101

The hexagram is not an exclusively Jewish symbol. For that matter, the Star of David as a symbol of Judaism (as opposed to a symbol used by Jews) is far newer than people realize, dating only to 1897 and the First Zionist Congress. Given that, seeing a six-pointed star on top of a Christmas tree in 1924 is no surprise. Also, Jesus was of the house of ...


76

Seeing WWI as an ideological battle between liberal democracies and authoritarian regimes requires hindsight and taking the Western perspective and adjusting your lenses for what was considered "liberal democracy" at the time. While certainly empires fell and new republics rose, other empires gained, and people continued to be oppressed. When you start to ...


31

Operation Flipper, in November 1941 was a British special forces operation aimed at killing or capturing Erwin Rommel. The intention was to disrupt the German Command and Control infrastructure before the start of Operation Crusader, which was intended to relieve the siege of Tobruk. It was felt that Rommel was such a pivotal figure for the German army ...


30

tl; dr Virtually all the Third Class (steerage) passengers were intending to emigrate. The majority were headed to the United States, while the rest intended to journey onward to Canada. For passengers in steerage, their voyage on the Titanic was intended to be a one-way trip. The vast majority of Second Class ticket holders, who were not already US ...


24

As Denis de Bernardy found the 'newspaper' alluded to by Finkelstein was the November issue of the 'Post New York Post'. The headline didn't talk about 'a holocaust', nuclear or otherwise. The paper is a parody paper, not to be taken seriously, as if the news bit wouldn't suggest that already. But if it would have contained a letter attributed to Eli ...


23

The headline (or more specifically, a variation thereof) was used on the debut edition of the Post New York Post, a satirical take on the New York Post by Robert Vare and the same crew of satirists that also produced Not The New York Times and Off The Wall Street Journal. I'm unable to locate anything about the Elie Wiesel quote from the archives, but ...


21

The operation to kill Bin Laden (2011) Yes, in recent memory the US Millitary started an operation specifically to take out Osama Bin Laden (it happened in 2011): "The Associated Press reported at the time two U.S. officials as stating the operation was "a kill-or-capture mission, since the U.S. doesn't kill unarmed people trying to surrender", but that "...


20

Both of the party's founders Bobby Seale and Huey P. Newton were inspired and influenced by the 'post-Nation of Islam' Malcom X. However, the Black Panther Party (BPP) largely rejected the Nation of Islam's (NOI) approach as they deemed it not active enough (among several other things). Nonetheless, the BPP's initial Ten Point Program bore a close ...


20

Attempt to kill or capture Tito Operation Rösselsprung was a failed attempt by the Germans to capture or kill Marshal Josip Broz Tito of Yugoslavia on the 25th of May, 1944. The attempt to kill or capture Tito was led by Kurt Rybka with 500th SS Parachute Battalion. Tito, however, escaped from his cave headquarters after the German's first assault had ...


20

A team of researchers at the Institute for International Studies at Stanford University compiled the "Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft, and Orphan Radiation Sources" (DSTO) in 2002. At the time, that database was described as the: "... most reliable currently available data on illicit trafficking of weapons-usable nuclear material" Lyudmila Zaitseva ...


18

US actually didn't sell so many planes between wars Although the US was an industrial powerhouse in that period (something like China today), military planes were still something new and experimental for most smaller and poorer countries. Yes, they did participate in WW1, but question remained of how effective they were and how effective they would be in ...


17

I'm going to take a wild guess (since we don't have an actual picture of the ring yet), does the symbol resemble this? If so your family member may have been a member of the Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers. Note there are quite a few links in the reference section at the end of the Wikipedia article which may help you discover more about what your ...


14

Question: World War I as a war of liberals against authoritarians? An essay by Robert Kagan in the Washington Post, March 14, 2019, argues for rethinking the big theme of 20th-century history as a struggle between liberalism and authoritarianism, and for an interpretation of authoritarianism as explicitly ideological. In particular, he argues that ...


13

The electrically illuminated sinals came only after Lenin. Before the lights went on, they used old style semaphores: (Уличный семафор на Кузнецком мосту Still shot from the movie "The Man with a Movie Camera" by Dziga Vertov (1929).) In the USSR, the first traffic light was installed in Moscow on December 30, 1930 at the corner of Petrovka Street ...


13

In some countries between the wars there was a serious Civil-Defense movement. These were part-time civilian organisations aimed at supplementing ordinary firefighters and rescue workers in event of air raids. Britain also had an Auxiliary Fire Service As of actual military firefighters they were most important for branches of military other than the army. ...


12

Nuclear material actually isn't all that useful, unless you also have the resources to design, build and operate your own power plants or nuclear bombs. Generally only full-blown state actors have that level of resources. For that reason, its generally felt that the only reason a terrorist organization would be looking to acquire that kind of material would ...


11

RMS Britannic was initially requisitioned for use as a hospital ship on 13 November 1915. She was then renamed as HMHS Britannic and underwent a refit. From the Wikipedia article: In the interior, 3,309 beds and several operating rooms were installed. The common areas of the upper decks were transformed into rooms for the wounded. The cabins of B Deck ...


11

The ambassador most likely left Poland for Romania by about noon on Sept. 17, 1939, within a few hours of the Soviet invasion that morning, having already left Warsaw for Kuty in preparation for just such action. From the House of Commons Hansard records for Sept. 20, 1939 - Columns 976-7 (my emphasis): War Situation 3.52 p.m. .... The ...


9

In the years before the Kennedy administration, visiting African dignitaries, mostly from Liberia and Ethiopia, could hope for (but not expect) the red carpet to be rolled out / meet a senior government official up to and including the president. However, when travelling around / visiting places, most could expect to be exposed to segregation and other ...


9

At least one Black head of state was received on an official visit prior to the Civil Rights era. This was Liberian President Edwin Barclay who followed FDR's 1942 visit to Liberia by making an official visit to Washington, DC in 1943. Per Wikipedia, he had a mixed ethnic background, and "was the first black man to be officially introduced from the rostrum ...


8

It appears that the answer to the first part of your question is contained in the Memoirs of Col. Hervey Bennett Whipple, who was MacArthur’s chief logistics officer, and who oversaw the arrangements for the signing ceremony. I haven't been able to locate a copy of his papers online (the original appears to be held by the MacArthur Memorial in Norfolk, ...


8

Well, the truck was definitely real, not an artists concept sketch. An image gallery at the Nevada Department of Transportation website shows the following picture: The caption simply labels it as an 'Early Department of Highways truck." Many other interesting images in this gallery, Historical Image Gallery 1917-1939, which gives us a date range, but no ...


8

World War I, fought mainly in the trenches along the Western Front from 1914 to 1918, was very much a war between authoritarianism and liberalism. The first problem is the claim about where WWI was "mainly" fought in the West. WWI was not fought mainly in the trenches along the Western Front. The Eastern Front in the time it was active was about as bloody ...


8

There's a German Antiques and Arts Kunst und Troedel website where it says that MET HLS INDIA means Metropolitan Hotels India. It's in German so I used Google translate. Silvered from India is relatively easily recognizable by much more massive material thickness, ornamentation and poorer ornamentation. The bottom stamp indicates the hotel group "...


8

Magnus Hirschfeld, a researcher on sexuality and early advocates for gay rights amassed a huge body of research on homosexuality and transsexuality. In '33, he was heading and institute at the Charité University in Berlin. The Archive of his Institute was burned completely, a huge body of research was lost. This did not happen "just" because he was jewish, ...


7

People who held communist beliefs or who belonged to or were associated with communist organizations were not exempted from the draft; there were members of communist organizations in the US armed forces during the Vietnam war. Much, though, could depend on local draft boards which did not necessarily apply the same standards. Soldiers could be discharged ...


6

We have to differentiate what "nationalists claimed" means exactly. As the territorial evolution of Poland is indeed so colourful and twisted, that "Poland" had never been a nation-state. Within Poland, or Polish nationalist circles, there were different schools of thought, just like in all other countries at the time. Some would have been content with ...


6

The pardon was arranged by Gerard Richardson, a wine merchant in Whitehaven and founder / CEO of the International Maritime Festivals. Richardson himself has explained that: The John Paul Jones story was the foundation stone of the Maritime Festivals and, during the first one in 1999, Jones was pardoned and the US Navy was given the rare honour of the ...


6

The wiki articles' focus on the Communist/Nationalist dispute create an impression that repairs were delayed due to political disagreements. However, while certainly a factor, the most significant source of delay was mundane and technical: the repair works were destroyed by floods. Efforts to seal the breach began in March 1946, with an original goal to ...


6

The United States opened the 2003 invasion of Iraq with an attempted Decapitation Strike against Saddam Hussein.


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