56

The whole point of the reign of Peter the Great was to "modernize" (westernize) Russia. Per the wikipedia article, "Peter implemented sweeping reforms aimed at modernizing Russia.[10] Heavily influenced by his advisors from Western Europe, Peter reorganized the Russian army along modern lines and dreamed of making Russia a maritime power. He faced much ...


55

I think the answer to the headline question is "not very, which is why everyone thought Cavendish was a bit weird" :-) But focusing on the detailed question - from his entry in the revised 2004 Oxford Dictionary of National Biography: Almost misanthropic in his reserve, Cavendish never received strangers at his residence, and ordered his dinner by ...


24

Before considering how to disengage from a boarding action, I think you have to consider the difficulties and risks of bringing about a boarding action in the first place. To evade a boarding attempt by manoeuvre was relatively easy. It was in practice very difficult to get near enough to a ship to attempt to board her unless it was also her intention to ...


18

No. there is no evidence to backup this claim. Like it says on Wikipedia: The Countess frequently appeared in men's clothing and even in military uniform. Some sources alleged that August the Strong made his own daughter his favorite; however, this cannot be proved. It was a rumor going around at the time. She was apparently of exceptional beauty and had ...


14

Because they are Catholic. No other reason. Doesn't matter if you are a boy or girl. It's very common practise to give children many baptismal names, including Maria. To both girls and boys. Perhaps not today, but when I was baptized 60 years ago, it definitely was. My parents 'blessed' me with that name too. Being a boy, and attending a non-Catholic school, ...


7

When a claim on Wikipedia includes a citation, you should always try to locate of copy of the cited work if you are looking for further details about that claim. In this case, the source cited is The library : an illustrated history, by Stuart Murray. Fortunately for us, this is available to borrow on Archive.org. The passage you quote is taken directly ...


7

Writing out the question somehow jogged my memory and I found him: Francisco de Miranda. From Wikipedia: "Miranda led a romantic and adventurous life in the general political and intellectual climate that emerged from the Age of Enlightenment that influenced all of the Atlantic Revolutions. He participated in three major historical and political ...


5

Short Answer Details on the 1730s and 1740s Persian Navy can be pieced together to some extent from the Floor article you already found (but couldn't access), plus a smattering of other sources (including the Peter Good article found by Steve Bird). In short, prior to 1734 the Persians didn't have a navy of their own to speak of. From then until the late ...


5

This seems to be several different questions so I'll take each one in turn. Why didn't line infantry tactics try to keep up a constant volley of fire? I'm a little perplexed at the phrasing of the question because it implies that line infantry tactics did not "try to keep up a constant volley of fire". In fact linear infantry tactics were ...


5

Here is a highly condensed version, sufficient to show that part of your question is incorrect. There were several different bands of Nez Perce Indians which had more or less separate governments. Various groups of Nez Perce were more or less coerced into signing a treaty in 1869 giving up most of their land. Some Nez Perce groups didn't sign the treaty ...


4

I'm posting this as an answer because it has grown far too long to post in comments. In short, the appearance of rural housing in the mid-eighteenth century varied according to where you were in England, and the nature of the local building materials available. As with any other period, the appearance of houses and the living conditions in rural England ...


4

As an amateur blacksmith I can 'educated guess' based on the link in the comment provided by T.E.D. The first five illustrations appear to show how an agricultural scythe would be converted for 'military' use. The attachment of the blade needs to be converted from horizontal to vertical since the weapon will be used for thrusting and chopping. The blade ...


3

The body of your question and the title don’t exactly match. It’s unlikely that anyone (noble or not) that could speak would communicate solely by written means with people that were within hearing distance. Even today with our electronic devices providing a quick and easy means of communicating, if people are within hollering distance, we generally speak. ...


3

In the paper "Patterns of smallpox mortality in London, England, over three centuries" authors deal with exactly this problem: We accessed original documents in London, England, in the Guildhall Library, the British Library, the Wellcome Library, and the London Metropolitan Archive. We digitized weekly reported birth and death records for London ...


3

Nothing yet on Fernández, but the records of enrollments and degrees of the University are in the 574 volumes (!) of the "Universidad" section, 1553-1863, in the "Colecciones Novohispanas" of the Archivo General de la Nación.


2

The typical boarding action in the age of sail included grappling hooks being thrown, to pull the two ships together. Once connected, additional means to connect the ships together included boat hooks and similar implements. Once in close proximity, the rigging of the ships could also become fouled, i.e. tangled together. In either case, the way to disengage ...


1

The Exchequer Records at the National Records of Scotland include an archive of papers about forfeited estates for the years 1716-1824. You might be able to find relevant secondary sources that draw from these records, but so far I'm not having much luck finding anything that directly addresses your question. And unfortunately the records do not appear to ...


1

The principle of distinction and protection of civilians is only found in thin allusions in treaties (I), but to some extent in the scholary treatment of international law (II) and in the national martial laws (III). But we should not think of the recognition of the principle of disctinction in too modern ways (IV). I. Allusions in international treaties ...


1

Delphine LaLaurie, a serial killer of her slaves, was found guilty of their abuse and had her house attacked and destroyed by a mob in 1834. She did manage to escape justice by fleeing to France.


1

Short answer: Yes, but one army did not have an edge over the entire century. A century, at that time, was nearly three generations. And militaries of the time could only serve for a small timeframe, so you could have up to ten different generations in one army for this century. Long answer: During the 18th century, in Europe, armies were in a very subtle ...


Only top voted, non community-wiki answers of a minimum length are eligible