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12
votes
2answers
2k views

Was the last Japanese surrender after WWII in the 1970s?

Wikipedia in its article on the Surrender of Japan, claims: Some Japanese holdouts, especially on small Pacific Islands, refused to surrender at all (believing the declaration to be propaganda or ...
22
votes
4answers
5k views

Why is late Russian Empire associated with Byzantium while having little in common with it?

I have started reading the book A people's tragedy by Orlando Figes about the Russian revolution. I am no historian, however having read a few pages I have a few questions about the repeated ...
37
votes
5answers
13k views

Why did the Germans use the Enigma machine rather than the far superior “Lorenz” cipher machine?

Basically, the only good thing about the "Enigma" cipher machine was its name. Other than that, it was grossly inferior to the "Lorenz" one, apparently only used by some of the main, top-ranking ...
40
votes
5answers
10k views

How did Genghis Khan's army feed so many horses?

The average horse eats 10-20 pounds per day, according to this pet website. Considering the fact that the horses may have to eat even more because of the hard traveling they had to endure, it's likely ...
3
votes
2answers
226 views

What military power would ever pre-announce an attack to give the enemy time to work up a defense?

The attack on Pearl Harbor was a surprise military strike by the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service against the United States naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii Territory, on the morning of ...
7
votes
2answers
354 views

Is rye bread Turkish?

Scandinavian airline SAS released a controversial advertising video titled What is truly Scandinavian? It claims that many things considered traditional in Scandinavian countries are actually ...
22
votes
7answers
4k views

Who was the last European king to actively engage in combat?

Specifically, I would like to know who the most recent European monarch (or monarchs, if they lived roughly at the same time) is that actively engaged in combat whilst reigning: that is, used a sword, ...
0
votes
0answers
80 views

What can I learn about family crest number 11? [duplicate]

Hello I am trying to find out some information on this family crest: Is this crest related to this mon? I have a full samurai suit of armor with this mark.
2
votes
2answers
179 views

How can there be a “final edition” of a morning paper, in the morning?

A US television episode from 1957 has the following scene, set in a hotel restaurant in what is clearly the morning, as he is eating breakfast and it looks brightly lit: Person: "The morning paper, ...
10
votes
4answers
1k views

Was Frederick II of Hohenstaufen really a medieval Dr. Mengele?

According to legend, the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II, who was intelligent (spoke six languages) and influential, also purportedly used cold-blooded methods to further his "scientific" inquiries. ...
11
votes
2answers
486 views

Why did countries declare exclusive economic zones of up to 200 nautical miles?

Today coastal countries own the surrounding marine waters stretching 200 nautical miles from their shoreline in terms of exclusive rights of exploiting its resources (their exclusive economic zone (...
2
votes
2answers
247 views

If the Allies had invaded Japan in 1945, would they have been fighting the “weakest” Japanese troops?

Sources such as Basil Collier's "The Second World War: A Military History" list the Japanese forces during the war as being 6 million. My understanding is that the background of these troops is ...
23
votes
2answers
3k views

What evidence is there of the vision aids people used before the invention of eyeglasses in about 1286?

The Wikipedia article on glasses says ‘scattered evidence exists for use of vision aid devices in Greek and Roman times’ but only cites the example of Nero’s emerald. This article on Magnifying ...
5
votes
5answers
3k views

What made Stalingrad a turning point in the second world war?

Operation "Barbarossa" the German plan to invade the Soviet Union was a colossal success until Stalingrad. Capturing one third of the European Soviet Union and having the Luftwaffe taking monopoly of ...
1
vote
2answers
761 views

Could Battle of Stalingrad be won by Germany if they haven't lost so many aircraft in Battle of Britain? [closed]

So I come up with a question, maybe an irrational or a dumb one, but what effect would the Luftwaffe have had on the Battle of Stalingrad if they had had the ~ 2000 aircraft (lost in Battle of Britain)...
0
votes
1answer
544 views

How low on ammunition were the Germans at Stalingrad when they surrendered?

Hitler ordered his forces in Stalingrad to fight to the “last man and last round.” A century and half earlier, a more respected German commander, Marshal Blücher claimed upon his surrender to the ...
7
votes
2answers
1k views

Was the battle of Stalingrad “unique” in the annals of history?

I'm referring to the fact that BOTH sides ordered their troops to fight for the city "to the last man and last round." (Hitler). The Soviet Union's General Vasili Chuikov echoed this by saying "We ...
14
votes
5answers
2k views

Did The Soviet Union need both prongs to succeed at the Battle of Stalingrad?

In November, 1942, three months after the battle of Stalingrad began, the Soviet Union, launched Operation Uranus, a counterencirclement of the German forces in and around the city, in two prongs. ...
16
votes
7answers
32k views

Are the “bone fields” of the Stalingrad encircled battlefields real?

In this podcast by Dan Carlin's Hardcore history show, Dan mentions that there are areas inside of the Stalingrad pocket where human remains are openly visible above ground, exposed to the weather. ...
20
votes
7answers
8k views

Why did the Germans not encircle and besiege Stalingrad?

The Germans spent a large amount of manpower in adverse territory for this city, even after long exhausting continuous combat. After the war, Kliest wrote: The capture of Stalingrad was ...
8
votes
2answers
1k views

Did the Torch operation help doom the Germans at Stalingrad?

Amid calls for a "second front," the Anglo-Americans landed in North Africa Operation Torch, in early November, 1942. Some say that it was a "sideshow," others say that it was a "cross-ruffing" ...
4
votes
4answers
2k views

What was the German perspective on Stalingrad?

I'm quite interested in Stalingrad and have started reading a bit regarding the battle itself and have seen that weather had played quite a significant factor in halting the German advance. (Reading ...
4
votes
0answers
289 views
+100

Have historians attempted to reconstruct the polytheistic Semitic pantheon, dividing it into sub pantheons?

Historians reconstruct pantheons to better understand their role in society (see below for examples of reconstruction as a historical method). Has there been any attempt to apply this historical ...
2
votes
0answers
21 views

Which works by Kang Youwei attack Empress Dowager Cixi?

Background It is widely reported that Kang Youwei and Liang Qichao bear the principal responsibility for the negative image of Dowager Cixi as the reactionary who halted the 1898 reform. As far as ...
0
votes
0answers
128 views
+50

Is there a reconstruction for whom and when were the peoples of the ancient Levant just before Israel, Judea and Edom?

Primarily from viewing lectures and interviews about the ancient history of the Levant, I understand that before Israel, Judea and perhaps also Edom states were created, their area included groups ...
0
votes
1answer
173 views

Who was the sovereign of the lowest title? [closed]

It is known that there existed sovereign counts (Armagnac, count at God will). But had you read about sovereign viscounts or barons? Or some boyar/boyarin (~= baron) in Eastern Europe? The same about ...
6
votes
1answer
304 views

What happened to the cross on the dome of Hagia Sophia?

There are some images that show the cross on the dome of Hagia Sophia. For example; Miniature 38 from the Constantine Manasses Chronicle, 14th century: Construction of Hagia Sophia during the reign ...
6
votes
2answers
624 views

Is there a database of ancient/current names of cities?

I am working on map of Ancient Etruscan civilization and I can't identify the exact location of Spica city. Based on minimap from Wikipedia page about Etruscan civilization, the city should lie about ...
0
votes
0answers
71 views

Are there still sundown towns as portrayed in the film The Green Book? [closed]

I assume there are -- sort of an extension of a general dislike of strangers that I myself have encountered a few decades ago -- out-of-state plates attracted attention. EDIT: This link to the film ...
-2
votes
0answers
55 views

German Army + IJN in the Middle East? [closed]

I read this article about how Germany and Japan might have won the war: It occurred to me that Japan probably outclassed the Royal Navy at the time and I saw this post about Hitler Taking Middle East ...
2
votes
3answers
235 views

Were Israeli-Arab conflicts in the Cold war testing grounds for NATO and Warsaw Pact equipment?

During the Cold War, Israel and it's Arab neighbors often came into conflict with each other and fought a number of wars during which Israel often used weaponry from the West (USA, UK and France) ...
16
votes
2answers
4k views

How did Mongol nomads acquire metal weapons?

Metal-working requires a furnace, heavy tools and of-course metal ore and yet nomadic Mongols were able to obtain metal weapons, so either they worked metal or traded it. But if they worked metal how ...
0
votes
0answers
92 views

What were the procedures when the lead group bombardier missed the target? [closed]

When the lead group bombardier missed the target for any reason what were the procedures for a 2nd bomb run on the target? What factors were considered prior to the attempted 2nd run? I'm talking ...
0
votes
1answer
76 views

Similar names in ancient Rome

Praenomens in ancient Rome seemed to have been rather limited, especially by the time of the empire. There must've been cases where close friends or cousins and the like would've had the same ...
23
votes
3answers
11k views

Did Stalin kill all Soviet officers involved in the Winter War?

Did Stalin kill all of the Soviet officers involved in the Winter War, when it ended? A documentary called "Warlords: Hitler vs Stalin" made this claim, but Wikipedia doesn't seem to mention this. ...
9
votes
3answers
3k views

Was Nicholas II Romanov the last king of Poland?

Nicholas II Romanov, the last Emperor of All-Russia, used also (among many others) titles: Grand Prince of Lithuania, and King of Poland. The Wikipedia states he was "a titular" King of Poland. In ...
5
votes
6answers
2k views

Was “Death Traps” by Belton Y. Cooper historically accurate?

Was the WW2 memoir "Death Traps" by Belton Cooper historically accurate?
0
votes
1answer
145 views

When and how was the cairn structure in the “Sea of Galilee” covered in water?

In 2013 Israeli researchers from Tel Aviv university discovered a large cairn, buried under the water of the freshwater lake "Sea of Galilee" in northern part of state of Israel: Researchers find ...
9
votes
1answer
615 views

What other courts were similar to Louis XIV of France's court in Versailles?

After reading about feudalism in the Middle Ages it became apparent that lords lived on their lands far away from the king and provided military services themselves in exchange for said lands. However,...
2
votes
0answers
44 views

Are there any hypotheses on how the Dorset disappeared?

I read an article about how anthropologists have discovered artifacts from an ancient Arctic culture known as the Dorset that disappeared centuries ago and were the precursors to the Inuit in the ...
9
votes
3answers
321 views

How were the British and French Mandates in the Levantine area involved in WWII?

We all know the role of Egypt as a British protectorate at the time in WWII and the many battles fought in there. My question is, what is the role of the other British and French possessions in the ...
1
vote
0answers
68 views

Was the Kingdom of Nri truly pacifistic?

I have been reading about the Kingdom of Nri, a political entity that lasted from Medieval times to 1911. It was apparently pacifistic and saw violence as an abomination on Earth. However, it is ...
12
votes
3answers
562 views

Were Archimedes screws used in pre-modern times in the far east?

Screw pumps or Archimedes screws were used by the Romans in mine dewatering. They were possibly used in ancient Babylon (a few hundred years before Archimedes) to irrigate the famous hanging gardens. ...
2
votes
1answer
187 views

Could the U.S. have used “Lend Lease” to force Germany onto the horns of a dilemma?

During the fall of 1941 (but before December), the United States waged a "war short of war" against Nazi Germany's submarines using escort vessels, the Reuben James, the (James) Greer, and the Kearny ...
13
votes
3answers
1k views

Study of causal structures and dynamics in history?

I was not really sure how to phrase this question, but ok, let me try nonetheless. My background is in natural sciences, but I have always been interested in history as well. Over past years I have ...
2
votes
0answers
81 views

Why does some US banknotes have abstract art on the reverse instead of detailed scenes of history/monuments?

Most US paper currency has detailed images of national monuments or historical scenes on the reverse side. Why wasn't the same treatment given to all currency, such as the $500 bill? It simply ...
10
votes
2answers
222 views

Were the Hashemite kings of Iraq and Transjordan considered foreign?

The British made two sons of Hussein bin Ali, Sharif of Mecca, rulers of the new political entities of Transjordan and Iraq after WWI. They were both born in the Hijaz (now in West Saudi Arabia), not ...
5
votes
3answers
985 views

Did B-17 crews run into difficulty releasing their bombs and does data exist on this?

The B-17 was used for a significant portion of the Allied campaign during WWII. My understanding is the earliest bombs in aviation consisted of just throwing stuff out of the open cockpit of planes. ...
0
votes
0answers
63 views

What primary sources mention Ivar the Boneless [closed]

My understanding of the legend of Ragnar Lothbrock was that Ragnar is a figure of folklore, but the sons Ivar the Boneless, Bjorn Ironsides, Sigurd et Al, are all mentioned in primary sources like the ...
-1
votes
0answers
37 views

What’s a film about Eastern European Jewish immigrants in the United States in the 19th century?

I’m a history student studying Eastern European Jews in the US in the 19th century. I’m searching for a film or documentary on this topic. What’s a film about Eastern European Jewish immigrants in the ...

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