49

This question gets really complicated really fast. After the breakup, each of the former Soviet republics established its own set of laws, and then these laws were rewritten multiple times. The region also includes half a dozen unrecognized states (Transnistria, Artsakh, Abkhazia, Ossetia, DPR, and LPR) each of them having its own very original definition of ...


33

On page 14 of FAS.org it indicates his salary was initially set at $10,000. Since that exceeded his previous UC professor’s salary he asked that it be reduced in line with others. Apparently the Regents turned down his request (following letter on that page). As a comparison, on page 10 there is a salary listing for "Persons not now holding an academic ...


15

Considering the statement "post-Soviet states grant citizenship primarily on the basis of blood, and not birthplace": the two shouldn't be seen in contradiction in this case. Jus sanguinis means transmittance of citizenship between generations. But as republican citizenship lost its importance after 1978 (see below) the place of birth or residence ...


14

Yes, this is one of the incarnations of the 'music box' or 'musical box', and the Wikipedia article has some information about them: The original snuff boxes were tiny containers which could fit into a gentleman's waistcoat pocket. The music boxes could have any size from that of a hat box to a large piece of furniture, but most were tabletop specimens. ...


10

Hypothesis: She never existed, nor did her 'castle', in this exact name and location at least. This autobiography is not always a reliable historical source for either persons, locations or events. It is certain that Bergman used some real-life persons and real-life names for them alongside with pseudonyms for others in his autobiography. A few of these ...


9

Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrain, the Trucial States (modern UAE) and Oman were all protected by treaties with Great Britain. Yemen proper was never claimed for the reasons Pieter explained above. That said, Ibn Saud did manage to take away about 2/3rds of the territory claimed by Kuwait, and this was recognized by Great Britain as part of the Uqayr Protocols (1922). ...


9

I see three flags: Left center appears to have 3 vertically oriented stripes, with a dark stripe closest to the staff; based on @Justcal 's comment, this is probably France. Center right which is more properly a pennant or ensign than a flag and dark with a yellow rosette. Quite possibly the Japanese Imperial Banner. (Hat tip to @ezekiel and @justcal ) ...


8

Sorry, this question has been here a while... But seems it still awaiting an answer Gastev researches and work were not the reason of his persecution. You actually listed the major reason in your question, by the way. There is a common (but mistaken) notion that revolutionary movements that overthrew royal dynasty was something solid. It was not. ...


8

I think that the magazine on the right of the lower level of the table (right at the very bottom of the photo) is the May 1934 issue of Flying Aces -- see lumist.org for an image of the pulp. Since 1934 is also one of the calendric years, this seems like a moderately good guess. It also fits well with the general style of the pulp covers -- 20s pulps ...


7

I was born in Moldova (one of the former 15 republics of the USSR). After the break of the Soviet Union my parents (one was born in Russia, the other one in Ukraine) obtained the Moldovan citizenship as they lived in Moldova at that time of the break and owned real estate there. I got Moldovan citizenship as I was born in Moldova. Later on my mom got her ...


7

The decision to execute A.K.Gastev came from the very top. Quoting from the article "Central Institute of Labour" from the materials of the International Memorial, aka Мемориал, Согласно исследованию А. Ткаченко-Гастева, правнука А. К. Гастева, решение о казни основателя ЦИТа связано с постановлением Политбюро от 8 апреля 1939 года расстрелять 198 ...


7

It appears he went as far as trying to convince African leaders of officially raising the issue. WASHINGTON, Aug. 12 —The State Department and the Justice Department have begun to take an interest in Malcolm X's campaign to convince African states to raise the question of persecution of American Negroes at the United Nations. The Black Nationalist leader ...


6

Otherwise productive people becoming too ill to work, and eventually dying, is a loss, isn't it? Likewise the amount spent on medical treatment for those people is a net loss, even if it's profitable for the medical industry - see Bastiat's Broken Window fallacy: https://www.investopedia.com/ask/answers/08/broken-window-fallacy.asp The amounts spent on ...


5

The December 26, 1925 issue of СВОБОДА (SVOBODA, "FREEDOM"), a Ukrainian language daily newspaper from Jersey City, New Jersey, USA, tagged "Official Organ of the Ukrainian National Association, Inc.," contains an article titled "НАСЛІДОК ГОЛОДІВКИ" that contains the word "голодомор": The word "голодомор" ...


5

I only find extreme-right sites That's probably because he is known to have been a fascist collaborator in Italy during World War II and wrote for publications owned by the British fascist Sir Oswald Mosley, embraced Benito Mussolini's fascism, and expressed support for Adolf Hitler. During World War II and the Holocaust in Italy, he made hundreds of ...


5

Short Answer At least some of the above seems to be true. Academic sources confirm that (1) Theodore 'Tommy' Hicks did meet Peron, (2) the use of at least two stadiums was granted (Atlanta and Huracan, both in Buenos Aires), (3) meetings at these stadium were very well-attended (though numbers are disputed), and (4) there was both press and radio coverage. ...


4

The soldier's uniform looks very dark. I would certainly guess that it was probably dark blue instead of the lighter khaki colored uniforms introduced about 1900. Full dress uniforms may have continued to be dark blue instead of khaki colored for years or decades, but the lack of insignia indicates it is probably a service uniform instead of a dress ...


4

In Europe the situation, for most countries, was different. Gas and Electricity development was something that was developed on a local level. Berlin, Germany For street lighting, Electricity replaced Gas rather swiftly after 1884. 1895 steetcars were electrified and after 1902 the underground system being build also used electricity. For households, ...


3

Can't tell from the uniform, but the rifle he is holding may be a clue. That appears to be a model 1873 trap door Springfield - the release handle for the trap door is barely visible forward of the hammer. This was a single shot breechloading rifle, adopted in 1873, and widely used by the Army until the adoption of the short lived Model 1892 Krag, and later ...


3

No, that is not a real music box. The tines for the left side wheel are too close together and don't cover the full width of the wheel, which would make some the pins sound two notes rather than one, and the lower wheel has tines activated both forwards and backwards, which would jam - the pins have to push the tines up and away. Here's a real one you can ...


3

In the Soviet Union every citizen had a "nationality", which was indicated in his or her identity card (internal passport). This could be Russian, or Ukrainian, or Kyrgyz, or Jewish, or any other. In principle, a citizen inherited the nationality of his or her parents; it did not depend on place of residence. If the parents were of different ...


3

I believe the letter to which the author is referring is in fact the "Letter to the Falashas", a public letter attributed to Hajji Seraya Khan Shapshal (a.k.a., Seraya Shapshal, Серая Бен Мордехай Шапшал, Seraja Šapšalas, Seraj Szapszał, Серге́й Маркович Шапшал), which was likely written while he was at studying in St. Petersburg 1896. This letter ...


2

There are a lot of other great answers, but I remember a couple of Soviet movies from the 1930s (for instance, Jim Ripple's robot of 1935) where scientific organization of labor was condemned and labelled as "fascism". In the aforementioned film, a scientist at an industrial plant in capitalist country performs an "experiment" on a worker:...


2

The names were distorted while they were written down by the clerks, especially during issuing certificates of various kinds. It was a problem for lower class citizens - the nobility kept their own names intact. I can give you examples of such distortion from the Pomeranian region rather than Silesia region - a Polish name Kętrzyński was changed to ...


2

I hitchhiked alone all over Europe in the 70s after leaving the UK as an unemancipated minor in 1972. At that time I couldn't even buy a Youth Hostel card without parental consent, so I slept rough in campsites without a tent or even a groundmat, I am surprised now that I was able to do that. But despite my age it was remarkably easy to pass through borders ...


2

Actually, much earlier then that According to this site (in Russian) history of greenhouses in Russia started much earlier, in the time of Peter the Great. He founded Apothecaries Garden (also known as Apothecaries Town), first botanical garden in Russia which stands to this day. Among other things this garden produced tropical fruits (like oranges) which ...


2

According to a page on the 'Convoy to Remember' site you linked, the one on the right is a G13, a post-war Swiss variant of the Jagdpanzer 38 "Hetzer", and the one on the left is likely a Panzer 68, a Swiss main battle tank developed in the late 1960's. The description from Convoy to Remember can be found here, and from the picture on that page you ...


2

The Nimet mentioned here did indeed marry Nikolai Mestchersky (correct spelling) and died August 4, 1942. She's buried in the Orthodox Cemetery of Sainte-Genevieve-des-Bois about 30km south of Paris. The tombstone calls her Princess Irina (Nimet) Mestchersky. On a different line, in Russian, it says she was born Khairy. See findagrave Aside from Rilke (who ...


2

Sorry, but this is not a photo of 1906, but 1914 and later. Нe has four crosses of St. George (a full St. George knight), but in addition he has St. George medals, which began to be issued only in 1913. https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%93%D0%B5%D0%BE%D1%80%D0%B3%D0%B8%D0%B5%D0%B2%D1%81%D0%BA%D0%B0%D1%8F_%D0%BC%D0%B5%D0%B4%D0%B0%D0%BB%D1%8C Most likely, ...


2

This is a Russian army uniform from the time of Nicholas II. This section here (in Russian) describes this: In 1907, based on the experience of the Russian-Japanese war, a field summer uniform of a protective (greenish-gray) color was introduced in the Russian army, which consisted of caps with visors for all ranks, tunics with five buttons with patch ...


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