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1

Imperialism mainly. Egypt's attempt under Mehmet Ali was crushed by Britain and France, and the Ottoman Empire was saddled with 'free trade' treaties and concessions that made even the first stages of industrialization impossible. Other Arab regions were either colonized early on (e.g. Algeria and Tunisia) or were too impoverished and sparsely-populated (e....


9

Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrain, the Trucial States (modern UAE) and Oman were all protected by treaties with Great Britain. Yemen proper was never claimed for the reasons Pieter explained above. That said, Ibn Saud did manage to take away about 2/3rds of the territory claimed by Kuwait, and this was recognized by Great Britain as part of the Uqayr Protocols (1922). ...


-1

This term was first mentioned on August 17, 1933 in in a Czech magazine "Večernı́k P.L.", where the information about the "Hladomor v SSSR" was published.


2

Sorry, but this is not a photo of 1906, but 1914 and later. Нe has four crosses of St. George (a full St. George knight), but in addition he has St. George medals, which began to be issued only in 1913. https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%93%D0%B5%D0%BE%D1%80%D0%B3%D0%B8%D0%B5%D0%B2%D1%81%D0%BA%D0%B0%D1%8F_%D0%BC%D0%B5%D0%B4%D0%B0%D0%BB%D1%8C Most likely, ...


2

This is a Russian army uniform from the time of Nicholas II. This section here (in Russian) describes this: In 1907, based on the experience of the Russian-Japanese war, a field summer uniform of a protective (greenish-gray) color was introduced in the Russian army, which consisted of caps with visors for all ranks, tunics with five buttons with patch ...


0

International Historical Statistics from Palgrave Macmillan might be worth a look. But overall I suspect it's unlikely that you'll find a pre-existing dataset that covers your needs. Ewout Frankema has published a few relevant studies like this and this and he is pulling his data directly from the Blue Books.


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