbins) and black Ellis "Red" Redding (played by Morgan Freeman) are in the same prison. I don't remember if it was said ...
2
votes
2answers
214 views

Why didn't Anne Boleyn consent to divorce?

In the recent past I've seen two televised depictions of the life-and-times of Henry VIII: The Tudors and Wolf Hall. Henry VIII wanted out from his marriage to Anne Boleyn because she failed to ...
0
votes
0answers
39 views

Are there descriptions of the weapons of the Nubian Empire?

Are their any descriptions or images of the weapons of Kushite /Nubian Empire? I have tried looking for sources but have been unable to find any, other than them just saying sword or spear or ...
18
votes
1answer
1k views

What's the meaning of a knight fighting a snail in medieval book illustrations?

Someone sent me this really weird picture of a medieval illustration. It depicted a knight fighting a snail, and was basically a viral snarky commentary about how weird medieval ideas were. I tried ...
28
votes
6answers
7k views

Was World War I a war of liberals against authoritarians?

An essay by Robert Kagan in the Washington Post, March 14, 2019, argues for rethinking the big theme of 20th-century history as a struggle between liberalism and authoritarianism, and for an ...
0
votes
1answer
64 views

Schism of 1054 - what were the positions of Jerusalem, Alexandria and Antioch?

Q1 Given that the validity of the Western legates' act is doubtful since Pope Leo had died and Cerularius' excommunication only applied to individuals, why was the schism allowed to continue to the ...
21
votes
2answers
1k views

Why does a Star of David appear at a rally with Francisco Franco?

In this web page, a photo from a repertory of photos from the Spanish Civil War, at the website of the archive of Italian Istituto Luce, shows a rally with Francisco Franco within a theatre. From the ...
1
vote
2answers
92 views

Did princess Maria von Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen -Belgian king Albert's mother- have a child out of wedlock?

Maria Luise von Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen in German. She was married to prince Philip of Belgium and was the mother of king Albert I. Just one source and no other more -Wikipedia in Spanish - claims ...
6
votes
1answer
147 views

Have any artifacts or archaeological remains from the White Ship disaster of 1120 ever been recovered?

After the White Ship disaster, which claimed the lives of all on board (except one), including William Adeline, the heir to the English throne, England was plunged into a civil war known as the ...
4
votes
1answer
157 views

Are there any histories of indigenous Americans who were brought to Europe?

I have read brief accounts of indigenous Americans who were brought to Europe in the wake of Columbus's arrival, including a family of Inuit who were brought to meet Elizabeth I but died shortly after ...
2
votes
0answers
24 views

How did public debt financing through annuities worked in the States General of the Netherlands?

We're going through some readings regarding how the formation of modern states was structured through the many wars throughout Europe across the centuries, and one of the points that concerns me - ...
5
votes
0answers
68 views

What was the timetable for Germany's Invasion of the Low Countries (Fall Gelb) in WW2?

I was watching the 1969 classic movie 'Battle of Britain' the other day and noted numerous scenes where the British were very concerned about a German invasion; "what are they waiting for?" was a ...
47
votes
5answers
7k views

What is the significance behind “40 days” that often appears in the Bible?

Several times within the Old and New Testament of the Bible there are notes pertaining to a long time as "40 days," as in 40 days of fasting, rain, traveling, etc. Why 40? Is there a factual ...
1
vote
0answers
60 views

What is this Uniform and Medal Ribbon?

I am trying to help someone. She has sent me a black & white photo. I think the battle dress is post WW2? And the man could be an officer? Ie the wearing of a tie. I just cannot work out the ...
6
votes
1answer
242 views

When Lenin met Mussolini, what was Mussolini's impression of Lenin?

According to Wikipedia, BM met VL in Switzerland in the 1900s. Lenin is said to have lamented the loss of 'such a capable person' to the cause later on in the 20s: "What a waste that we lost ...
-2
votes
0answers
91 views

What is the most common European ethnicity among Americans, particularly white Americans? [on hold]

Information about this subject is contradictory. Some claim the Germans is the group that has most contributed to the white American ethnicity. Others take for granted that the English is the group ...
1
vote
2answers
140 views

“…as stated by its atheistic leaders more than 30 years ago” in McCarthy speech

I read this quote in a speech given on June 2, 1950 by Joseph McCarthy that said: "We know that the major aim of communism, as stated by its atheistic leaders more than 30 years ago, is to create ...
0
votes
1answer
131 views

Did the Maya civilization recognize that it was into an ecological crisis?

As I currently read so much about pessimistic ecological forecast of today's society, I'm wondering if the Maya or eastern islands society became aware of their heading into or state of an ecological ...
-3
votes
1answer
83 views

premise of Illiad in ancient times [on hold]

I guess in modern society the idea of even individual men fighting over a women is weird, so it's hard for us to take the premise of the Illiad seriously. (Yes movies portray this, but it doesn't ...
4
votes
1answer
89 views

How do vetoes affect re-votes in US Congress?

I would think that a president challenging the will of congress would cause congress to vote differently out of principle but am curious if this is true. Throughout history, what is the percentage ...
2
votes
1answer
106 views

Were there socioeconomic reasons for the decline of Athenian democracy?

Historians often emphasize socioeconomic causes when describing the fall of the Roman republic, which began centuries before Augustus won the civil wars. For example, the sudden influx of wealth and ...
36
votes
10answers
7k views

Why did it take so long to abandon sail after steamships were demonstrated?

1807, Robert Fulton's Clermont the first ship to demonstrate the feasibility of steam propulsion for commercial use, but it also carried sail. 1819, The first steamship to cross the Atlantic was the ...
0
votes
0answers
61 views

Job positions in archaeology - Artifact supplier? [closed]

I was curious as to where my interest in history could take me and after brainstorming major interests I became enveloped with the idea of gathering artifacts from across the world and transporting ...
2
votes
1answer
149 views

Rose tattoo used to mark convicts condemned to death?

I recall from my university history courses a factoid about rose tattoos being used to mark convicts condemned to death in Europe during the Renaissance period (in case of escape), and was wondering ...
3
votes
4answers
196 views

Did Time magazine aid Al Capone?

Note: maybe this should be on the law stack exchange, I really am not sure! In 1930, Al Capone made the cover of Time Magazine. Assuming this image was taken by Time Magazine, they would have had to ...
5
votes
2answers
305 views

Why did people stop building square-rigged ships?

Sailing ships are still being built, but square riggers are a thing of the past. Why? Did fore-and-aft rigging prove superior? If so, why not earlier? Does it have to do with the disappearance of ...
-4
votes
0answers
47 views

Could America have maintained its global powerhouse position, if in the fifties, its citizens didn't buy into consumerism? [closed]

Do consumerism and America being a powerhouse need to work in tandem to create and maintain this unique country and the riches and liberties therein? Or are they separate entities and America would ...
-2
votes
0answers
89 views

Did European empires block access to their scientific knowledge [on hold]

When European countries were trading and colonizing in Asia and Africa did they block access to their enabling science and technologies such as the compass, astronomy, gunpowder, and steam engine in ...
0
votes
0answers
94 views

Language and meaning of stamp on a wood carving

I recently acquired a hand-carved object in wood that has the stamps shown ^. I would love to be able to understand what they signify! Can anyone help? Or at least point me to where my question might ...
2
votes
1answer
109 views

Why do schools in Taiwan, Japan, and South Korea use the Westminster Quarters as school chime?

Today, I read about the Westminister Quarters, the chime used by Big Ben in Westminster, London. In that article, I see this assertion: Most schools in Japan, Taiwan, and South Korea play the ...
-1
votes
0answers
39 views

Historical roots for Scottish independence [closed]

Can anyone give a sociological/historical/geographical motivation for the Scottish being such an indomitable people, once since the Romans, every outside conqueror experienced extremely difficult ...
2
votes
0answers
55 views

What are the per capita alcohol consumption rates of England from 1700 to 1900?

The rates are readily available for the period 1800 onwards but there is some trouble finding equivalent data for the period prior to 1800. Moreover, the data that I have some across so far even for ...
4
votes
1answer
60 views

Does anyone have information about a pre-1859 church in Villers-Bretonneux?

The current church of Villers-Bretonneux, Église Saint-Jean-Baptiste de Villers-Bretonneux was built after WWI. Before this was a church built in 1859; here is an historic photo. There was a church ...
4
votes
2answers
164 views

How did the design of the hull differ between an indiaman and a frigate?

Indiamen and frigates look similar. The Indiaman seems a little bigger, but both are similar in the following ways: full rigged design for overseas operation (able to cross oceans) armed As indiamen ...
2
votes
1answer
143 views

Military reforms after the battle of Manzikert

After the battle of Manzikert and during Alexius's reign was there any attempt towards military reform to go back to the theme peasant-soldier system instead of mercenaries? In John Julius Norwich's ...
1
vote
0answers
60 views

Did Cimabue also paint the Last Supper?

May I ask if the painter Cimabue also painted the Last Supper? I am trying to draw some comparison between the different paintings of The Last Supper in different eras... But Cimabue (1240-1302) has ...

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