43

There is a difference between abstract knowledge and "inventions". In the 17th century it was still widely believed that the ancient Greeks had discovered and formulated pretty much the sum total of abstract knowledge. Fermat put this in question. The authentic quote from Fermat (in French and in English translation) can be found here: Perhaps, posterity ...


11

Other answers are good but I would like to add a bit of context. The OP states that it should have been clear by 1600 that some advance had been made since Roman times. However, the idea that by then contemporary sciences and arts had surpassed old ones was new and very controversial. The querelle des Anciens et des Modernes was a famous and heated literary ...


10

Answer Sound recordings prior to the mid 19th century are anachronistic, however sound recordings since then of authentic music reproductions may be available, due to the existence of transcriptions of authentic music made in the early 1600's. Sound Recordings No, the Europeans did not make sound recordings of Native American flute music (nor did ...


7

Murad IV and his mother Kosem Sultan maintained a working relationship throughout his reign. Even after he started to exert his authority from around 1628 (when he was 16 years old), he still sought her advice and she was trusted enough to effectively act as regent during his frequent absences while campaigning. At the same time, she was frustrated at her ...


6

As far as I know, "Instructions for training a ships crew in the use of arms in attack and defence" by Lieutenant William Pringle Green, is the first book on how a crew of the Royal Navy should train with swords and guns, how they should defend their ship in case of boarding, or to board an enemy vessel themselves. The year of publication is 1812, so not ...


6

Others have covered Fermat's note specifically, so I'll respond to this sub-question: I am extremely interested in the idea that there was a period in time when, at least in the west, people looked upon the ancients (Romans/Greeks) as possessors of wisdom that had been lost. After the fall of the Roman empire (around 476 AD - exact opinions vary at what ...


6

Let's see. The minister of defense Cornelis de Witt was suddenly indicted for treason, and interogated under torture. The raadspensionaris (prime minister) was his brother Johan de Witt. He was also charged with treason, and locked up in the same prison, the Gevangenpoort in The Hague. The charges for both were at the time highly disputable. Interrogating ...


4

Important points to note: All nobles of the Holy Roman Empire who owed fealty directly to the (Austrian) Kaiser were Imperial Princes. The junior members of their families were entitled to style themselves as Fürst(in), translated in to English as (noble) Prince(ss). Although these families were regarded as sovereign, they were not royal. The German Prinz(...


3

I am sure that Fermat was serious. Sciences, as we know them, especially mathematics, astronomy and physics were invented in Ancient Greece and then reached a high level of development in the Hellenistic states. After the collapse of the Roman empire, this knowledge was practically forgotten, and there was almost no development. This was a true Dark Age, at ...


3

About the context of the bandeiras (unsponsored expeditions) from S. Paulo (formerly S. Vicente captaincy) In short: In much of the highlands, specially S. Paulo, outside of the sugar cane coastal regions, the dominant language was Tupi until the Portuguese intervened, and the Indians were a common race in the racial mix, up to the arrival of black slaves ...


3

We can't really say for sure what his daily reading habits are like (and he almost surely maintained different schedules over the course of his life - certainly blindness must have had a significant impact). In this case, however, I suspect your professor was referring to Milton's reading of the bible, which he could do in the original Hebrew and Greek. ...


2

In fact, Poland had at least one internal religious war, namely, the Khmelnytsky Uprising in 1648–1657, right at the end of the 30 year war in Central Europe. Religion, ethnicity, and economics factored into this discontent. While the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth remained a union of nations, a sizable population of Orthodox Ruthenians were ignored. ...


2

I think this question is entirely answered by Wikipedia The Frame of 1701 remained the governing constitutional document in Pennsylvania in the following seventy-five years until the Revolution of 1776. Wikipedia Given that the source of authority for the Frame of 1701 was the crown, (see below), in 1776, created a new governing document. WHEREAS ...


1

I am extremely interested in the idea that there was a period in time when, at least in the west, people looked upon the ancients (Romans/Greeks) as possessors of wisdom that had been lost. In the light of this question its worth looking at the first volume of Richard Feynmans Lectures on Physics which contains the following quote: If, in some cataclysm,...


1

Hennig Brand married twice and had at least two children with his first wife and also a stepson from his second marriage. His first wife was a rich widow and this meant he could spend all his time on research. At least one of the children was a girl. When his first wife died, he married Margaretha, also a rich widow. She had a son (who became Brand's ...


1

The paper, Galileo and the Tower of Pisa experiment, by Carl G. Adler and Byron L. Coulter (published in the American Journal of Physics 46(3), March 1978), demonstrates that it was almost certainly a thought experiment, and that he could not have obtained the results presented in his paper by actually performing the experiment in the real world. ...


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