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17
votes
4answers
5k views

Which country traces its roots back to the oldest civilization? [closed]

Which country is recognized or documented as having the first prominent civilization? After reading so many articles, I couldn't determine which country should be acknowledged as having the oldest ...
10
votes
3answers
1k views

Why did the Soviet Union out-pace the US the space-race?

At the end of World War II, the US Government's Operation Paperclip plucked rocket scientists from Germany and brought them to the U.S. to work on military weapons. Most famous among these scientists ...
3
votes
2answers
523 views

Where is Havillah, the land of gold, described in Genesis?

Genesis 2:11-12 describes a land called Havillah, where there is very good gold. Were there historical attempts made to locate this land, and what do we know about such expeditions if they did exist?
6
votes
1answer
533 views

Did drawbacks of egalitarianism or mismanagement cause the rural famine in the Great Leap Forward?

In China "大锅饭" (communal dining in English) implies egalitarianism and slack of people, which is the premise of the statement that the famine is partly due to the laziness of the people. As ...
11
votes
1answer
452 views

What was the reason for a sharp decline in life expectancy in 16th century England?

I was checking historical life expectancy and this was one of the charts I found. What was the reason for such a dramatic decline in life expectancy in England in the middle of the 16th century? Is ...
1
vote
0answers
53 views

How did Alexander the Great die?

Plutarch described the last days of Alexander the Great in his book "Life of Alexander" based on records kept by Eumenes, Alexander's general secretary. Alexander had a high temperature for ...
6
votes
1answer
2k views

What was the impact of Fischer vs. Spassky 1972 on the relationship between the USA and the Soviet Union?

In 1948, the Fédération Internationale des Échecs (FIDE) organized the first Chess World Championship after WW2. Its winner was Mikhail Botvinnik. Further Chess World Champions were Vasily Smyslov, ...
3
votes
1answer
167 views

What was the fastest coal-powered ship in a country's navy?

The transition from coal to oil fuel as the primary energy source for navy ships took place leading up to and during WWI. The last British battleship to primarily use coal power was the Iron Duke ...
-3
votes
1answer
251 views

After the Cold War, how did Berlin develop so much more rapidly than Moscow?

How did Berlin redevelop so rapidly that today its economy is way better than Moscow's following the Cold War?
2
votes
3answers
182 views

What is the origin of the first dynasty in Scotland?

Who gave anyone the authority to appoint themselves and hence start a royal line? I assume today's royalty come from this royal line The standard answer is Kenneth Macalpine as far as I can see with ...
3
votes
1answer
244 views

What mining feature is this?

In a former lead mining region of Derbyshire (Just North of Wirksworth) there's this bank of earth running across the side of a hill, with a small "valley" alongside it: It's about 15-20m ...
-5
votes
2answers
105 views

Could the reference of the “Perfect Year” from Plato indicate that people where tracking celestial objects and stars for at least 30.000 years? [closed]

Provided this wikipedia information regarding the Great Year and Axial precession: Plato (c. 360 BC) used the term "perfect year" to describe the return of the celestial bodies (planets) ...
-4
votes
0answers
75 views

What was the racial composition of historical American slave labor? [closed]

Were African and African Americans the only race that were used as slave labor in America and if not, what other races were used and how did the demographic change over time? I found some articles ...
17
votes
5answers
5k views

What is the origin of the lake tank image that has become a meme?

This image, the template for the "Panzer of the Lake" meme, depicts a soldier from an unknown nation looking at what appears to me to definitely be a Panzer. However, no-one seems to know the origins ...
1
vote
1answer
88 views

Why wasn't the Treaty of Waitangi framed in terms of a feudal exchange, rather than a surrender of sovereignty?

So, I've been doing a bit of reading on Wikipedia about the Treaty of Waitangi and the ensuing New Zealand Wars that resulted when members of both sides broke the terms of the treaties, and I saw that ...
5
votes
2answers
240 views

What pharaoh did Cambyses defeat in the invasion of Egypt?

According to currently accepted history, the Persian king, Cambyses conquered Egypt in 525 BC. According to Herodotus, the pharaoh of Egypt at the time was "Psammetichos", whom modern historians ...
-1
votes
0answers
63 views

What is the meaning of 'successive dynasties '? [closed]

I know it means one after another, but dynasty means a series of rulers or leaders who are all from the same family. how could one family have two dynasty? I mean, it is same then why successive???
21
votes
1answer
3k views

Was there an increased interest in 'the spirit world' in the aftermath of the First World War?

In this excellent answer on Literature Stack Exchange, a quote from Alexander Leggatt's 'William Shakespeare's Macbeth' states: The sense that evil forces are at work in Macbeth may be a product of ...
-2
votes
1answer
159 views

Why didn't the ancient Indians build a wall like China? [closed]

My understanding of invasions of the Indian subcontinent is that they mostly came from central Asia or the Mediterranean. My understanding of the Great Wall(s) of China is that they were constructed ...
4
votes
0answers
134 views

What did people used to exchange for goods during the 1920s German hyperinflation while the official currency was not trusted

When the 1920s hyperinflation happened, it seemed that the rapid currency devolution is not too hard to see. This must result in the people who own and sell goods distrust the future of the currency; ...
2
votes
1answer
101 views

Why doesn't Eusebius of Caesarea mention Julian calendar in his Chronicle?

Why doesn't Eusebius of Caesarea even mention the Julian calendar in his Chronicle? Chronicle by Eusebius of Caesarea covers period till A.D. 325. Armenian translation of Chronicle ends with the ...
4
votes
1answer
318 views

What does this sentence from the Romance of the Three Kingdoms mean?

The third paragraph of the first chapter in Romance of the Three Kingdoms (translation by R. Moss), states: On the fifteenth day of the fourth month of the second year of the reign Established Calm [...
13
votes
3answers
3k views

How common was decimation in the Roman army?

I know decimation happened a lot in the Roman army, but I find it hard to imagine generals like Marius, Scipio and Caesar, who all had the unwavering loyalty of their troops, practicing it.
6
votes
2answers
450 views

Are parts of the Sphinx older than 5000 years?

Are parts of the Great Sphinx of Giza more than 5000 years old? There was a controversy about this question 15 years ago on which I didn't find anything to conclusively prove or debunk it.
-1
votes
1answer
122 views

What is the main difference between an Emperor, a King, a Char, a Sultan, a Dictator, a Dynast and a Tyrant? [closed]

They all look the same to me. Monarchies with a different name according to time and place.
5
votes
1answer
521 views

Which types of tank are on this photo?

One of the more iconic photos of the Prague Spring is this: A high Res version is on wikimedia, who took it first from a CIA flicker post. It is labeled there as "1968. During the Soviet ...
4
votes
1answer
2k views

Was California named after a Moorish ruler called Queen Calafia?

I found this excerpt from a website discussing a theory concerning the naming of California. I want to find out what Historians say on this issue. The article is below. Although some historical ...
-2
votes
1answer
100 views

What are some inventions from the Chinese Han Dynasty? [closed]

I am researching about the Chinese Han Dynasty, and I was looking at some inventions they made. I have a list of them right now that include the kite, endless chain for irrigation, the iron plow, ...
0
votes
0answers
44 views

Who ruled the Khazars between Tong Yabgu to Irbis, if not Irbis himself?

Tong Yangu khagan finished his reign on 628. Who ruled the Khazars between Tong Yabgu to Irbis, if not Irbis himself?
2
votes
1answer
318 views

What media did Irenaeus used to write his letters?

Eusebius of Caesarea (AD 260/265 – 339/340) in his work Church History (Book V, Chapter 20 "The Writings of Irenaeus against the Schismatics at Rome") said: Irenaeus wrote several letters ...
1
vote
0answers
65 views

How did scholarly education work in Song dynasty China?

In Song dynasty China, the Imperial Examinations were held to determine who would become the new government leaders to replace the older hereditary system of power. According to several sources, any ...
13
votes
3answers
732 views

Were Archimedes screws used in pre-modern times in the far east?

Screw pumps or Archimedes screws were used by the Romans in mine dewatering. They were possibly used in ancient Babylon (a few hundred years before Archimedes) to irrigate the famous hanging gardens. ...
8
votes
2answers
2k views

What are the flags in this Yellow Peril Cartoon from Italy?

Can somebody help me to identify the different flags in this Italian Cartoon from 1900?
2
votes
1answer
409 views

Did French troops use chemical weapons during the Siege of Laghouat in 1852?

During the Siege of Laghouat in Algeria, the French army massacred around 3627 civilians. Many sources suggest that the colonial army also used chemical weapons in that confrontation. However in these ...
13
votes
4answers
3k views

Were Roman emperors officially considered kings of Egypt?

On this statue of Augustus (image is from Wikipedia), he is depicted wearing the traditional dress of Egyptian pharaohs: I wonder whether Roman emperors were officially declared kings of Egypt or not,...
17
votes
4answers
3k views

When was the last cavalry charge?

When was the last instance of a unit of cavalry charging? I know that the Polish forces had units of cavalry during World War II and those were used against Nazi units but was there any later than ...
10
votes
2answers
392 views

How old is the practice of removing wisdom teeth?

According to this brief history of wisdom teeth removal, wisdom teeth may have been helpful in prehistoric times, but are now removed due to their general incompatibility with the human jaw. However, ...
6
votes
2answers
467 views

In which East European country in the 1980s did people put their TVs in front of windows and turn them facing outside?

Years ago, I read an article about the period during which regime changes happened in Eastern European countries in the late 1980s and early 1990s. It was mentioned in the article that, in one of ...
1
vote
1answer
181 views

Did the Celts come to England from France and Belgium?

I apologize for this ridiculous question. I have little knowledge of European history. The following is a passage from Charles Dickens' A Child's History of England: "But the Phoenicians, sailing ...
-6
votes
0answers
92 views

Why does Russia have the most nukes in the world? [closed]

In the Cold War, Soviets/Russia produced 55,000 nukes and it made 30,000 warheads in 1991. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.2968/066004008#:~:text=Russia%20has%20released%20very%20little,end%...
13
votes
4answers
21k views

Are these remarks by Napoleon on Jesus genuine?

The German edition of Wikiquote contains the following alleged words of Napoleon (in translation): I know men and I tell you that Jesus Christ is no mere man. Between Him and every other person ...
17
votes
1answer
458 views

Why are some later Mayan scripts unintelligible?

Many of the [Maya's] greatest cities emptied, as did much of the countryside around them. Incredibly, some of the last inscriptions are gibberish, as if scribes had lost the knowledge of writing and ...
22
votes
3answers
5k views

Are there historical instances of settlers who were largely uncontacted and undisturbed after settling?

I am looking for historical instances of a rather specific and strange scenario: Settlers who settled a wild/unclaimed territory (ideally 100-300 in number) who after settling in the new place, were ...
2
votes
2answers
438 views

Why did Western democracies sign the Munich Agreement?

Why did Western democracies sign the Munich Agreement with Nazi Germany when they knew the nature of Nazi regime? What did they want to obtain by signing this agreement? In 1938/1939, two pacts/...
19
votes
5answers
8k views

Are there military commanders other than Khalid ibn al-Walid who have never been defeated?

I was reading about Khalid ibn al-Walid, a commander in the Muslim's era. What is interesting about him is that he was never been defeated in any of the hundred battles that he encountered. Are there ...
-4
votes
2answers
278 views

How long did it take for Japanese high command to believe 1 bomb could destroy a city? [closed]

In 1776, had a man walked into the Continental Congress and told the Founding Fathers that the city of Boston seemed to be "gone". A few days prior, as he approached Boston, in the distance he'd seen ...
1
vote
0answers
85 views

Was there a steam locomotive valve gear linked to pistons both in front of and behind the driving wheels, connected to the same set of linking rods?

Has there existed any steam locomotive with a valve gear such that there are pistons both in front of and behind the driving wheels, connected to the same set of linking rods? This would result in ...
13
votes
1answer
3k views

When was the Ottoman mosque within the Parthenon demolished?

After the Great Turkish War of 1683 - 1699, the Ottomans built a small mosque in the ruined Parthenon using salvaged materials from Parthenon itself. This was after it was catastrophically damaged by ...
0
votes
0answers
59 views

Reading Request: Overview of European History [closed]

Are there any good books that give an overview of European history from antiquity (c. 300BC or so) to present (or the turn of the 20th century)? I am new to learning about history and would like ...
12
votes
6answers
4k views

Who were the four US Federal Deputy Marshals escorting Ruby Bridges?

Four US Marshalls escorted Ruby Bridges into a Louisiana school, ending the New Orleans school desegregation crisis. One of the Marshals was Charles Burks but who were the other three?

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