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57

"Why?" questions are particularly difficult to answer. It is not possible to stare into Johnson's soul, searching for motivation, from our vantage point more than fifty years later; instead we are left attempting to analyze his recorded acts and words, leveraging our understanding of human nature. However, I believe it is fundamental to recognize that ...


51

Based on this page from the French School for Advanced Studies in the Social Sciences, it appears that the neighbouring Balsesmes merged into La Haye-Descartes in 1966, before the combined commune was renamed to Descartes the next year. In 1962, the two communes had remarkably similar population levels of 1,679 and 1,689. With a combined population of 4,267 ...


46

There is no evidence they seriously considered expelling all Palestinians. The impracticality, illegality and negative publicity was self-evident, even if fringe elements entertained the fantasy. However, there's evidence that smaller scale displacements were carried out. It resulted in the 1967 exodus. During the brief war of 1967, 350,000 Palestinians ...


36

Robert A. Caro's The Passage of Power goes into some detail on this, dating RFK's antipathy towards LBJ to before they had met for the first time. Leaving aside the political aspects (especially disagreements over Vietnam) which are mentioned in the Wikipedia page on Robert F. Kennedy, Caro relates the first meeting between the two in January 1953 in the ...


31

Unless a particular Air Force General 'fesses up in an autobiography, the first question is unanswerable. On the second question, absolutely that was happening. It had been happening for years, escalating in quantity and variety of supplies transported, since at least 1959. The supply trail was known as the Ho Chi Minh Trail, ran through the mountains of ...


24

During the 1960s, non-violent protest was more effective than violent protest at bringing about desegregation in southern cities - especially where black protest groups had some economic leverage over the local community. We know this thanks to a recent quantitative study, which found that cities with sit-in protests were much more likely to desegregate ...


23

This is probably a very debatable question, but I think I can make the argument, with good historical backing, that it was the non-violent protests that were most effective in what progress was made in the Civil Rights movement. Firstly I make this argument in deference to the leaders on the ground. A reading of Freedom Summer, by Bruce Watson* shows that ...


23

I'm not aware of any evidence that Israel considered mass expulsions from occupied territories in the aftermath of the 1967 Six Day War. As I understand it, the civilian populations would have been protected under the terms of the Fourth Geneva Convention. In particular, Article 49 of the Convention states that: "Individual or mass forcible transfers, as ...


17

LBJ was a complex figure. He is described as having "uncommon ambition", easily discarding considerations such as ideology for the sake of advancing his career. As a Texas congressman and then Senator, his voting in favour of segregation is completely in line with the political climate of the time and place. Seizing on the nation's grief and support for ...


14

I would guess that this fellow was stationed at the American consulate general (that is what AM CON GEN stands for) in Calcutta between 1961 and 1962. So to answer your precise question: Probably not much.


13

LBJ didn't flip. He was racist and only use the Civil Rights Act to further his power and his party's political power. LBJ said to Richard Russell, a fellow Democratic Senator from Georgia: These Negroes, they're getting pretty uppity these days and that's a problem for us since they've got something now they never had before, the political pull to back ...


12

The following data are taken entirely from the Angus Maddison (GDP per capita) project database (Jan 2013 update). In 1965, Singapore's GDP per capita was $2,667 (in 1990 dollars). This put Singapore at a higher GDP per capita than every East and South Asian country, with the exceptions of Japan ($5,934) and Hong Kong ($4,825). For comparison, countries ...


12

Yes. The perception in the Kennedy administration is that there was no alternative but to appoint pro-segregationist anti-civil rights district judges to most southern districts. Both Senators from the state in which a judge would serve must approve of the appointment before the full Senate even considers the appointment. Inevitably, then, district judges ...


12

Question: When Israel won the six day war did they consider expelling all Arabs from the annexed territory? Did Israel consider doing this and if so, would that have been in violation of international law? Short Answer: Yes the expulsion of all Arabs from the occupied territories was considered at a cabinet meeting by the Israeli Prime Minister. ...


10

The Yuma Proving Ground is not accessible by civilians unless you have contacts in the Army. The test site is located in the KOFA Range. The 16" gun is at (old) gun position 10. I have posted a satellite image below with the coordinates: As you can see, the gun is still in place. The tubes to the north of the gun are alternative barrels. There is a HARP ...


10

According to William Strauss and Neil Howe's book, Generations, the generations born immediately after a major war are "Idealist" generations that reject their parents' values and lifestyles, and form a "counterculture" that (temporarily) rejects convention and social order. A reason this happened was that the society of the 1950s and 1960s was run by the ...


10

That is the D-Mac Cartographic Digitiser, seen here in the 1968 Design journal (Issue 234): It seems the D-Mac Cartographic Digitiser was developed from an earlier device called the D-Mac Pencil Follower, shown here in the 1968 Design journal: Both devices appear to be early types of graphics tablet.


9

IBM started offering the "lease" option in the late 1960s, when leasing became popular in other industries. It seemed like a way to segment the market, but in so doing, IBM opened a window into their business that weakened what had up to that time been a quasi monopoly. There are quite a few examples of firms that bought IBM computers for re-leasing to ...


9

Both views you've heard are somewhat right. Singapore was already an important port by the time of its independence, yet its growth accelerated so quickly after independence that the Singapore of forty years ago probably does seem like a backwater: According to official statistics released since 1960, the economic indicators of Singapore show a ...


8

King made frequent reference to the book of Exodus in order to draw parallels between the ancient Israelites (enslaved in Egypt) and African-Americans (not enslaved anymore, but still not granted the full set of rights that come with being truly free). You can read entire essays on King's rhetorical use of Exodus. King used the exact phrase Egypt-land at ...


8

Ostensibly, Labour was against immigration controls. This is evident from its opposition to the Commonwealth Immigrants Act 1968. But your real question appears to be, how likely Labour would have passed the same law. I would argue that there's no great need for speculation. Labour was voted into power during the 1964 election. Despite its earlier ...


8

Growing up in the '60's, in towns of 20,000 to 40,000 people, I can attest that Baby Boomers had a freedom that kids today would never dream could exist. We walked to school every day, returned home for lunch, and wandered off for hours at a time on weekends and warm summer days. However, that freedom was closely guarded and protected by the ever-present ...


8

Being from Montreal but born in the seventies, I have not visited Expo 67, but I’ve heard a lot about it. Yes, my parents and their peers have always talked about this event with great pleasure and it does strike an emotional chord in them. I would say there are three main reasons for this. The first one being the fact that it was a huge success, very much ...


8

Really interesting documents and facts are brought here More pictures and information here Both sources describes people leaving on their own free will as a result of a war, some of it supported by the Israeli government funds and assistance , but according to the articles nothing about active deportation. There was a plan that was partially executed to ...


8

Why? Because from an egocentric point of view, LBJ became aware of situations that affected him and his (extended) "family". Please allow me to relate a specific anecdote to illustrate that LBJ's large ego (well-known, cited here: https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/1998/04/three-new-revelations-about-lbj/377094/) was insulted by this everyday ...


8

I'd say, from the partial emblem on the front, that the aircraft was part of the USAF 322d Airlift Division (Combat Cargo) in 1962-3. According to this article the "[322 Air Division] sent a squadron of C-130 Hercules to India just after the end of the 1962 hostilities with China". To give credit where it's due, @TomMcW & @Gerry on the Aviation board ...


8

Wikipedia suggest the yearly trail capacity in 1968 was between 10000 (1964) tons, 81000 (1968 reserved offensive supplies) tons and 40000 (end 1970) tons. It usefully doesn’t specify which ton. The first and last estimate appear to be for the overland route controlled by the 559th. Nixon’s statement regarding the logistic capacity of the PLAF/PAVN appears ...


7

SHORT ANSWER The Black Panther Party (BPP), as suggested by the passage you cited, does seem to be the originator of this slogan in terms of the protests movements from the 1960s onwards, with 'all' originally preceding it. The earliest confirmed use I've found was on a March 1969 BPP poster (see below). DETAILED ANSWER In his autobiography, BPP Minister ...


6

I'll try to say something about the question of why the counterculture declined. The nature of the question is such that probably nobody can give a definitive answer, just guesses and impressions. My answer is about the US, which was a leader in the movement. Other things were going on in other places, e.g., May 1968 in Paris. Two big things that the ...


6

I'm going to answer in terms of the paid labour dimensions of gender. There are other elements of the gendered presentation in Mad Men such as gender and sexual identity, reproduction or unpaid labour. Feminisation is the change from a male dominated or mixed gender workforce to a female dominated workforce. Proletarianisation is the degradation of: "old" ...


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