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9
votes
1answer
226 views

How/when did the halo shift from being a solid disk behind the head to being a floating ring above the head?

In almost all older religious paintings that I've seen, holy figures with halos have gold/glowing disks behind their heads, like this: or sometimes more pronounced, but still clearly behind the head: ...
3
votes
1answer
275 views

Why did Sidewinder missiles score so well before Vietnam?

In the Wikipedia article about the Second Taiwan Strait crisis that the USA had provided Taiwan air forces with Sidewinder missiles. During clashes with PLA's air force, Sabre equipped with the ...
3
votes
0answers
216 views

How do we know that this decree was written by Cixi?

In another, extremely helpful answer we found the handwritten text underlying many claims about Empress Dowager Cixi’s illiteracy (see aforementioned answer for example of such claim). But how do we ...
0
votes
2answers
422 views

When did the number of motor driven vehicles surpass the number of horse driven vehicles in Paris, London, Berlin?

What exact year (or the closest approximation) did the number of motor driven vehicles surpass the number of horse driven vehicles (including the single horseman) on the streets of Paris?
2
votes
0answers
75 views

Did Cuba Benefit More Economically by Dealing with the Soviets [closed]

The Soviets arguably had a good reason to deal with Cuba as it led to them having an attacking point in the event of a hot war. However, the US are usually inclined to boost a country's economy up to ...
76
votes
3answers
11k views

What is the first recorded dog name?

Dogs have an age-old relationship with humans, and nowadays almost all dogs have a name given to them. In Homer's Odyssey (8th century BCE), upon Odysseus' return, his beloved dog Argos is the only ...
2
votes
0answers
61 views

Did the British Cabinet agree, at first, to send their expeditionary force to Amiens in August 1914?

I was reading War by Timetable by A.J.P. Taylor, in which he presents his interpretation of how the elaborate timetables prepared by various governments as "contingency plans" took on a life of their ...
10
votes
1answer
215 views

What actually happened in Greek and Roman temples of healing?

Greeks first had temples of healing under Apollo, and when Apollo as the god of healing was displaced by Asclepius, these temples ended up as asclepeion. The Romans adopted this idea of temples for ...
21
votes
1answer
4k views

Who was this Roman General/figure of authority who, on his deathbed, named these two regrets?

In my undergrad I took a Roman History/Culture class and remember the professor mentioning someone who died naming two regrets: He once told a secret to a woman He once spent a day idle/doing nothing ...
-1
votes
0answers
230 views

How did the Illuminati end?

The Illuminati (and yes, it was real) first started in 1776 by Adam Weishaupt. Without getting into too much of their backstory, the Illuminati were created due to beliefs that the religious ...
38
votes
2answers
8k views

Why did the German army execute so few soldiers in World War I compared to most other armies?

According to Alexander Watson's Ring of Steel and other sources during the whole of the First World War the German army only executed 48 of its soldiers, compared to over 300 in the British and 600-...
2
votes
2answers
239 views

What was special in interwar Austria-Hungary?

I recently spoke with someone claiming that the tail end of the decline of the Austro-Hungarian Empire was an especially fertile breeding ground for inventors and entrepreneurs, especially in the ...
25
votes
4answers
4k views

Why were so many of the earliest banks founded by cloth merchants?

I recently noticed that a lot of early banks, including Metzler and Berenberg, were founded by cloth merchants. Any idea why this particular line of trade was most conducive to setting up investment ...
21
votes
3answers
5k views

Are there historical instances of settlers who were largely uncontacted and undisturbed after settling?

I am looking for historical instances of a rather specific and strange scenario: Settlers who settled a wild/unclaimed territory (ideally 100-300 in number) who after settling in the new place, were ...
4
votes
0answers
136 views

How did Europeans dye their garments black around 1800?

The recent Freikorps question tackled an old sore. It is said budgetary restrictions made for example Lützower and Brunswickers chose black as their uniform colour. Since no state would provide ...
3
votes
0answers
147 views

How did the roots of European knightly culture transfer from ancient Iran to European Middle Ages? [closed]

I have come across a reference in a German guide book on Iran that suggests the roots of knightly culture in European Middle Ages may be found in the Sassanian Empire (224 to 651 AD; translation ...
6
votes
0answers
85 views

Which misdeeds of F. Reineke was J.B.B. de Lesseps “obliged to suppress”?

F. Reineke was commandant of Kamchatka from about 1780 to 1784. According to Витер's История символов как история административного деления государства he was responsible for moving the territorial ...
7
votes
1answer
100 views

Who was part of the Raznochintsy class in 1800s Russia?

In the system of social estates of Imperial Russia, someone "of miscellaneous rank" was a member of the raznochintsy, at least until the category was abolished. В.Н.Разгон says this happened at the ...
8
votes
5answers
362 views

What options were available to MacArthur to prepare for Chinese intervention in the Korean War?

The initial successes of Chinese military in Korean War against high odds can be said to be a major blunder on the part of MacArthur's military leadership. We know that MacArthur did not make ...
1
vote
1answer
123 views

Need to identify a European uniform from around 1900

This is my great grandfather...from somewhere in eastern Europe...family from Istria.
0
votes
1answer
230 views

Why was King Leopold III so hated in Belgium after the Second World War? [closed]

Did the Belgians resent him for surrendering or was it something he did during occupation? His decision to stay with his soldiers instead of flee seems extremely admirable. Wikipedia says that after ...
0
votes
0answers
74 views

What was that early TV or cinema commercial which was (maybe) the first to feature a shower/somebody showering?

I don't remember when I saw or heard this, where or in what form, but I either listened to the radio maybe 10-15 years ago, or watched it on TV around the same time. I think they were talking either ...
-3
votes
1answer
232 views

Why did Hitler repeat Napoleon's error (attacking Russia in mid-summer instead of late spring)? [closed]

We often hear that it's important to learn from history to avoid the errors of people before us. To me - then - it's astounding to think that a head of state like Hitler, surrounded with elite ...
0
votes
0answers
26 views

How was life in Patna (formerly Patliputra) during the East India Company rule?

How was life in General for Europeans and Indian natives in Patna (Patliputra)during the East India company rule? I do know that there was a large opium factory near the banks of the Ganges where ...
1
vote
2answers
168 views

What is this consistent symbol in the Spanish coat of arms? [closed]

I have been reading Spanish history today, and have noticed a very distinct commonality in the flags and coat of arms for various periods, but I haven't been able to find precise explanations of the ...
3
votes
2answers
143 views

How possible was it for colonizers to sail up the Paraná River to today's states of Paraná and São Paulo?

I know that there was a harbor as far as in Porto Feliz (state of São Paulo) on Tietê river. But I wonder whether it was only for the downstream transport, or also the upstream. I have searched on ...
2
votes
3answers
356 views

Is it true that Adolf Hitler foresaw a surrender on the Western front in the last week of April 1945? [closed]

David Irving's controversial book Hitler's War seems to imply that after his nervous breakdown during the battle of Berlin, Hitler realized that defeat was imminent and decided that surrendering in ...
1
vote
0answers
110 views

Why did the form Baron OF Somewhere drop out of use?

The Question In the various British peerages - i.e. the peerages of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom - one finds titles of the form Duke of X, Marquess of X and Earl ...
3
votes
0answers
47 views

Is the argument for a means test on public education a new one?

In the United States, the last Democratic debate a widely discussed proposal for free tuition for all students who attend public Universities ( State and Land-Grant Universities ) came up. ...
-2
votes
2answers
205 views

Why are the borders of the Islamic world where they are? [closed]

I think I can answer a lot of this question myself. Geography, of course, played a major role: In the south, the Sahara put a powerful brake on the religion's expansion further into Africa. (...
2
votes
1answer
131 views

Is there any truth to my family's story about “Cooper's Pie Wagon”?

According to family lore, my great-uncle Dr. John Cooper "was a surgeon on Gen. Sherman's and Gen. Fremont's staffs. Credited with the invention of the ambulance; soldiers nicknamed it as Cooper's "...
1
vote
0answers
58 views

How Heavy was a Spinning Jenny or Spinning Mule?

The spinning jenny, water frame and spinning mule were textile spinning frames used during the industrial revolution. Approximately how heavy were these machines?
10
votes
0answers
159 views

Why did anyone respect Marbury v. Madison?

I have always had the impression that Marbury v. Madison gave the United States Supreme court its first jolt of power. However, I recently learned more about the political circumstances surrounding ...
0
votes
2answers
119 views

Was the Reichspropaganda-Leitung (RPL) known to the Germany public? [closed]

I noticed that the Nazi propaganda department was literally called "Reichspropaganda-Leitung (RPL)", "the propaganda office". Was this the public name of it, or, a secret name used behind closed doors?...
8
votes
1answer
1k views

Any idea what type of 1920-1930s tank this is?

It's sitting in front of Escuela Militar in Lima, Peru. Looks like a 1930's French or British tank/tankette (Bolivia used some UK tanks in a war in the 30s). Not in the AMR3x series as far as I ...
14
votes
2answers
370 views

How “successful” were WWII pigeon-guided missiles?

In World War II, a prototype missile guidance system was developed in Project Pigeon, whereby a pigeon's pecks (or pecks by multiple pigeons) would be used to guide a missile. Test runs were ...
2
votes
1answer
182 views

Can anyone identify this possibly Czechoslovak uniform?

I have this photo of my Great Grandfather Antonin Hošek and his wife Elisabeth Hofrichter with my Grandma as a baby Alzběta Hošková. I am trying to find out more about my family's past and I'd love to ...
2
votes
0answers
118 views

Who was the first to conceive the “Two Nation Theory”?

This link gives the definition of Two-nation theory: The two-nation theory is the basis of the creation of Pakistan. It states that Muslims and Hindus are two separate nations from every ...
2
votes
1answer
100 views

Can anyone identify this uniform? Time period is 1841

This is a charcoal drawing of my great great grandfather. He was born in 1819 and I was told he served for 7 years. It looks like in the lower right hand corner it shows 1841. I heard he served for ...
3
votes
1answer
206 views

Why did the English name of “Pacific Ocean” stick if it has been known by many cultures since ancient times? [closed]

As far as I understand, the largest ocean on Earth is know worldwide as the Pacific Ocean, a name given by Ferdinand Magellan in 1519. However, it is surprising to me that such a name stuck given that ...
-4
votes
1answer
228 views

Were WW1 trenches always in a devastated landscape?

I’ve wondered was the Western front always just mud and devastation or were a lot of green fields and woods still intact most of the time?
0
votes
0answers
7 views

Which name came first, Lucius or Λουκᾶς? [migrated]

The etymology of the name Luke is commonly said to be the Latin name Lucas, itself from Lucius, from the praenomen Lucius, from the root Lux (gen. Lucis). [A separate etymology says Λουκᾶς/Λουκανός, ...
0
votes
2answers
139 views

Why did South Korea not go the same way as South Vietnam? [closed]

Currently, democratic South Korea is separated from communist North Korea, while Vietnam is united. These two countries had seemingly similar situations. Their former rulers, Japan and France ...
1
vote
2answers
386 views

Why is the English name of the country “Russia” not spelled “Rossia” (with the letter o)? [closed]

Russkoje tsarstvo later changed to Rossiyskoye tsarstvo. Why is the English name of the country "Russia" not spelled "Rossia"?
1
vote
0answers
83 views

Where does the Kurrent letter-form for E come from?

The old German cursives, both Suetterlin and Kurrent, have several peculiar features compared to modern German cursive handwriting. One is a double-stroke letter-shape for E. Most introductory ...
5
votes
2answers
800 views

What do we know about the squadron that evacuated Moore's force after Corunna?

Upon being appointed commander of British forces in Iberia, and Napoleon's subsequent invasion with Le Grande Armee, Sir John Moore's retreated to a defensive position near the port of Corunna, in ...
3
votes
3answers
103 views

Where can I find an official record of names and service dates for commanding officers of former US Navy vessels?

I'm particularly interested in records for the Indiana-class pre-dreadnought battleship named USS Massachusetts (BB-2). Can this information be found online?
34
votes
1answer
4k views

Were the first sonic booms predicted?

Applying the Doppler Effect to the breaking of the sound barrier would have allowed scientists to predict that a shockwave (a "boom") would be created before pilots began actually breaking the sound ...
4
votes
0answers
147 views

What is the origin of the name of the street Kings Butts in London, and its lack of apostrophes?

I’m mainly interested in why there are no apostrophes in this name. If Butts refers to archery, then why not “King’s Butts” or “Kings’ Butts”? Are apostrophes commonly omitted in historical London ...
3
votes
0answers
95 views

Are there Ancient Egyptian artistic renderings of fire?

In the frescoes of the Tomb of Nebamun we have the beautiful Fowling Scene. It's rendering of water is very naturalistic, and I'm wondering if the Ancient Egyptians have naturalistic renderings of ...

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