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19th CENTURY HISTORIANS The term Hundred Years' War originated in the early 19th century. The Hundred Years War has become the established name for the Anglo-French conflicts that happened between 1337 and 1453. Although the designation does not refer to an actual event—the term was first used in France in the early 19th century — it usefully ...


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The claim is sourced from 明興野記, lit. Unofficial Records of the Rise of Ming, by the contemporary Yu Ben. It was originally titled 紀事錄, lit. Chronicles, but a certain Zhang Da Tong later changed it because it wasn't fancy enough. Zhang also inserted some editorialising, especially to defend the emperor, as well as an abstract introducing Yu's work as "...


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While Kutná Hora was producing silver, I don't think that this commodity or any other commodity (and surely not one stolen from a colony – colonies didn't really exist) was the main driver behind the glory of the Golden Era – although the silver was obviously needed for our hard currency, the Prague Groschen (picture below). The true reasons were ...


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Jakob Twinger von Königshofen, a German chronicler alive during the 14th century, documents the, possibly forced, confessions of several Jews, amongst which is Balavignus, in his book "Chronik” (English translation available in “The Black Death in the Fourteenth Century” p. 181). Also, letters exchanged between cities, concerning the suspicion of the Jews ...


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The Medieval ages, and in turn the 100 years war, was a politically a different beast than war as we are used to it in the modern era. During both world wars we see a declaration by majors powers declaring that a state of war now exists between countries and their belligerent allies. This is how the world at large waged war and is the common way that we ...


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Only one person can be involved in a personal union (hence the name). The trouble with being in a personal union – that is, sharing your monarch with a different country – is that your singular monarch might make choices that serve the other country's interests at the expense of your own. A personal union can also lead to a permanent union, something the ...


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The earliest instance of a "corporation" as we recognize them today has to be the Dutch East India Company which was established in 1602. The Dutch East India Company was the first to issue shares that were tradeable on a stock exchange in its company in part to raise capital for its operations. At the time of its founding similar trading companies focused ...


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At Agincourt (1415) the English reportedly had 1,500 men-at-arms (aka: Knights) and 7,000 longbowmen. That would be a ratio of nearly 5 longbowmen per knight. The French side has a lot of conflicting estimates of size, but by all accounts was very heavily weighted toward men-at-arms. Estimates generally run north of 10,000, with only about 5,000 archers and ...


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Rani Padmavati is a very popular character, but to call her a historical character will be misleading, and wrong, based on evidences so far. History is based on written sources. Now, there can be a paucity of sources. Some later discovery of a written source can possibly overturn earlier versions. But written source is a must. The only two written sources ...


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The answer to both questions is yes. To quote specific examples, the French won major battles after "bad", or rainy, weather at the Battle of Saint-Omer and the Battle of Cocherel. The English won the Battle of Auberoche against the numerical odds (5:1 in that case) in good weather. However, the dataset is probably too small to draw any conclusions as to ...


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The word "corporation" originates from Ancient Rome. Ancient Rome had special laws concerning the creation of corporations. Under the republic the creation of corporations was free, but starting from the reign of Augustus, only the Senate could approve the creation of new corporations. A Roman corporation was unlike the modern ones. It was more like a club,...


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Caveat You said, "it could only improve the life quality of everyone since more land was available per person." - that would only be true if the two classes benefitted equally from the land. That is an assumption that will lead you very far astray. @Stefan has provided an extended example. Essentially however, if the benefit of land was skewed 90% ...


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My answer is only hinted at the following piece. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_I_of_Bohemia But there is a key line that says that Bohemia escaped the Black Plague that affected much of the rest of Europe. That would be sufficient to attract "flight capital" from the rest of Europe seeking a "safe haven" from afflicted areas. Bohemia appears to be ...


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Jadwiga was better choice for Polish nobility, as they could have much stronger influence on her, without having to deal with Hungarians. Politic priorities of Poland and Hungary were different - the main problem of Poland those times were Teutonic Knights at the northern border. Hungarians had simply no interest in that matter. This way if Mary became ...


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Englishmen, as well as their Gascon allies wore the red St George's cross stitched over; front and back so as to distinguish each other. Anyone found 'posing' with one who wasn't one of them scored a death sentence. It was an ordinance given by Richard II that every member of the army, lord and archer must wear it over their armour/clothing. Sources: ...


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The following quotes, from English Medieval Knight 1400-1500 By Christopher Gravett on Google Books, states that retained Men-At-Arms would have worn their lords colours. Great lords employed knights and men-at-arms in private retinues, indeed sometimes so many that they formed private armies. Under this system of ‘livery and maintenance’, the ...


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Ordinary soldiers did not wear emblems or colors. Units had pennants or flags. Knights might have an emblem, but that would normally be the house of the knight, not anyone else. Here is a picture illustrating a battle from the 100 Years War. As you can see they use flags and pennants:


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The equipment for a knight was very expensive to create and maintain, it was therefore reserved for the rich, the nobility. Those were of course also the main group of people who could afford horses trained for riding as warhorses (which is quite different training from general riding and draft horses), so my guess is it would be unlikely to see a knight on ...


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Armor Essentials The essentials of the transition from twelfth-century mail harness to the fully developed plate armor of the fifteenth century man-at-arms can be summarized as follows: Articulations: Iron plate or hardened leather defenses for the elbows, knees, and shins first appeared in the mid-thirteenth century, and during the following hundred and ...


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The Logicmuseum site lists Summa Logica: Bruges, Bibl. de la Ville 498 (an. 1340); Avignon, Bibl. Mun. 1086 (1343) meaning there is (or was) a manuscript in the Bruges municipal library (MS 498) from the year 1340, and one in the Avignon municipal library (MS 1086) from 1343.


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Chainmaille development and construction was surprisingly consistent from the 1st century CE onwards. You are correct in your assumption that almost all extant maille finds are riveted, but there are examples that show butted maille where the wire is simply closed together. In terms of construction, there are 4 types: riveted, welded, stamped, or butted. ...


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Just looking over that wikipedia link, I'm seeing a lot of references to British monarchal eras and Highland fashion. So it could be that this was an item primarily prevalent in England and Scottland. England is not exactly famous for its sunny climate, and average temperatures there even in the summer appear to be a few degrees cooler than in Poland (where ...


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Perhaps Hungarian intersts surpassed Polish interest. At the time Hungary had a larger population than Poland, and the Hungarian royal inland revenues were higher than the Polish royal inland revenues.


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Referring to the Black Book of Edward IV - it's drawn from his own household accounts, so the limits to the retainers allowed are the limits Edward himself set. Remember that Edward had only managed to get, hold, then regain the throne by force-of-arms but he was very well aware that the nobles had their own retainers and that it was possible to lose the ...


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Actually, some of his bones were recovered and brought back to the basilique Saint-Denis, his heart is in the cathedral of Rouen and his bowels and guts in le Louvres, within his recumbent statues. https://www.tombes-sepultures.com/crbst_378.html


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In answer to the main question: largely, no. The range and penetration of the long bow, and the firing rate compared to the crossbow, were more significant factors than the weather if one looks at the 100 years war overall. The war began to shift in favour of the French when they developed better protective armour. Also, after the death of John, Duke of ...


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Men at arms varied a lot in wealth and status. My knowledge is based on England and the hundred years war area, but you should find many universal similarities. In the early 1300s about 20-30% were knights, though by the early 1400s this was down to around 10%. Knights received 2 shillings a day as pay while common men at arms got half. You might add that ...


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The Karaim and Tatar communities in the vicinity of Trakai date from the time of Vytautas. The Karaim spoke a similar language to the Tatars, but they weren’t Muslims, instead they professed a heterodox version of Judaism. These people may have worked as castle guards, and they seem to have regarded Vytautas as their patron and protector. There are a ...


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The best answer to the question that I have been able to come up myself so far points to silver mining e.g. in Kutná Hora, another UNESCO World Heritage property in the Czech Republic, from the the 13th and 14th centuries ("Kutná Hora is therefore rightly considered to be the treasure-house of the land whose wealth gave strength to the expansion of the ...


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This is a very simplified example but hopefully it will help: Assume that there are 10 nobles and 100 workers. Each noble has 10 fields and uses at least 1 worker per field. Nobles have financial commitments and a standard of living which they wish to maintain. They pay the workers 1 pound a week to work on the fields and each field is equally profitable....


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