48

This question gets really complicated really fast. After the breakup, each of the former Soviet republics established its own set of laws, and then these laws were rewritten multiple times. The region also includes half a dozen unrecognized states (Transnistria, Artsakh, Abkhazia, Ossetia, DPR, and LPR) each of them having its own very original definition of ...


45

The Soviets were caught by surprise and suffered massive casualties as a result. See this Wikipedia article. Lots of aircraft were destroyed on the ground, not the air. The first attacks began at 03:00 on 22 June. The Soviets had been caught by surprise, their aircraft bunched together in neat rows which were vulnerable. The results were devastating ... ...


43

It appears to be a painting of Pavlo Shandruk (Ukrainian: Павло Шандрук, Polish: Pawło Szandruk). As Pieter noted it is a mid 20th century fascist German uniform in style. As Luiz noted the cockade and neck insignia are off, and appear Ukrainian National Army (UNA). I then researched UNA (Luiz) generals (based on my observation and Pieter's confirmation). ...


30

Short Answer The identities of France and Britain are indicated by their heads of state, namely President Armand Fallières and King Edward VII respectively. There is also (as Roddy of the Frozen Peas observed in his comment above) a French flag on one of the ships near the French President. Details The image appeared on the cover of the September 22, 1909 ...


20

Magnus Hirschfeld, a researcher on sexuality and early advocates for gay rights amassed a huge body of research on homosexuality and transsexuality. In '33, he was heading and institute at the Charité University in Berlin. The Archive of his Institute was burned completely, a huge body of research was lost. This did not happen "just" because he was jewish, ...


20

The 1976 date appears to be a transcription error. Not only is the 1970 date more frequent in English literature, the two Russian language sources below (that appear to be independent) agree on a death date of June 12, 1970. Great Chemists - BELOUSOV Boris Pavlovich https://elementy.ru/nauchno-populyarnaya_biblioteka/434667/Boris_Belousov Numerous other ...


17

The Wikipedia article cited in another answer lists among reasons ...equipment, like that of the Red Army, was largely obsolescent and suffering from prolonged use. The Great Purges had also hit aircraft manufacturers, and the loss of personnel ended the Soviet lead in aircraft design and aeronautics (...) The aviation industry was disrupted, severely, and ...


14

Organizational deficiencies, technical obsolescence, inexperience of pilots, surprise caused by Stalin's blunder First of all, claims that VSS lost 4000 planes in the first three days of war is somewhat dubious. This is mostly based on German sources, which is understandable since Soviets usually omitted exact data from this embarrassing period . Only ...


13

Although there are some discrepancies, this appears to be a General der Infanterie of the Panzer Grenadiers, wearing a general officer's version of the M36 wool greatcoat over his service dress (though perhaps in less than full formal attire shown below). Note that while in late war Whermacht feld grau uniforms all tended to a dusty grey colour due to ...


13

Considering the statement "post-Soviet states grant citizenship primarily on the basis of blood, and not birthplace": the two shouldn't be seen in contradiction in this case. Jus sanguinis means transmittance of citizenship between generations. But as republican citizenship lost its importance after 1978 (see below) the place of birth or residence ...


10

A work by Rainer Maria Rilke, Nimet Eloui and Edmond Jaloux in 1952, 'His Last Friendship' or 'Derniere Amite Engl.', has the following paragraph (from snippet view on search page, emphasis mine): ... Nimet Eloui Bey's father, Achmed-Khairi Pasha and her mother, were both of Circassian or Tcherkess stock, and were second cousins. Her mother was the ...


10

Hypothesis: She never existed, nor did her 'castle', in this exact name and location at least. This autobiography is not always a reliable historical source for either persons, locations or events. It is certain that Bergman used some real-life persons and real-life names for them alongside with pseudonyms for others in his autobiography. A few of these ...


9

In the years before the Kennedy administration, visiting African dignitaries, mostly from Liberia and Ethiopia, could hope for (but not expect) the red carpet to be rolled out / meet a senior government official up to and including the president. However, when travelling around / visiting places, most could expect to be exposed to segregation and other ...


8

On the contrary. Portugal started building the (very expensive) Macau International Airport after the handover of Macau decision was already settled between Portugal and China (1987). Even more, Portugal offered to withdraw from Macau in late 1974, but China declined the offer in favour of a later time because it sought to preserve international and ...


8

It may be a German General der Infanterie of the Panzer Grenadiers as Pieter Geerkens answers. The painting may be inaccurate regarding military insignia. And the style looks very Third Reich-like. But: the shoulder insignia does not look German the cockade does not look German (no red ball inside) the neck insignia also does not look German. Then I have ...


8

According to this article in the British Art Journal from 2014: [Lily] married John Boyden Barrett in 1898 and, probably because her husband did not approve, her modelling career ended. For two decades she appears to have lived a comfortable, married life, living in rented houses in various parts of London with her husband. Thereafter, her ...


7

In December 7th 1971 two retired generals from Uruguayan army and presidential candidates, Líber Seregni and Juan Pedro Ribas, fought a duel with pistols - nobody injured. That was the last of a series of politically motivated duels that were fought in Uruguay in 1970 and 1971 (alternate source). Additionally, the duel between Manuel Flores Mora and Jorge ...


7

In the UK, executioners were civillians, contracted on a per-execution basis. They invariably had another job that provided their steady income. While doing an execution was reasonably well-paid, the demand was irregular, and the county sheriffs who hired them had several to choose from. They had trades like publican, bus driver, welder or quarryman - solid ...


7

I've literally just got hold of a hard copy of Rainer Maria Rilke's His Last Friendship, and so I thought I would take the opportunity to expand upon justCal's excellent answer. (It seems as if he only had access to the version on Google Books, which is rather limited.) Here's a sketch of Nimet Eloui Bey's life, chief amongst them being Chapter V of the ...


7

I was born in Moldova (one of the former 15 republics of the USSR). After the break of the Soviet Union my parents (one was born in Russia, the other one in Ukraine) obtained the Moldovan citizenship as they lived in Moldova at that time of the break and owned real estate there. I got Moldovan citizenship as I was born in Moldova. Later on my mom got her ...


6

If you have to pick a single decade, it was the 1980s. Sorry for the text wall, but the full story is a little messier than that. Even during the heyday of European imperialism, when its science and technology let it run roughshod over most of the world, some people saw that China was already a superpower in waiting. The UK didn't so much win its war against ...


6

In the case of Sweden, the last executioner Anders Gustaf Dalman was employed by one or more housing owners in Stockholm to care for their houses. In Sweden executions was usually done with an axe (the last one Johan Alfred Ander was the only time the guillotine was used but Dalman was the executioner.) His colleague Per Petter Christensson Steijnech was ...


6

When I saw this question I immediately went to look at Sexual Behavior in the Human Female, the first study of its kind. It was published by Alfred Kinsey and colleagues in 1953, based on data collected over 15 years. The sample was meant to be representative of the US female population in general. (EDIT: As @Luiz raises in the comments, this claim of ...


6

Russian Wikipedia claims this: Together with his brothers he was involved in revolutionary activities and was arrested at the age of 12. He was forced to emigrate with his family to Switzerland . And that isn't referenced directly but apparently based on the following account: At 12, Boris became a revolutionary. Together with his older brothers, he made ...


5

A vast majority of success of Blitzkrieg hinged on surprise factor which was available only in the earlier stages of war: https://www.britannica.com/topic/blitzkrieg Blitzkrieg, (German: “lightning war”) military tactic calculated to create psychological shock and resultant disorganization in enemy forces through the employment of surprise, speed, ...


5

After looking at lots of atlases and physical geography books on the internet archive, the first mention I found of 70.8% water and 29.2% land is in the German Knaurs WELT-ATLAS, 1932 edition. Even more precise numbers are given by the book Mother Earth by T. A. Ryder in 1930 (so published two years earlier). It says 70.78% water and 29.22% land. Most ...


4

There is ample evidence for the positive answer to your question 1. This phenomenon is well-known and is often mentioned. On question 2, my answer is "it is not completely clear". And on question 3, I think it has not been investigated in full generality. As an example, let me cite the first few lines of the preface to the book by Janos Horwath, Panorama of ...


4

Q: What was the contemporary German public opinion on the Herero Genocide? However, the source cited in wikipedia does not provide any details of the public outrage. I would like to know what form did it take? Did people write editorials? Did deputies protest in the Reichstag? Rallies? Lectures? Petitions? Demonstrations? It was a very controversial 'event'....


4

While @nic provides the crux of the answer, I thought I would elaborate a bit. The immediate event that triggered the mass killing was the kidnapping and murder of 6 generals in an apparent coup d'etat attempt against Sukarno by the so-called 30 September Movement. It is not known whether and to what extent the communist PKI (Communist Party of Indonesia) ...


4

Lolita is a novel by a European literary author whose purpose is to convey aesthetic and critical perspectives on the process of reading and writing itself. New England, Americana, and paedophilia are adjuncts to the purpose of the author attempting to "read himself into" the reader by producing a hostile, lying, multiply layered narrative based around ...


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