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2
votes
1answer
299 views

What present-day monarchs descend from Rodrigo de Borgia, a.k.a., Pope Alexander VI?

I understand all enthroned and dethroned Catholic royal families (except for the Grimaldis) and even some Protestant German royal families like Hessen, Mecklenburg and the Prussian Hohenzollern ...
4
votes
2answers
198 views

How were precise hand drawn illustrations copied between the 16th and 20th century in Europe?

What were the methods used to copy detailed illustrations for distribution throughout the period between 1500 and 1900 (excluding photography)? I'm particularly interested in techniques common in ...
-7
votes
0answers
99 views

How did Albert Einstein treat women? [duplicate]

The articles on the internet are showing that, Einstein was a misogynist who attempted to control his wife’s every move and even got caught up in many love affairs being married, without any proper ...
24
votes
1answer
7k views

Why did quill pens persist until the early 19th century despite the capacity to make metal dip pens?

I recently toured Jefferson's Monticello and I was struck during the tour of the library by the description of some of the challenges that Jefferson faced using quill pens. This seemed particularly ...
0
votes
0answers
102 views

Can someone identify this uniform and cap badge?

Could someone please tell me what this uniform and cap badge are ? My grandfather told me he was a stretcher-bearer in the Hampshire Regiment but neither look like anything I have researched, I truly ...
17
votes
1answer
3k views

What was the need to call the Estates-General of 1789?

I read that in France at the time of the French revolution, the monarch did not have the power to impose taxes on his will alone. Rather he had to call a meeting of the Estates General which would ...
9
votes
3answers
2k views

Why are there no dogs pictured in paleolithic cave paintings?

It has been described before that the occurence of reindeers is strangely low, while this was the main food source. But isn't it even stranger for dogs? Recent genetic research suggest that dogs were ...
8
votes
4answers
3k views

Did the 'founding fathers' of the United States see Oliver Cromwell as a role model?

Did they like Oliver Cromwell, who founded a republic after a dispute about taxes led to the overthrow of a king, or did they see him as a usurping Caesar who destroyed a republic and became a tyrant?
12
votes
3answers
705 views

Why didn't invaders of India ever cross into Myanmar and beyond (east)?

All the foreign invaders, coming from the west, that I know of which invaded India (i.e. Delhi Sultanate, Mughals, Suri Empire, Ghurid Empire, Mamluk Dynasty, etc.) stopped around the Bengal area. ...
11
votes
1answer
530 views

Was there self-censorship in private correspondence in the early 19th Century?

I've been reading collections of letters and journals (generally relating to the Napoleonic Wars) published in the first half of the 19th century. Often these contain words that have been partially ...
7
votes
1answer
400 views

What happens to interned military personnel if war is declared post-internment?

Here is a real-world example during World War I. The German ship SMS Geier sails to neutral port in Hawaii in 1914, territory of the United States. Since the USA and Germany are not at war, the ship ...
1
vote
2answers
118 views

What did “Publius” refer to in the Federalist Papers?

Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay wrote The Federalist Papers under the pseudonym "Publius". In college I had heard that Publius referred to one of the founders of the Roman Republic ...
21
votes
7answers
4k views

Is there any documentation that indicates the Aztecs were as violent as they are made out?

The iconography of the Aztecs lead us to believe that they were an especially blood-thirsty culture. But consider the scenario where there was some major catastrophe in the USA, reducing the ...
-2
votes
1answer
357 views

Rifle with bayonet thrown like a javelin

I mean certainly there had to be a circumstance at one point where a soldier's only chance was to throw his rifle and somehow ended up winning? my searches have garnered no luck.. edit:for the 150 ...
5
votes
1answer
934 views

How did CGP Grey get his hands on old New York Times papers?

In CGP Grey's video "The Race to Win Staten Island", he manages to open old copies of the New York Times for his research (around 1:20). Where are these available? Can I also get old copies of the ...
8
votes
2answers
388 views

What were women doing at the Battle of Dorylaeum during the First Crusade?

I have just been watching The Crusades Dr Thomas Asbridge BBC 2012, in which he states that "... girls, delicate and noble...", went into their tents to put on their best clothes, in the hope of ...
8
votes
1answer
2k views

Did the Byzantine Emperor Constantine XI will his titles to Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain?

This video claims that there was a will from Constantine XI in which he was leaving his titles to Ferdinand & Isabella of Spain. Video also claims that Constantine was bribed or paid in some way ...
9
votes
2answers
738 views

What is the most advanced nonliterate society?

I got to thinking some more recently about the interrelation of societal advancement and information availability. That got me wondering about the limits. In short, what is the most advanced society ...
1
vote
0answers
102 views

Would a Syrian King have worn the toga after the Edict of Caracalla?

As you may know, the Edict of Caracalla granted citizenship to all freeborn citizens of the Roman Empire. I'm writing a novel set several decades after this edict, and one of the characters is a ...
4
votes
1answer
467 views

What was clothing in ancient Palmyra like?

What is known about what people used to wear in the city of Palmyra during the third century AD? Was it more similar to Roman or Persian fashion of the period?
5
votes
2answers
616 views

Where is the sword used to execute Queen Anne Boleyn?

If a 'skilled' (with sword) executioner was summoned from Calais, did he bring his own 'equipment' and, if so, is there record of him & it there? Was the sword seized when Francis, Duke of Guise ...
1
vote
0answers
191 views

Which book about risk of war over time draws conclusions contrary to Pinker?

I thought I recently read about a book arguing that trends in warfare, when you use the right statistics on the right timescales, do not show a clear decline over time. The book was characterized as ...
27
votes
7answers
9k views

Was Japan known to be a potential threat to the USA in the 10 year period prior to 1941

In the years leading up to the Pearl Harbor attack, did non-military Americans see Japan as a potential threat to the USA?
9
votes
1answer
403 views

Was there a bribery attempt by the UK to get the Ottomans to switch sides in World War I?

While perusing Wikipedia article on Gallipoli Campaign, I saw an intriguing statement: an attempt by the British to bribe the Ottomans to join the Allied side ... failed. Wikipedia citing an ...
4
votes
3answers
366 views

On the Ezana Stone, who are the black and red people that the Ethiopian king was referring to?

On the Ezana stone, the Axumite (modern day Ethiopia) king wrote in Ge'ez, Sabaean and Greek to describe his victory over the Kasu (Kushites) and Nuba (Nubians). He mentions the black and red peoples,...
0
votes
0answers
134 views

What was the monthly size of Axis and Allied armies?

There are sources in the size of the German army. But no overall month by month breakdown of the size of different armies.
9
votes
1answer
492 views

What was the relationship between Indian caste system and martial skills?

I know that in the area now known as India, there was a rigid caste system as a part of traditional Hindu beliefs. I also know that there are a number of Indian martial arts going back centuries. I ...
4
votes
1answer
247 views

Which trade ship did not return to California from China?

The Baltic German captain Otto von Kotzebue wrote (from "California Through Russian Eyes", Gibson, ed.): An attempt was even made to launch, at the Californios' own risk, trade with China, but it ...
5
votes
1answer
202 views

What does “MET HLS INDIA” inscribed on a bottom of brass sugar bowl mean?

I've recently inherited two old Indian brass items, bought in 1970s (or earlier) in Poland, and I'm trying to work out where they come from. I've easily identified the origin of the ice bucket, since ...
7
votes
3answers
2k views

Is there a genetic link between North America and Vikings?

Is there any evidence of Viking genetics in the North East American Indian population? There is a blue eye trait in some East Coast tribes, especially the Iroquoian tribe of the Cherokee.
4
votes
1answer
83 views

Did the Buyids emerge as allies of the Abbasid Caliphate?

The Buyid dynasty were Shia sympathizers. However, I might have read somewhere that the Buyids came to power as allies of the Abbasids. This would have been as an anti Tabaristan or anti Ziyarid ...
2
votes
0answers
214 views

Did battle results prompt the retirement of metal armour in any European army? [duplicate]

Everyone has heard the conventional wisdom, that metal armour became obsolete, as guns improved. It should be fundamentally correct, but I am interested in understanding the process in more detail, ...
6
votes
0answers
165 views

Was the peak of the NBA aka popularity of basketball in 90's ( or including 80's ) “as I consider” or just my “Old days were good”?

I always wonder and argue with young boys in my country if today's so called superstar Lebron James remained nothing but a role player had he played in 90's or the 80's because back then there was ...
25
votes
3answers
11k views

What was Hitler like in private?

The image of Hitler is very well-formed in the modern public imagination: stern, stoic, focused, commanding and intimidating, with a powerful oratory skill and a terrifying ability to stir up passion ...
-1
votes
0answers
61 views

Lucius Lucullus etc among Etruscans and Romans- evidence for Trojan/ Lycian origin?

Isn’t the extreme popularity of names like Lucius and Lucullus indicative of at least where some ancestors were from, maybe Lycia-I have long wondered if classical Romans had as common knowledge much ...
6
votes
1answer
333 views

What was the impact of utilitarianism upon the development of psychiatric care in 18th-19th century England?

I'm interested in the impact of utilitarianism upon English psychiatric care by way of the philosophy's influence on social reformers. More tenuously, I want to know whether and in what ways ...
10
votes
3answers
3k views

Was it illegal to blaspheme God in Antioch in 360.-410.?

We know that the Roman Empire became a Christian state. Was it illegal to blaspheme God in Antioch in 360.-410.? What punishment was prescribed (if it was illegal)? If it was punishable, who could ...
3
votes
1answer
135 views

Could British India have realistically allied with both Afghanistan and the Punjab?

In his book The Return of a King, historian William Dalrymple is strongly critical of British policy toward Afghanistan prior to the disastrous invasion of 1839. He implies, quoting the British envoy ...
-4
votes
1answer
78 views

Analysis of the Cold War, Particularly its Origins [closed]

I have been doing an in-depth study of the Cold War for a while now, and I really want to understand the main reasons why it began. There are a few questions I have regarding a few specifics that I ...
9
votes
1answer
360 views

Why did the UK Parliament sit on Saturday 30 July 1949?

Good question by Andrew Sparrow on the Guardian Politics' live blog: According to the House of Commons website, the Commons has only sat on Saturdays four times since 1939. Three of those ...
1
vote
0answers
91 views

How and when did the surname “Apibus” become “de Apapis”?

The Maltese surname Apap derives from "De Apapis", and the family crest features bees. Family lore tells that the surname originates from a person who kept bees. In Latin, Apis is bee, and the most ...
8
votes
1answer
421 views

Was Operation Kugelblitz really a success for the partisans?

Every source that I have looked at says that the Germans practically accomplished nothing during this offensive. Yet at the same time it is claimed that the Partisans suffered a staggering 9,000-11,...
75
votes
8answers
7k views

How accurate or supported is Jared Diamond's “Guns, Germs, and Steel”?

Jared Diamond wrote a fascinating book that purports to explain, in a very broad way, the development of civilization. It has several explanations for the development of Eurasian civilization rather ...
48
votes
2answers
9k views

Has the United States ever had a non-Christian President?

If Bernie Sanders won the 2020 election, he would be the first Jewish POTUS in American history, regardless of how 'cultural' his Judaism may be. Given this, would his being the first Jewish POTUS ...
1
vote
0answers
200 views

What is the origin of the idea to cover genitals with clothes or other materials? [closed]

This question was difficult to word. Please edit if it can be worded better. I've seen many murals and ancient drawing as far back as 3,000BC (Kemetian, Sumerian) of society wearing atleast some ...
7
votes
0answers
102 views

Who revoked their signatures from the union agreement at the Council of Florence?

In many Byzantine history books, a general statement is made that from the 700 strong delegation to the council of Florence, "many Orthodox bishops revoked their signatures" after the council ...
15
votes
1answer
3k views

Why was the “Cave of the Patriarchs” forbidden to Jews?

I just found out a tweet of Ben Shapiro stating the Cave of the Patriarchs in Hebron was closed to Jews for 700 years. I searched and didn't find any name but this article mentions that In the ...
0
votes
0answers
67 views

Comparison between the Law of the Roman Empire under the rule of 2 Emperors

What were the differences of the Law of the Roman Empire under the rule of Justinian I(with his Corpus Juris Civilis and the rest of his Legal Order) and under the rule of Basil II? I am interested ...
-2
votes
1answer
361 views

To what extent is the Catholic church responsible for historical Antisemitism in Europe? [closed]

Jews faced a great deal of Antisemitism, as defined by radically different treatment compared to their Christain counterparts, with particular attention to violence, throughout their history. ...
10
votes
1answer
140 views

Help identify Venetian headpiece

So I’ve been trying to find the technical term for these headpieces usually worn during Venetian Carnevale. I’m unsure if they are medieval in origin or a type of turban. What is the difference ...

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