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What's the history of the use of crude oil for transportation before the Industrial Revolution? [closed]

What's the history of the use of crude oil for transportation before the Industrial Revolution? Wiktionary says the Latin word petroleum, from petra (“rock”) + oleum (“oil”), is medieval Latin, so ...
Geremia's user avatar
  • 2,121
7 votes
1 answer
879 views

What's the source of John Adams's quote against the two-party system?

Drutman, Lee. “America Is Now the Divided Republic the Framers Feared.” The Atlantic, January 2, 2020. claims John Adams said a division of the republic into two great parties … is to be dreaded as ...
Geremia's user avatar
  • 2,121
2 votes
0 answers
72 views

What is the historical origin of purple as a color indicating poison in Japanese visual media?

In videogames and anime, purple is often the color of poison. For example, if a blade is shown with a purple fluid on it it will be obvious to anyone familiar with such works that it is poison-coated....
querier's user avatar
  • 21
0 votes
1 answer
116 views

What is the history of "one nation under God"?

What is the history of the United States motto "one nation under God"? I saw it claimed in § "History of the 🇺🇸" of Campbell Phillip. 2019. The Story of Civilization : Vol. 4 - ...
Geremia's user avatar
  • 2,121
0 votes
1 answer
136 views

What role did Congo play in the outbreak of WW1? [closed]

Yeah, really crazy sounding question. But please hold on, moderator! :) Congo was a Belgian colony in 1914, and neutral Belgium was the first country that Germany invaded. And if Germany got Congo, ...
Tombola's user avatar
  • 117
7 votes
2 answers
340 views

What script would Homer have used?

I think that Homer, if a real person at all, is usually supposed to have lived in the 8th century BC, that is to say, at the end of the "Greek Dark Ages". That is a few centuries after the ...
Noah J's user avatar
  • 173
-3 votes
0 answers
123 views

Who were the richest Germans before and during the Nazi era?

Did the makeup of the richest Germans change after the Nazis where handed power, or after the start of WW2? What I'm hoping to find out is: I've looked for lists of richest persons per country but ...
mart's user avatar
  • 4,768
0 votes
1 answer
144 views

What uniform is shown in this portrait?

This unsigned 19th century portrait miniature shows a man in a uniform but I am not sure which country it belongs to?(by identifying the nationality of the uniform I am hoping it might help me with ...
hunter121's user avatar
6 votes
0 answers
164 views

Do any sources besides Livy record the first incident of serial murder by prominent Roman women in 331 B.C.?

Titus Livy lived during the turn of the first century A.D. and in Book 8, Chapter 8 of The History of Rome, he relays the story of some sort of plague that was ravaging Rome in 331 B.C., afflicting ...
Curious Layman's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
110 views

How can I review Cole MSS XXXIII, the description of the English polymath John Michell?

On the wikipedia page for the polymath John Michell, it gives a description of him. The source for this description is “Cole MSS XXXIII, 156, British Library.” According to this article on Harvard’s ...
Curious Layman's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
182 views

Was Mahabharat written before the birth of Gautam Buddha? [closed]

What sources claim that the Mahābhārata was written before the birth of Gautama Buddha and what arguments support this claim? The earliest reference which I know until now is of Pāṇini's book ...
Hope's user avatar
  • 101
3 votes
0 answers
208 views

How did Japanese commanders react to the truth about the Battle off Samar?

The Japanese commanders at the Battle Off Samar thought they had engaged and sunk several fleet carriers, cruisers, and destroyers. Did they find out they only faced light escort ships? Did they find ...
Schwern's user avatar
  • 55.2k
8 votes
2 answers
2k views

What exactly was the position of ‘Party Minister’ assigned to Martin Bormann in Hitler’s will?

In Hitler’s last will and testament, he assigns all the different offices and functions prior to that held by him and the members of his cabinet to new office-holders-Dönitz became Reichpresident, ...
user22453's user avatar
  • 1,343
0 votes
0 answers
52 views

What is the history of the word "Sentika"? [migrated]

A relatively recent independent Tokusatsu series, Sentika F8ABA6 Jisariz, has caught my attention, specifically due to the series' title in its original Japanese, "華衛士F8ABA6ジサリス". A ...
Inquiring Toku Fan's user avatar
29 votes
1 answer
6k views

What is the origin of the "No Symbol"?

I have been able to trace the "🚫 No symbol" (red circle with single diagonal line through it, U+20E0 ⃠ COMBINING ENCLOSING CIRCLE BACKSLASH) as far back as the "Geneva Convention ...
SPavel's user avatar
  • 9,839
2 votes
0 answers
71 views

Did the Phoenician letter 𐤄 have any meaning on its own or in earlier writing systems? [migrated]

Obviously Phoenician was an alphabetical writing system, where characters combine phonetically to build words. But Wikipedia claims (implies?) both that the Phoenician letter "he" evolved ...
ShapeOfMatter's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
170 views

What is this large bronze medallion?

Searched many sites but nothing matches this particular lion.
Somanyquestions's user avatar
-2 votes
2 answers
91 views

Why did Marx write Das Kapital altough he believed revolution doesn't come by reading books? [closed]

https://www.unm.edu/~soc101/quotemarx.htm The mode of production in material life determines the general character of the social, political, and spiritual processes of life. It is not the ...
JonnyPython's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
197 views

What is this bayonet I found in the ground while working under a house?

It's got some markings including a WD with a arrow above it, below that a Crown with 45 under it and then a E. And right by the hilt is a X. On the other side there is VI. And below that is 1.95...it ...
Leown's user avatar
  • 1
-1 votes
1 answer
100 views

What major figures don't have contemporary historiographers? [closed]

Are there many, or even any, major figures whose life and achievements have only been described by historians posthumously, or at least the only surviving primary sources about which are dated later ...
vicky_molokh's user avatar
-1 votes
1 answer
100 views

Did the early kingdoms of the Macedonian and Thracian Diadochi exert any control or influence over the region of ancient Israel/Judea?

Specifically, after Alexander the Great's death in 323 BC: Did Cassander's Macedonian kingdom have any dominion or authority in the Levant region during his rule in the early 3rd century BC? What ...
Servant's user avatar
  • 117
1 vote
0 answers
88 views

What is known about "Japanese suicide bomb-infantrymen at Port Arthur during the 1904 – 1905 war"?

There's a book review that briefly mentions these as: the case of the Japanese suicide bomb-infantrymen at Port Arthur during the 1904 – 1905 war with Russia. A Reddit answer claims no such stuff ...
Dolphin 613 Motorboat's user avatar
-1 votes
1 answer
105 views

How does a country's military decide where to place draftees? [closed]

Something I've wondered about for some time is where countries that have a military draft place draftees. For example, in WW II, when many countries were at war and many had drafts after the ...
Henry's user avatar
  • 559
10 votes
3 answers
4k views

Why the imbalance of casualties in WW 1?

Recently I have read the Wikipedia article about the casualties in WW 1. There I found something I could not explain. I quote: The Triple Entente (also known as the Allies) lost about 6 million ...
Zorg's user avatar
  • 193
3 votes
1 answer
155 views

In the Magna Carta, is the distinction between the phrase "law of the land" and the "law of the kingdom" significant?

What is the distinction between the phrase "law of the land" and the similar phrases "law of the kingdom" and "law of the realm" also used in Magna Carta, and which ...
R-Obsessive's user avatar
4 votes
2 answers
270 views

When in 1980s did travel to and from USSR became possible?

Soviet borders were closed for traveling from USSR for most Soviet people until late 1980s. I don't recall, however, the year/month when the borders opened. After 1986 and before 1991, but that's all ...
Michael's user avatar
  • 4,650
0 votes
0 answers
73 views

How have historians calculated the total number of votes in general elections which had plural voting?

In the 1830 general election to the parliament at Westminster, Wikipedia records: How did historians arrive at these figures? Do they mean that the the Tories got 62,554 votes, or that they got the ...
Ne Mo's user avatar
  • 14.4k
8 votes
1 answer
2k views

How do we know the Alexander Mosaic actually depicts Alexander the Great in the Battle of Issus?

This overlaps slightly with this question; That question is more general about statues and can naturally be applied more generally to other historical depictions of important figures. In this question ...
Avatrin's user avatar
  • 291
-1 votes
1 answer
157 views

When/where did men with families get less "disposable"? [closed]

Herodotus tells us that when Leonidas selected three hundred Spartans to face the Persian army he chose "all fathers of families, who had left sons at home to succeed them". My ...
User65535's user avatar
  • 159
1 vote
2 answers
216 views

Is there an example of a Soviet or Russian prison camp where both guards and prisoners perished?

NOTE: As to previous research, I simply did a google search, "soviet prison camp where both guards and prisoners perished" and I got nothing besides general information about deaths in camps....
releseabe's user avatar
  • 1,910
0 votes
1 answer
120 views

Which military uniform is shown in this swivel brooch?

Can anyone help me identify this uniform from a painting in a Victorian(?) swivel brooch? The reverse is a carving in bone(?) of 2 birds. These brooches were often mourning jewellery and contained a ...
Cathy H's user avatar
3 votes
3 answers
1k views

During the time of the German Empire, were Polish or Jewish people permitted to join the Social Democratic Party?

According to Wikipedia, the Social Democratic Party (SPD) of Germany was founded in 1890. The German empire was founded in 1871: Inside of this territory, there were many people who were ethnically ...
Astor Florida's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
222 views

How much oil was Germany able to secure after invasion of France?

How much oil was Germany able to secure after its invasion of France in 1940 from the French oil stockpiles? Was this a significant amount that allowed for further Operations, e.g. during Barbarossa ...
Dominik Bucher's user avatar
4 votes
2 answers
214 views

What is the first election where we have the specific numbers of votes and the names of candidates?

What is the earliest political vote where we have the exact details of the specific numbers of votes and the names of the candidates? The "candidates" could be persons, teams, policies, ...
dodo's user avatar
  • 258
3 votes
0 answers
143 views

What happened in Ifta / Wolfmannsgehau in 1640, during the 30-years war?

I'm currently working on my ancestors from Ifta. I'm trying to understand this church entry from 1640. The German Wikipedia's entry for Wolfmannsgehau is the only reference I've been able to find ...
BrianFreud's user avatar
13 votes
4 answers
9k views

Did Allied bombers return from enemy airspace with undropped bombs?

First episode of new TV series "Masters of the Air" depicts the U.S. 100th Bomb Group’s first combat mission to bomb U-boat pens in Bremen on June 25, 1943. Historical sources I can find ...
feetwet's user avatar
  • 231
1 vote
0 answers
144 views

How widely known was Wernher von Braun's past as a Nazi while he was in NASA?

Early in the alternative history fiction TV show For All Mankind, the fact that von Braun knew about the slave labor used in the factories which built his rockets came as a shock to people working ...
user2891462's user avatar
4 votes
0 answers
255 views

What kept Egyptian Obelisks upright?

I'm NOT asking about how an Obelisk was erected, but what keeps it upright once it's in place? The few sources I can find (and the modern youtube re-enactments) all seem to imply that the obelisk has ...
ConanTheGerbil's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
84 views

Did Austria-Hungary have to cede land to Italy after occupying Serbia, and was it because of article 7?

Article VII of The Triple Alliance, signed 1912, states the following: Austria-Hungary and Italy, having in mind only the maintenance, so far as possible, of the territorial status quo in the Orient, ...
Felix Borelius's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
2k views

Which four countries were the Teutonic coalition?

I'm reading the Memoirs of the Second World War and just came across the expression "Teutonic Coalition." Is Sir Winston Churchill referring to the Axis? Who are these members? Here's the ...
jean-luc's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
137 views

How could someone claim benefit of clergy after an act of attainder?

In some Tudor-period acts of attainder (laws passed by Parliament declaring certain people to be guilty of crimes and ordaining their punishment), there is a stipulation that the named person will not ...
alexg's user avatar
  • 833
5 votes
1 answer
219 views

Why did the U.S. Bill of Rights end up without a protection against monopolies?

In a letter to James Madison, Thomas Jefferson, discussing the recently-enacted Constitution, wrote of many things he liked about it, then added, I will now add what I do not like. First the omission ...
Mason Wheeler's user avatar
3 votes
3 answers
572 views

Did Palestinians form a distinct ethnically/culturally/linguistically homogeneous group in pre-Mandate period?

Note: this is not a question about whether a Palestinian state ought to be established. Yes or no to this question is not relevant to that one Did Palestinians form a distinct ethnically/culturally/...
Roger V.'s user avatar
  • 3,671
0 votes
0 answers
147 views

The Crown, and social attitudes in nightclubs during WW2 in London?

In The Crown Season 6 episode 8, the depiction of a basement nightclub in the Ritz Hotel in London seems highly inaccurate. In Matthew Sweet's West End Front the bar beneath the Ritz is described as a ...
MileySmiley098's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
171 views

What medal is shown in this 19th-century Canadian picture?

I have a photo of a Canadian male ancestor from around 1885 (he is about 45 years old), who is wearing a medal (see photo). I am having trouble identifying what the medal is. The photo quality is not ...
Rick Stewart's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
279 views

What is this coat of arms for J. Schneller?

I found this coat of arms on old piano notes. What is this coat of arms?
user221's user avatar
  • 21
2 votes
1 answer
188 views

Who claimed Alexander had a hairy heart?

From Avellaneda's Continuation of Don Quixote, chapter 6, p. 34 (circa 1614, translated by Yardley 1784 apparently after the French of Le Sage 1705 but it all seems very confusing). Don Quixote says: ...
Quuxplusone's user avatar
  • 2,103
5 votes
2 answers
345 views

How did Royal Navy tactics change after the sinking of HMS Prince of Wales?

On 10th December 1941, the Royal Navy battleship HMS Prince of Wales, and escorting battlecruiser HMS Repulse were sunk near Malaysia by a force of Imperial Japanese bombers. This was a powerful ...
DrMcCleod's user avatar
  • 892
0 votes
0 answers
148 views

Where can I find WW2 fuel consumption data for the key participants?

Does anyone know where I can find military fuel consumption data by the key countries involved in World War II? It would be highly appreciated if you could advise on the well-organized database.
Sweet Dreams's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
110 views

Was the Italian 7th battalion, 11th division on the Austrian front in 1918?

The top image shows a postcard dated 7/10/1918, which was sent to my grandfather on the occasion of his 26th birthday. He is 3rd from the left. I’m having difficulty making out what it says on the ...
Derek's user avatar
  • 11

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