All Questions

1
vote
0answers
187 views

How can I deduce a person was a New Christian? [closed]

The Spanish Inquisition in 1500 had been happening for 20 years. What would it mean for a person whose history I am interested in to be trialed by the inquisition for apostasy and heresy, later to be ...
2
votes
1answer
102 views

Help to identify WW1 or WWII badge

Can someone identify this badge please. It has a number on the back that looks like 742299. What is the significance of the number and why is there a 60 in the crown on the front of the badge.
1
vote
1answer
132 views

Identifying rising sun pin WW1 or WWII

Can anyone tell me if this is WW1 or WWII and what is the significance of it please. It has what looks like 99t on the back. What is that for.
3
votes
1answer
95 views

Help identifying this WW1 badge

Can anyone help identifying this badge: The back reads: Pte G E Thornton from R'dents T'morel and district on his return from France. 1919
8
votes
1answer
312 views

How did the forces required for invading Norway compare to those actually used for invading North Africa?

During World War II, Churchill envisioned a possible Allied invasion of northern Norway called Operation Jupiter. This idea was "tabled" (postponed) in 1941, because Britain felt that it lacked the ...
0
votes
0answers
60 views

Was Murud-Janjira independent until it became part of India?

I read up on Murud-Janjira, a fort off the coast of mainland India. It appears that the Siddis managed to hold onto the fort despite Dutch, Maratha, and British East India Company attacks. In the ...
1
vote
0answers
58 views

Historical figures book or audiobook [closed]

I enjoy abbreviated readings about history. Is there a good book or even an audiobook that contains some of the major historical figures throughout history for adults. Even if it's a person per ...
1
vote
1answer
194 views

What was the historical prevalance of inherited chattel slavery?

Slavery was widespread throughout the ancient world. However, some of the most common examples seem to differ qualitatively from slavery as it's commonly conceived today. For instance, Greek slavery ...
1
vote
3answers
300 views

Why did the Ottoman Empire not industrialize like France, Germany or Belgium? [closed]

Why did the Ottoman Empire not industrialize or not reach the level of those nations?
68
votes
4answers
16k views

Why Were Madagascar and New Zealand Discovered So Late?

Considering how exploration over long distances into the unknown has been a part of human nature right at the beginning, it's surprising that some fairly large places have been discovered relatively ...
27
votes
2answers
7k views

What is the oldest known work of fiction?

What is the oldest known work of fiction that we know was meant to be taken as fiction? I mean to exclude mythologies; the audience of these was meant to believe they were true. What is the oldest ...
6
votes
0answers
88 views

“Set of Signs (handsome) for ball room”

Manufactured goods in early California had to be imported. In 1842 the prominent merchant Thomas Larkin ordered from Hawaii products including candles, wallpaper, padlocks, and a "Set of Signs (...
2
votes
1answer
126 views

Difference between acts of “merit” and acts of “valor” in military decorations? (e.g. V device)

I used to think valor is for combat and merit is non-combat. Then I realize Purple heart, a successor of Badge of Military Merit, is awarded for "being wounded or killed in any action against an enemy"...
3
votes
0answers
34 views

Looking for colonial era evidence of Jesuit missions from San Martin Peru up to the Pastaza river

if there are any Peruvian colonial era history experts out there, I'm looking for a citable source of some kind for the following scenario. In my research I've noticed an interesting discrepancy in ...
11
votes
3answers
5k views

What (else) happened July 1st 1858 in London?

I'm looking for sources of information freely available online about happenings in London the day July 1st 1858 (besides the famous Darwin-Wallace presentation, that is.) I have found copies of the ...
7
votes
2answers
256 views

In what case was being called a Federalist considered libel?

I know, according to this site here: , in Indiana on 9/3/1857 (see note below), a man was accused of being a Federalist, sued for libel, and won a thousand dollars. The site describes "Joshua ...
7
votes
1answer
134 views

How was library classification done in English-speaking libraries prior to the 19th century?

I was reading about major library classification systems. The major one in English-speaking lands seems to be the Dewey Decimal Classification system, which was invented in 1876. Several other ...
5
votes
1answer
323 views

What major Native American tribes were around Santa Fe during the late 1850s?

This question is rather basic and self-explanatory, yet I can't find answers to it when I look it up. I would appreciate if someone could give me at least 2-3 tribes which were around the Santa Fe ...
5
votes
1answer
140 views

Were there any non-Mischling Jews in the Nazi party or military?

It's known that a number of people of Jewish descent served in the German armed forces or other aspects of the Nazi apparatus, despite the policy of systematic Nazi exclusion and later extermination ...
11
votes
3answers
449 views

Why were fragments of the Mongol empire named after colors?

Why were the successor fragments of the Mongol empire named after colors after the death of Genghis Khan? For example, blue horde, golden horde and white horde.
5
votes
1answer
200 views

Why is ancient chinese rocket so decorated?

This picture doesn't make sense. Who would want to carve a head statue just for a rocket that will blow up? How does it work?
4
votes
1answer
165 views

What was Masada's Roman ramp steep angle?

One thing that puzzled me about the story of Masada, is the ramp for the ram. The angle looked bizarre to me. I suppose it wore out over the years by the harsh winds, and maybe floods, but from ...
3
votes
1answer
116 views

Stonehenge-like olive presses?

What are the olive presses referred to in Gregory S. Aldrete's History of the Ancient World A Global Perspective? It mentions olive presses in North Africa that look so much like Stonehenge they were ...
4
votes
0answers
144 views

Was early Mari Sumerian or multicultural?

Mari was a multicultural Semitic and Sumerian city in central Mesopotamia. Despite its rich history during the historical period, I have found almost no discussion of the earliest period. This was ...
1
vote
0answers
143 views

Trying to identify what military service, war and rank by the uniform

I have been searching google images, tried a reverse search and found nothing. I have looked on many sites and cannot identify the service. I do know he has 9 buttons on his coat, 3 on the cuffs, red ...
5
votes
1answer
65 views

What title did the merchants permitted to deal with Canton's 13 Factories carry?

What I know: During the period leading up to the Opium Wars, trade into China from Europe was locked down to 13 buildings in Canton known as the 13 factories. European merchants were only permitted to ...
3
votes
1answer
120 views

Why is this hat identified as the Byzantine Imperial kamelaukion?

Concerning the word kamelaukion/kalemaukion (footnote), we must assume it had several meanings. The common one occurs in Nikephoros Phocas and is head gear for ordinary infantrymen. The second one is ...
-6
votes
1answer
126 views

Can it be argued that mathematics was discovered and the study was for the most part, ancient Indian scientists? [closed]

Numerous evidence that many mathematical knowledge was known to Indians long before the Europeans (binomial coefficients, trigonometric formulas, complex numbers, and so on) has been preserved. Why do ...
4
votes
3answers
213 views

Micromanagement before the modern era?

We read a lot about the problem of micromanagement today, particularly in examples of failed leadership. And Google Ngram Viewer shows the first occurrences of the word in the 1970s. Did ancient (...
36
votes
3answers
8k views

Has any country ever had 2 former presidents in jail simultaneously?

I suspect that today, this achievement has been granted for the first time to Brazil, with the arresting of Michel Temer, and considering that Lula da Silva is still under arrest. It is normally big ...
2
votes
1answer
97 views

When was the last coal mine in Germany established?

Recently, the last German coal mine (excluding brown coal) was closed. For more than 50 years, German mines were struggling because their coal was too expensive. I wonder when and where the last ...
3
votes
3answers
266 views

Economic status of whites in the US South at the height of slavery?

In Tony Horwitz' book Midnight Rising about John Brown's raid, on page 23 discusses Calhoun's stance on slavery: he asserted that slavery freed Whites from drudgery and class conflict. I wonder if at ...
30
votes
1answer
4k views

Is there any evidence that Cleopatra and Caesarion considered fleeing to India to escape the Romans?

In a book, Land of the Seven Rivers by Sanjeev Sanyal, I saw a claim made by the author which says that Cleopatra and her son Caesarion wanted to flee to India to evade Roman arrest. Sanjeev Sanyal ...
0
votes
3answers
180 views

Unofficial title for third or fourth son of a king? [closed]

So, this is possibly a dumb question, but is there an unofficial title for the third or fourth son of a king? Like the first son is "the heir" and the second is "the spare" but is there something ...
3
votes
0answers
149 views

What does the date on the tombstone mean?

This photo was taken in the Cathedral of St. Martin in Bratislava. I found information about the genus Palffy, but not one of his representatives died in 1845; moreover, it turns out that this person ...
0
votes
1answer
211 views

Can you explain how officers were able to refuse orders historically in France? Elsewhere?

I've read several biographies that pertained to military history in England and France especially around the time of Napoleon. I noticed that the authors referenced the ruler requesting the service of ...
16
votes
2answers
2k views

How were servants to the Kaiser of Imperial Germany treated and where may I find more information on them?

I'd like to know how the Kaisers treated the servants in their palace, along with where I can find more information on this subject. In "The Kaiser and His Court: Wilhelm II and the Government of ...
-2
votes
0answers
101 views

Did Ptolemy XIII run a brutal regime that oppressed the Egyptian population?

Assassin's Creed Origins is a video game set in Egypt under the rule of Ptolemy XIII. The game is praised for its historical accuracy (apart from the fantasy elements!) My reading suggests that the ...
3
votes
1answer
208 views

Why did Kennedy refuse any military action in Laos at first and then decided otherwise by sending combat troops?

I was lately reading a lot about the civil war in Laos and the American involvement in there and now I am quite confused about the following: What is the special thing about the administration of ...
1
vote
2answers
249 views

When is the first recorded instance of someone dying for a principle?

When we think of martyrs, we often go back to the early Christians as the typical examples - dying for the idea that they should worship one God and no other. Another often quoted example is Socrates -...
-1
votes
1answer
141 views

Flag flying dynamics

How many flags are allowed to be on one pole? Is a flag ever flown up side down at half-mast, more than 1 and why?
3
votes
2answers
319 views

Was Woodrow Wilson really a Liberal?

In a related question Ben Crowell asked, Was World War I a war of liberals against authoritarians? in that discussion, Woodrow Wilson was called a liberal. I have always believed, this has become a ...
8
votes
0answers
137 views

What Happened to the Undergrad Students who Attended the Feynman Lecture Series in 1961-63?

In the academic years of 1962-2 and 1962-3, Richard Feynman gave his celebrated series of lectures to a cohort of undergraduate physics students at Caltech. It has been claimed, probably tongue in ...
11
votes
3answers
940 views

What is the period/term used describe Giuseppe Arcimboldo's style of painting?

Giuseppe Arcimboldo was best known for creating portrait heads entirely up of objects. Here are some examples: He is described as a '16th century Mannerist' and the 'Grandfather of Surrealism'. ...
-1
votes
0answers
63 views

When was 'reason' first revered as one of the great human faculties?

Generally the answer to this question returns, squarely, as 'the Greeks'. Wikipedia says The proposal that reason gives humanity a special position in nature has been argued to be a defining ...
3
votes
1answer
125 views

How young of a child could do significant labor?

I've been trying to find out whether, in some cultures historically, a child of age 3 or 4 could do enough work to "pay for their keep", so to speak. In the search I've found out that modern child ...
6
votes
1answer
101 views

Where are the agrarian reforms of Basil II codified?

I am interested in Byzantine law, especially under Basil II. Much weight is always attached to his agrarian reforms. I would like to read some of his laws in the original. I guess these reforms were ...
5
votes
2answers
207 views

Did bronze metallurgical development peak by the end of the bronze age?

There is a lot of talk, books, and science about the development of iron into increasing qualities and types of steel, but I do not see the same attention given to bronze. This is not counting the ...
7
votes
1answer
949 views

What was the average age of first marriage in 18th century Russia?

I found the following claim on Wikipedia (Women in Russia) and I wonder if it is true: Early in the eighteenth-century, the average age for peasant girls to marry was around twelve years old. In ...
3
votes
2answers
295 views

Can anyone help to identify and date this uniform or the medals?

Found in my late Aunt's possessions. Photograph of unidentified uniform:

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