7

This question is rather broad so this is no more than an overview of the period 1640 to 1850 with a few specific examples. The short answer is books were most commonly organized on shelves by a one or (most likely) more of the following: subject, format / size, alphabetically by author or title (though titles were often abbreviated so this sometimes wasn't ...


6

To expand the answer of b.Lorenz with few examples: it was a slow process, and the speed in various areas was very different. Some examples. Proceedings of St. Petersburg Academy (mid 18th century) had the following rule: papers in all sciences are published in French, except mathematics, mathematics was published in Latin. The last important mathematical ...


6

It is a bit complicated... Since printing exists, its applications created professionals who were creating documents by hand. Books, and in later times magazines, were expensive because of the necessary amount of manual work involved. On the other hand people used handwriting for their own works; even dissertations were written by hand until the 1970s, ...


5

Yes, but don't be obnoxious or smartass about it. There is always the possiblity that your instructor and the course material are right, or at least not completely wrong. Foreign names might be used with different transliteration schemes at different times, etc. But it is an essential part of science to prevent errors through (peer) review and it isn't too ...


5

I fairly often have to produce decently formatted printed documents. Endnotes, which I too dislike, are much easier to manage for the publisher. Footnotes on the other hand mess up your page layout big time. If they designer of the layout complains loud enough - and those prima donnas do that very well - the publisher happily gives in. To give you an ...


4

The Wikipedia article Myth of the flat Earth gives a general summary for the Western world as: According to Stephen Jay Gould, "there never was a period of 'flat Earth darkness' among scholars (regardless of how the public at large may have conceptualized our planet both then and now). ... Historian Jeffrey Burton Russell says the flat-Earth error ...


4

It come about at different times in different subjects, for example Latin names of conditions and anatomical objects are still used in medical science. It generally happened in the 18th and 19th century. The answer of Alex gives some nice examples on when it happened. The reasons are manifold and somewhat complex: In the Middle Ages the only subject ...


4

The main reason for publishers preferring endnotes over footnotes is financial: Many university presses now more or less require endnotes, since typesetting notes at the bottom of the page requires more fiddling by technicians and is therefore more expensive. Footnotes also carry the potential for added expense when corrections are made to page ...


4

I can't give you a definitive answer here, but I think the explanation is that the government of the day was swiftly moving away from emphasising government grants as being the sole method of providing funding to students and researchers, and towards a mix of methods of funding, and clearly had an interest in enabling the introduction of student loans. The ...


3

I think it may not be an accident that the earliest reference you found to Encaenia composition comes from the late 17th century. From what I've been able to find, music was not a major part of university ceremonial--in fact, many universities were actively hostile to music in general.* From Life in the Medieval University: The principle on which modern ...


3

As the first comment mentions, there are MANY ways to approach history. You may not notice it if you are not in a college history department, but history has many branches (and sub branches, and sub sub branches, etc.). For example, some historians would identify themselves as Cultural Historians (studying the culture of past periods), Social Historians ...


2

The answer given is very good. There is one other that should be given briefly, and that is the question of the Great Man Theory vs the Mass Man Theory. The basic idea is that some scholars believe that history is made by great men who come along and lead, and that without these people, the Mass would just be an impotent Blob. On the other hand, the ...


2

Things become history when historicised by historians. For what is historicisation and who is a historian see another answer at What are some indicators that distinguish pseudo-history from actual history? The largest element of this is access to the documentary records of the past. Some documentary records are held orally, and these become accessible ...


1

Prosopography is very detailed historical research. It develops the characters and relationships involved in the events. Therefore it covers specific topics. Louis Naimer is the best example. Ronald Syme is another good one: "By stressing prosopographical analysis, Syme rejected the force of ideas in politics, dismissing most such invocations of ...


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