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7 votes
1 answer
585 views

What flag had a black cross blue field 1589?

What flag is blue background and black cross flags 1589? Used by Giovanni Batista Boazio
2 votes
1 answer
123 views

When, where, and how did Laszlo Toth die?

Laszlo Toth was famous for trying to destroy the Pieta in 1972. I'm curious what is actually known about the circumstances of his death. His Wikipedia page suspiciously doesn't provide the usual ...
-5 votes
0 answers
64 views

famous geneticists involved in kinship clans who picked marriages and caste system connected to mayflower colonials saying sexual attraction is sin? [closed]

Were there any geneticists in England, the people who studied the fields that evolved into genetics: who believed in selecting people based on inherited traits for marriage and were involved in ...
-5 votes
0 answers
41 views

What was American slavery actually like? [closed]

I feel like I haven’t been exposed to well-researched information giving a balanced and comprehensive depiction of what slavery in the US was like. I’m curious to know about what the social conditions ...
3 votes
1 answer
244 views

Is this Groß-Deutschland 1938-1948 poster real (and produced/published by Nazi Germany)?

Source I found the anticlockwise swastikas strange. The poster is supposed to be from 1938. Some Reddit comments suggest this (or a very similar poster) is fake. (The above poster appears in the movie ...
5 votes
1 answer
157 views

Why did nucleated communities never form in medieval Iceland?

The Icelandic language is surprisingly homogeneous compared to other regions settled by Norsemen. It is theorized that villages and isolated communities never form in Iceland, where there are only ...
0 votes
0 answers
59 views

Looking for a Globe and Mail editorial cartoon about the return of Hong Kong to China

Sometime in 1997, or shortly after, the Globe and Mail ran an editorial cartoon commenting on the return of Hong Kong to China. The setting was a drab boardroom, with several drab functionaries ...
0 votes
0 answers
54 views

What are the key differences in the demographics and support base of DNSAP in Austria compared to Germany before Anschluss?

During the interwar years, the DNSAP in Czechoslovakia comprised a more varied group of members compared to their German counterparts. This was due to the party's nationalistic stance in ...
-3 votes
0 answers
58 views

Why do civilisations collapse? [closed]

What do you think are the general reasons for a civilization to collapse?And do you think our civilization is in danger?
1 vote
3 answers
277 views

Why did the Babylonians choose to add the 13th lunar month every 3, 6, 8, 11, 14, 17, and 19 years, for a 19-year cycle?

Why did the Babylonians choose those 7 years in which to add the extra month? Why not different years? If the answer is not known, what are the closest hypotheses or reasons?
0 votes
2 answers
178 views

Is the true difference between the Julian Calendar and a Gregorian calendar working back from any point after AD 1901 actually 15 days instead of 13?

When the Gregorian Calendar was implemented, it was decided that the date should be advanced by 10 days to account for the extra time accumulated by the Julian Calendar. However, A.D. 325 was used as ...
-2 votes
1 answer
132 views

Exactly what year did Newton first write about calculus, 1664, 1665 or 1666? [closed]

Exactly what year did Newton first write about calculus? I find from different sources three years; 1664 citation needed , 1665 and 1666, but which year is correct? 1665 source 1666 source 1665 source ...
-3 votes
1 answer
119 views

Did Philo ever mention crucifixion as a punishment in any of his writings? If he didn't, was there ever a reason he didn't?

Philo was a prominent Roman writer and philosopher during the first century AD, it seems that in one of his books 'Against Flaccus' Philo mentions the multiple persecutions and punishments Jews of ...
7 votes
1 answer
12k views

Did medieval Mongol horse archers have deformed arms like English bowmen?

Did medieval Mongol horse archers have deformed arms like English bowmen? And were there other archer inside or outside of Europe in ancient times who suffered the same deformity like English archers? ...
1 vote
0 answers
105 views

Was the first use of glass teleprompters in Lyndon Johnson’s speech to the UN’s 20th anniversary celebration? (1965)

I came across a short video recording of his speech at c-span.org I was surprised by the appearance of the sleek glass devices that appear to be teleprompters beside the podium. They appear almost ...
0 votes
0 answers
43 views

What are the oldest written sources on the origin of Rome? [closed]

So far I have only managed to come across mentions of Livy and Cicero. Both of these sources are hundreds of years after the fact. Is there anything extant closer to the time?
-1 votes
0 answers
83 views

Who provided the arms supply to Burundi in 1972?

Which countries were the main arms suppliers to Burundi during 1972 and did that play a part in enabling the Ikiza? I checked some arms sales reportscitation needed and apparently China was also a ...
21 votes
2 answers
9k views

Why did the pre-Islamic Arabs identify themselves as descendents of Ishmael?

There's a tradition that the Arabs are descended from Ishmael, son of Abraham. Before Islam, the Arabs did not believe in Yahweh but had their own, polytheistic religions. So why is there a legend ...
27 votes
1 answer
4k views

What is the latest scientific consensus on the peopling of the Americas?

I found https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/sciadv.aat5473 Some recent academic and popular literature implies that the problem of the colonization of the Americas has been largely resolved in favor ...
5 votes
1 answer
2k views

What is a mezrag-holder?

I stumbled upon this word in one of my anthropology readings. Here's the excerpt. The robbers were from a tribe which had not yet submitted to French authority and were in open rebellion against it,...
4 votes
4 answers
1k views

Did the British really bail out the Americans at the Battle of the Bulge?

Just read this article on the Battle of Kasserine Pass America's Most Humiliating Defeat The author made the following statement regarding British help during the battle: As at the Battle of the ...
1 vote
1 answer
241 views

Did Nazi Germany have the Highest Per-Capita Rate of Capital Punishment?

I am not talking about extra-judicial murders but actual judicial sentencing to Germany's own citizens. I read in the Wikipedia article that 40K executions occurred during the nazi period which I ...
0 votes
0 answers
57 views

When and where did Goidelic (Irish etc.) and Brythonic languages (Welsh etc.) become mutually unintelligible? [closed]

I have sought an answer to this from a number of sources but have met with no success. I appreciate that evidence is scant.
-4 votes
0 answers
108 views

When was the six corned symbol for Sun invented and in which civilization it is found? [closed]

Our study shows that mostly Sun symbol with eight corned perhaps defining eight directions or defining eight planets. The six corned sun symbol could refer to one sun circled by eight planets namely ...
7 votes
4 answers
11k views

Why did Joseph Stalin, Nikita Khrushchev and Leonid Breznev wear military uniforms when Lenin and the later Soviet leaders did not?

I know that dictators often wear uniforms to appear intimidating. Why did Joseph Stalin, Nikita Khrushchev and Leonid Brezhnev wear military uniforms when Lenin and the later Soviet leaders did not? ...
0 votes
3 answers
6k views

What evidence is there that Jesus went to India?

Do we have any historical evidence that Jesus visited India? What is the evidence and the source for the belief held by many people in India that the Roza Bal shrine is the tomb of Jesus?
7 votes
6 answers
888 views

Non Altered European Castles

I recently paid a visit to Leed's castle, and was disappointed by the extent to which the manor had been refurbished and modernized. Importantly: What castles in Europe are accessible to the public ...
10 votes
2 answers
5k views

What buildings could be found in the inner ward of a castle?

I'm familiar with some different layouts of castles (motte and bailey, concentric,...) and the main parts or areas they have or need (Keep, moat, barbican, ward, cistern, great hall, etc.) While ...
3 votes
1 answer
115 views

Were the Novgorodians aware of Romanesque architecture in the 11th century?

The Cathedral of St Sophia in Novgorod was completed in 1050. Many online sources note that the style bears resemblance to the Western European Romanesque style. Is it possible that knowledge of this ...
8 votes
4 answers
3k views

What would military spies in 17th century Europe be looking for inside a city, before a siege?

In the article Een officier en een gentleman: Willem Norwood en het beleg van Maastricht, (An Officer and a Gentleman: William Norwood and the siege of Maastricht), on page 7 it mentions concern about ...
0 votes
0 answers
128 views

When, and in what manner, did horizontal writing in East Asian languages switch from right-to-left to left-to-right?

East Asian languages (Chinese, Japanese, and Vietnamese) imported the Western style of horizontal writing as contact with the West increased, but it was always still written in the traditional ...
0 votes
1 answer
1k views

What were the names of Amerigo Vespucci's ships?

What were the names of the ships that Amerigo Vespucci used during his exploratory cruises? He was Italian; the American continent was named after him.
-2 votes
0 answers
79 views

Why do muslims believe the Quran? What makes the Quran true? What makes Isalm the way of truth? [closed]

What pre-islamic, non-islamic references strengthens the reliability of the 3 islamic foundations - the prophet, the book and the holy city? Do muslims know about the questionable character of ...
3 votes
2 answers
731 views

Is there any evidence that the US strategy at Midway was deliberate?

The Battle of Midway was a crushing US victory over the Empire of Japan that, at face value, appears to be due to good SIGINT and a huge amount of luck by the Americans. In particular, the piecemeal ...
-1 votes
0 answers
49 views

Organising festivities in a city [closed]

One of the ways to mark the importance of a city is to organize festivities. This can be done by the council (eg intangible cultural heritage), inhabitants themselves (eg harvest festival) or ...
2 votes
1 answer
433 views

"Hat Hair" in History

My understanding is that wearing hats of various kinds was much more widespread historically (e.g. in the late 1800's and early 1900's) than it is today, with sometimes complicated etiquette with ...
-1 votes
0 answers
37 views

How did explorers of Age of Discovery operate? [closed]

During the age of discovery, how were the explorers organized? How was work divided? What was the usual composition of an aspiring group trying to make it big by sailing to lands uncharted? How did ...
-2 votes
0 answers
85 views

Why did it take so much time for the IDF to intervene on 7 October 2023, especially in kibbutzs? [closed]

Why did it take so much time for the IDF to intervene on 7 October 2023, especially in kibbutzs? Shouldn't there have been a quick reaction plan and a quick response, especially since there were areas ...
0 votes
1 answer
127 views

What operations were carried out by the partisans of the Chernihiv junction in the Great Patriotic War?

I am interested in finding out more about the Chernihiv partisan junction which was an important force throughout the Great Patriotic War, and their leader Alexei Fyodorovich Fyodorov. Unfortunately, ...
-6 votes
0 answers
83 views

Historical sources for Americans disillusioned by the Gehlen network and other cold war activities? [closed]

After ww2, the US sponsored Nazism and fascists in order to fight against the Soviet Union and communism, for example the Gehlen organization, the reintegration of the Nazis (i.e. Adolf Heusinger ...
3 votes
1 answer
307 views

What is this medal ribbon? WAAF

This is my mother in 1944 or 1945. I never knew she was entitled to wear a medal ribbon. Being black and white, I have to take a guess based on the layout, and I think it may be the Defence Medal but ...
1 vote
2 answers
667 views

Why were some German and Japanese cities bombed more than others during WW2? Is there a scientific consensus?

I'm trying to study the long-run effects the strategic bombing of German and Japanese cities had on urban and economic development. Reading some articles about it I get contradictory information about ...
1 vote
2 answers
171 views

What weapon is being used in this video from the Kosovo War?

In this Internet archive video , what is weapon used for blasting window pane at 02:49-02:51 Also please tell a bit of history about where it was developed and how?
-4 votes
0 answers
83 views

Tony Blair said Saddam Hussein 'killed 12,000 people in one day through the use of chemical weapons' [closed]

Re the 2003 US/UK invasion of Iraq: When did Saddam Hussein kill 12,000 people with chemical weapons as Tony Blair said last year in 2023Mar? Tony Blair: Putin can't use Iraq invasion as ...
4 votes
2 answers
1k views

What was the difference between Hussars and Chasseurs à Cheval in the 19th Century French army?

As far as I can discover, in 19th Century France, Chasseurs à Cheval and Hussars were both light cavalry with little or no armour, prioritizing speed over protection, armed with sabres and carbines, ...
5 votes
3 answers
4k views

Did Peter the Great introduce the potato to Russia?

The essay "Tuber or not Tuber" claims with no citation: Introduction of the tuber to Russia is usually credited to Peter the Great, who became familiar with potatoes while learning the shipbuilding ...
0 votes
1 answer
119 views

Is there ancient Egyptian literature surviving today? [closed]

In short: is there anything like the Gilgamesh epic surviving from Ancient Egypt? Similarly old and similarly secular? The Wikipedia article talks at length about who would write and what they were ...
14 votes
2 answers
688 views

Is there evidence that the ancient Persians debated every matter once sober and once drunk?

An interesting comment on this question led me to investigate the claim that the ancient Persians would debate every matter once whilst drunk, and once whilst sober (with no particular emphasis on ...
15 votes
2 answers
12k views

What are the origins of knife and fork language etiquette?

There is an etiquette of placing knife and fork on a plate while resting or after finishing. For example this cheat-sheet (there are a lot of texts and images like this on the web): I found this ...
9 votes
0 answers
591 views

Were Christians prohibited to pass Golden Horde - Rus border immediately before Black Death?

Note: this question is similar to earlier Were there any travel restrictions during the Black Death pandemic?, but asks about travel restrictions existing before the epidemic. Wikipedia article on ...

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