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59

You are correct that these are party lines. The letters represent an additional digit dialed after the others in cases where automatic operations was implemented. This article goes into great depth all about how multi-party telephone lines worked, but as a short excerpt: A scheme widely used in the Bell Telephone System for four-party full selective lines ...


29

Decided to do some research to try to provide an answer to this question. I found three documented cases where an Arab leader used the term "Drive Jews into the sea" or talked about large scale massacre. I also mention a court case that seems to indicate that Nasser never used that term himself, nor did any other Arab leader make genocidal statements prior ...


25

The traditional historical narrative has been that the Aleutian attack, which happened a day earlier, was intended as a diversionary attack, hoping to spread American forces thinner, and thus make the Japanese fleet carrier concentration at Midway as devastating as possible. Parshall and Tully, operating from Japanese sources, have a different story. ...


23

What Arab plans can be inferred from three classes of sources: (1) Pre-war statements to the Arab population with promises that all would share in the booty of Jewish property won by the Arab Legion armies, (2) changes in Ottoman land ownership laws following Jordan's annexation of the West Bank and East Jerusalem Here are some statements from Arab books and ...


23

The Arab-Israeli conflict didn't start in 1948, it has a long history and was particularly intensified after the British government promised Palestine both to its Arab and Jewish population in the course of World War I. The first armed conflict is apparently assumed to be the Battle of Tel Hai in 1920. As a result, while Israel didn't exist before 1948 ...


22

So did it matter that the Red Army clung on to that small part of the city and, if not, why is such a big deal made of it? Yes, it did. By the time the battle for Stalingrad proper had begun and ran its course for the first few weeks, the Soviet high command was already thinking of what to do next. The plan that materialized would become Operation Uranus (...


17

The salaries stopped as soon as Flensburg government was dissolved. The officials and technical personnel went on with their lives - found other jobs, went home or emigrated. The buildings lay fallow (the occupying powers being jointly responsible for their maintenance) until the Bundesrepublik & DDR were proclaimed in 1949, at what time they were turned ...


17

The currency you posted is from an occupied territory, see the related wikipedia link. If you read carefully, it says: Reichskreditkassen on the bottom, Nazi Germany issued these notes in occupied territories which weren't considered to the Reich's territory. Note that these notes had completely different rules than real Reichsmarks, for example they were ...


15

Of course. It wasn't much of a secret. Some 85% of the Soviet military's top positions were removed; the scale alone makes it rather impossible to hide. In fact, knowledge that Stalin had decapitated his own army's backbone was one of the factors motivating Nazi Germany to invade. But not only did [the Great Purges] do incalculable damage to the future ...


14

Summary Nothing is known beyond the official drive the Jews into the Sea rhetoric, and nothing definitive will probably be known. Nothing is Known Most countries do not publish their unfulfilled plans, and, even when they do, there is no good way to ascertain their authenticity. This is especially true for the Arab states in question, which were at the ...


14

As a matter of fact, the 1948 war actually started on November 30th, 1947 - the day after the UN Partition Resolution, as the Arabs vowed not to accept it. The first phase of the war pitted Palestine Arab irregular warbands against Jewish paramilitary formations - the mainstream Haganah, the more nationalist Irgun, and the really really radical Lehi. The ...


13

It seems the idea of a Single World Airline was proposed at the 1944 Chicago Conference by Australia and New Zealand. An excerpt from a 2006 Master's thesis by Joanna Mastalerek, titled The Future of the Open Skies Agreements after the ECJ judgements - Legal and Economic Aspects states: ... it was just consequent for the US to advocate a liberal, ...


12

The first stage of the Stalingrad campaign (pre-encirclement), lasted from mid-September to late middle November, or just over three months. The implications would have been very different if the Russians had lost the west bank on say, September 15th, October 15th, or November 15th. If the Germans had captured the west bank of the city by about November ...


12

As always, the uniform would differ from one school to another school. But in the Showa period (1920s-1985) school uniforms is highly characterized by a strong influence from the military - especially the navy. Japan had been in rigorous military transformation since the start of Meiji period (1868), and it is reflected in the education system it produced - ...


12

Can't talk about New York (as I'm in Australia), but when I was a kid the Brisbane phone numbers had a one two digit alpha prefix, then a 4 digit number - eg my grandparents were J 2871, and my aunt LX 1710. These letters were merely mapped on to the dial (note that Australian phones go from 1 to 9 then zero): 1 A 2 B 3 C 4 J 7 L 6 M 7 N 8 P o X 0 Y (I ...


10

Your question is premised on some incorrect assumptions: Casualties were not that high. The U.S. Army enlisted over 11 million men and suffered less than 500,000 killed and MIA, only a bit more wounded (but many of whom returned to service). Overall percentage killed was 2.2%. Yes, the U.S. military is known for its long tail, but even for the pointy end of ...


9

With 20/20 hindsight you can win just about any battle. Which is what we do here in this question. Military History Visualized has a good explanation. Japanese operations were usually quite complicated. This was no exception. Had Yamamoto been replaced by another admiral, the plan would have been just as complicated. To elaborate on that: Yamamoto directed ...


7

The Allies had sufficient control of the Atlantic Ocean for FDR and Churchill to arrive safely at Casablanca by sea in 1943 (the routes were "safe enough" for over 100,000 Allied troops). Getting to Casablanca was more problematic for Stalin, which is why he didn't attend. The theoretical danger was by land or air, but as people pointed out in the answer to ...


6

There was Atlit Detainee Camp, a prison built by the British to hold Jewish immigrants. POWs from the Arab armies as well as Palestinian irregular forces were put there but all were released shortly after the war's end in 1949. Contrary to the wishes of the organizers of Israel Apartheid week,it was not an extermination/torture camp. For a few years after ...


6

The Nuremburg Principles declared such wars a crime against peace. The crimes hereinafter set out are punishable as crimes under international law: (a) Crimes against peace: (i) Planning, preparation, initiation or waging of a war of aggression or a war in violation of international treaties, agreements or assurances This was codified by the ...


6

The many cues to observe: Picture quality Although it might be even higher resolution and a better scan: depth of field, focus, shadows etc point to an overall technology that's more late than sooner. The vehicles RBarryYoung: Ok, I am now pretty sure that the bus is a Flxible Clipper and not a Visicoach from the Flxible owners site. The last year they ...


6

The wiki articles' focus on the Communist/Nationalist dispute create an impression that repairs were delayed due to political disagreements. However, while certainly a factor, the most significant source of delay was mundane and technical: the repair works were destroyed by floods. Efforts to seal the breach began in March 1946, with an original goal to ...


6

When I saw this question I immediately went to look at Sexual Behavior in the Human Female, the first study of its kind. It was published by Alfred Kinsey and colleagues in 1953, based on data collected over 15 years. The sample was meant to be representative of the US female population in general. (EDIT: As @Luiz raises in the comments, this claim of ...


5

The earliest use of Golden Age with reference to musical theatre in general which I've been able to find is in this May 3rd 1977 New York Times review by Clive Barnes of a revival of The King and I with Yul Brynner. The title is of the review is: 'King and I,’ Reminder of Golden Age The review goes on to call The King and I a reminder of what the Broadway ...


5

This is a fascinating question. There are short, simple answers: The great devaluation of 1949 - 30% Post war, Britain was heavily indebted to the USA. Despite a soft loan agreement with repayments over fifty years, the pound remained once again under intense pressure In 1949 Stafford Cripps devalued the pound by over 30%, giving a rate of $2.80 The ...


5

I think the loss of British Empire about that time had something to do with that. If you have fiat currency, valued primarily on the perception of your total assets, and you loose a large portion of those assets, you'd better voluntarily adjust your exchange rate or face devaluation due to loss of trust in your currency by other players.


5

Yes, it was a common practice to sell daughters [and sometimes, wives]. It was widely practiced at least until the mid of Showa period (1950s) so I think it is safe to make it as a major plot line in 1930s-1940s Japan. In the Edo period (1603-1868) the practice was extremely rampant both in urban and rural areas, and it was considered normal as it was the ...


4

Lolita is a novel by a European literary author whose purpose is to convey aesthetic and critical perspectives on the process of reading and writing itself. New England, Americana, and paedophilia are adjuncts to the purpose of the author attempting to "read himself into" the reader by producing a hostile, lying, multiply layered narrative based around ...


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