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17

The French Postal Service started operation in the fifteenth century and by 1632 - 150 years before your inquiry - there was already a network of over 623 coaching inns operated by it across the length and breadth of France - typically about seven miles apart. These coaching inns provided refreshment, accommodation and fresh teams for all travelers, not just ...


3

This site claims the letter to be dated 30 March 1796 (Apparently 10 Germinal) and sent from Nice. This is a mere three weeks after their whirlwind romance and marriage on March 9 that year, shortly after Napoleon's appointment to command the bankrupt Army of Italy. From context the "visitors" might be parents of Napoleon's step children by Josephine - ...


12

Post stages existed in France (and elsewhere in Europe) before the Revolution where horses would be exchanged along the route The Wikipedia article Stage station deals more about the 19th century than the 18th century, but otherwise gives a good overview on how the system worked. It also explains the Origin of the name posting: Medieval couriers were ...


10

No idea if the story occurred exactly as described, but FWIW it is plausible. Louis XVI sought to flee his plight during the French Revolution a few years later. A number of things went wrong after he left with his family during the night: he opted for a slow, heavy coach instead of the two light ones that had been recommended to him so the family wouldn't ...


35

This answer is based on the assumption that the OP is referring to the HBO miniseries Catherine the Great and, more specifically, the following segment of the script: [Catherine:] But in these more enlightened times, I believe we need laws that everyone respects and obeys. The rich and the powerful, as well as the poor and dispossessed. And so ...


0

Question: 1 Did Freemasons hold Enlightenment ideals? . Yes, The two central tenants of Enlightenment philosophy are: Faith in reason above all things... The reason that is discovered through human experience. Reason over religion, customs, laws and the government..... what have you. Pursuit of knowledge to improve the human condition. Valuing ...


4

By "present" i understand you mean stationing in peace time. There were obviously many times foreign troops entered the Commonwealth for military campaigns or possibly raiding. Sometimes it's not even obvious whether we talk about stationing or campaigning as 18th century Commonwealth was sometimes called "Open Inn", throughout which the foreign troops moved ...


-2

Freemasonry in the sense known today has (and had during the American Revolution) only existed since the founding of the Grand Lodge of England in 1717. That was just two generations prior to the American Revolution. If one accepts that the ideals of (Anglophone "Grand Lodge" as opposed to Continental "Grand Orient") Freemasonry are roughly the same now as ...


18

Weaving generally had been a fairly common occupation during the medieval period in Scotland. The skills were taught to apprentices, who may or may not have been related to the master weaver. This remained the normal way of teaching skilled trades right up to the industrial revolution. In 1587 the Scottish Parliament passed an Act intended to encourage ...


2

I've done research in this field, and believe the simple answer is that utilitarian social policy in eC19 moved in the opposite direction from developments in clinical psychology at the same time. For example, the utilitarian creation of the New Poor Law in 1834 made workhouses more austere, with reduced diets and families separated by sex, not to mention ...


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