The Roman Empire routinely enslaved fair skinned Germans and Celts, and referred to those people derogatively as barbarians.
Pretty much all the ancient Mediterranean and Near East empires including Egypt, Mesopotamia, etc. practiced slavery, and like the Romans might also have drawn from more northerly, fairer skinned peoples.
However, we should be careful drawing too broad of comparisons. Slavery worked differently in different cultures. As bloodthirsty as the Roman Empire was, they actually had certain laws protecting slaves, that simply did not exist for slaves in the United States. In the Roman Empire, slavery was much more of a class-based institution; anyone could become a slave potentially - children, prisoners of war, and debtors could all be sold into slavery. So, while the Romans did enslave Germans and Celts, I don't think we can equate it to racism the same way as happened in America; the Romans were pretty much an equal opportunity enslavement empire.