44

It sounds like you are talking about the transition from Romanesque/Gothic painting styles to Renaissance styles. This is a big topic in Art History (or at least was when I took it back in the '80's). A lot of this may just come back to issues of style, which of course exist because they exist. However, there were some practical differences between the two. ...


28

There is almost no direct historical evidence that openly-practicing Muslims were LIVING in the British Isles in the decades and centuries after the Norman Invasion. But I guess I'll start this post by highlighting the one prominent fringe hypothesis that would say otherwise (note that I mean hypothesis in a loose scientific sense here, as in a well-...


28

Anything other than photo-realism makes you 'angry and confused'? That's sad. You're missing out on enjoying a whole lot of good stuff! Early pictorial art was often allegorical rather than strictly representational. Items were sized and placed to show their relationships and relative importance. Or just placed. Want a boat? Want an elephant? OK, here'...


23

There's been some perspective around for a long time. Look at this ceiling, from "The Vergilius Vaticanus" dated around 400 C.E. And here's a Chinese painting from around 1000 CE showing a pretty good oblique projection: And this detail from the gigantic "Along the River During the Qingming Festival" 1085 C.E. And in "Presentation ...


22

In general, dating was complicated, and different conventions existed simultaneously in England at that time. For the specific example of William the Conqueror's coronation, we have different sources within the following decades implying that it was in 1066 or 1067, anno Domini. The precision sought in the question did not exist, at least in the same form ...


19

When it comes to western Europe, medieval Latin would be closer to an "official" language, especially for international affairs. The Roman Catholic Church's power and influence at the time was unparalleled and several major events of the era started with a Papal Bull. Here's a short list of Papal Bulls that were political in nature and were addressed, ...


10

How leprosy was considered in the Middle-Ages is an interesting story, because it evolved quite rapidly at the end of the 12th century, but differently depending on the place, and Baldwin IV was used as example. If you read French, read this article from Mark Gregory Pegg (it is a translation; I could not find the English original online). As a rough ...


9

The original is lost, so we don't know. There were copies made in Latin and Old French which are available online... apparently, many copies were made upon its proclamation, in various languages, each intended for a particular audience. Here's a free ebook courtesy of the Google Books scanning project that goes into the difficulties in identifying the ...


9

It definitely wouldn't be English. In 1100, Old English was the language of the conquered Anglo-Saxon slaves (serfs). The Language of the conquerors of 1066 was Norman French or Anglo Norman. I'd put money on Latin. Anglo-Norman was never the main administrative language of England: Latin was the major language of record in legal and other official ...


7

Saints Days, in particular, the local saint's day Shrove Tuesday Lent Easter Christmas was less important. In any area of importance four quarterly Saint's days would be identified with local days when legal actions occurred and markets occurred in the local large city. As such courts were either rotating, or held on feudal bases, it is usual for ...


7

The original Charter of Liberties was probably written in Latin. I found an online source for the Latin text at archive.org. (The source is Select charters and other illustrations of English constitutional history (1913)) It looks like most of the English versions you see online are from a translation done in 1915 by Albert Beebe White and Wallce Notestein ...


5

I wrote a biographical study of Matilda of Scotland some years back, and in that book I discuss all the evidence from the primary sources about Matilda's relationship with her son and her role in raising and educating her children. There isn't that much that can be known, but there are a few mentions of her doing things like taking William to visit Merton ...


5

As you have noticed, buttons did not become popular as fasteners until around 1300. This is because before then clothing tended to consist of cloaks, robes, tunics and other loosely fitting garments that were easily secured with a pin (brooch or fibula). The Romans, Greeks and Levantines did wear buttons, but mostly as a sewn-on decoration, not as a fastener....


5

I believe Saladin showed kindness to Richard the Lionheart not because of religion or to spy, though that is a distinct possibility, but because of Saladin's respect towards Richard, even though they were enemies. This respect of an enemy is common throughout history, though not expressed like Saladin with gifts. Julius Caesar had respect for Pompey, ...


4

I don't think there was any tribal organisation as such. Starting with Wanyan Wugunai circa mid-11th century, the Wanyan Tribe became dominant among the Jurchens. Successive Wanyan chieftains gradually unified the Jurchen tribes as hereditary jiédùshǐ of the Liao Empire, and also took the Jurchen title of begile. By 1115, the new begile Wanyen Akuta (Wanyan ...


4

Here are the official titles of Catholic European kings in the 13th century. Lithuania 1261: Mindowe, Dei gratia rex Littowie Hungary and Croatia 1270: Stephanus dei gracia Hungarie, Dalmacie, Croacie, Rame, Seruie, Gallicie, Lodomerie, Cumanie Bulgarieque rex Denmark and the Wends 1251: Abel dej gracia Danorum Slauorumque rex dux Jucie The ...


4

According to wikipedia, Anglo-Norman French (the dialect of French spoken by the Norman conquerors) was used for that purpose in England in the 13th century. Before that it was typically Latin, and afterwards English. (BTW: langues d'oïl basically means a dialect of French where oui is used to mean "yes". Anglo-Norman French was in fact one of those). For ...


3

Not all "really old" art has no perspective. True, it's not usually seen, but good examples of it show up wherever there's a culture that was rich enough to have full-time, professional artists, and that valued realism in art. Most answer ups to now with examples of correct(ish) use of perspective in art are max from about 1000 CE, and the Roman ...


3

A nobleman may wear silk with opportunities for sable and ermine, not just vair. Fur is always a lining, not the outer fabric, until the 1800s. Underwear (sherte or chainse and loincloth or drawers/braies) are always pure white linen. It would be rare, and foppish, to have a silk sherte, though some queens had white silk chemises. Still, the most common ...


2

If we're talking about strictly catholic holidays, a good example that became popular across medieval Europe is the Feast of Corpus Christi, which started in Germany in the middle of 13th century. Soon it has spread both in Western and Eastern Europe, after pope Urban IV decision to make it official for all Latin Rite countries. In different areas of ...


2

Since the background of the Robin Hood legend is, in most cases, based on the events surrounding the Third Crusade (1189–1192), the intoduction of the Saracen (as Muslims were called then) character Nasir in the Robin of Sherwood series is very straightforward and plausible: he was taken, as a prisoner, back to England So it would seem that the British ...


1

Personally, I always hate it when a TV or movie producer takes some famous book and makes major changes to it, like adding a totally new character. Like hey, if you didn't like the story, write your own. Don't put your words into someone else's mouth just so you can piggyback on his popularity. There was certainly no such character in the original Robin Hood ...


1

Actually, the universities were NOT an outgrowth of monasteries, but rather of the schools attached to great cathedrals. The difference is important, because this meant they were run by the secular clergy and not monks.


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