13

No. The word which appears in Sanskrit ancient tomes is "Gāndhāra". That refers to ancient Kingdom of Gandhara which is now part of North-West Pakistan. It's boundaries included Peshawar Region, Taxilla region and for some time, Swat region. It's people, as called by the Rigveda, were Gandhari People as mentioned in Rigveda 1.120.1, 1.126.7. It is backed ...


11

Because Afghanistan had already been a fully independent country for 30 years, the population of which was no more interested in the being subject to the hegemony of Choudhary Rahmat Ali's Punjabi imperialism than were the Bengalis. The latter unfortunately had to wait a quarter century to gain independence. Ali's clever coining of an acronym in 1933, from ...


9

It's a cold war tale. Nigerian Prime Minister Abubakar Tarawa Balewa 1960-1966 was pro-western. When he was overthrown in a military coup and murdered January 15, 1966, it sparked a counter coup, and the Nigerian Civil War (July 6, 1967 – January 15, 1970). During the Civil War the Soviets were a major arms supplier to the government, beginning the ...


9

The short answer to this question is that there is indeed a plausible connection. B.M. Kingsley (PhD) in 1981 already pointed to this connection as seen in the following abstract: The so-called Macedonian kausia was originally identical with a cap often called a chitrali still worn today by men in Afghanistan, Pakistan and, above all, in Nuristan. No ...


6

But even Mu'izz ad-Din Muhammad Ghori acknowledged the slaves origin as Turkish. Mu'izz had no offspring, but he treated his Turkic slaves as his sons, who were trained both as soldiers and administrators and from the Concise History of Islam: "Other monarchs may have one son, or two sons; I have thousands of sons, my Turkish slaves who will be ...


5

At least two wiki pages cover your question: Theories of Pashtun origin Pashtuns, section History and origins The first of these mentions the Greco-Bactrian origin among other legends, and concludes: Prior to DNA studies, it was generally acknowledged that their origins were obscure, and modern scholars suggest that a single origin of the Pashtuns is ...


4

I did a quick google search on the title of your question and found a few relevant resources. Perhaps the results below will help with some context and additional search terms? March 1979 marked the signing of the U.S.-backed peace agreement between Israel and Egypt. The Soviet leadership saw the agreement as giving a major advantage to the United States....


4

The 9/11 Commission Report published July 22, 2004 would be the goto source for any such research. The exhaustive bipartisan 450 page report detailed who knew what and when they knew it in excruciating detail. Below is what I have found. On page 262, August 6 2001, It says: "the President's daily briefing contained the words the "CIA and FBI are ...


4

The historical origin of the Pashtun is a complex and answered question. Thiis idea of a link to Alexander looks like a made-up theory to me, although a distant Greek link is not impossible as one piece of the real story. See "Theories of Pashtun origin" on Wikipedia.


3

One such crossing was over the Amu Darya river, which separates the Uzbek (Soviet) city of Termez from Hairatan. As Uzbekistan is doubly landlocked, it has no seaports, and Termez is the most important of its riverine ports. In ancient times the port was at nearby Kampyr-Tepe. Before the various bridges were built, "[t]here had been river traffic between ...


3

In Alexander the Great's time the region of Afghanistan was known as Bactria. Alexander overran this region but had trouble managing it. Nominal ownership remained that of the successors of Alexander's empire, eventually phasing into the Macedonian-based Seleucid Empire. During my time in Afghanistan, old architecture could still be seen dating back to ...


2

One thing that really struck me researching this was the resemblance to the Coat of Arms for Moldavia during the Soviet Era. Here they are side-by-side. The only real difference is the replacement of the Soviet hammer-and-sickle with a background of mountains (quite reasonable for a mountainous country not part of the USSR), and some minor stylistic changes....


2

No, not significantly The wreath goes back to 1901, and the sun rising over the mountains is supposed to represent a new beginning for Afghanistan. That leaves the possibility that the five-pointed star was influenced by USSR, but five-point stars are not unique to communists, so probably not. Ref: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emblem_of_Afghanistan ...


2

why the Soviet Leader refused to help Afghan Allies in the war against the Mujahideens? Well, they didn't refuse to provide any help except "foot on the ground". And the reasons they had are obvious if we remember what actually happened. One may argue that the level of support came out to be unsufficient etc. Well, errare humanum est. Probably they hoped ...


1

The apparent boldness of the diplomatic solution was in fact the only chance at getting the first foothold in the Great game( with the Russian empire). At the time of Maharaja Ranjit Singh's zenith the British as well as the Sikhs did not go into conflict (the Sikhs had a well oiled army and a stable administration governing), so the question of placating ...


1

I've been to that border region in 2011. It's a largely barren, semi-desert area, hilly and mountainous. As such I'd not be at all surprised if the border was pretty much impossible to patrol for either country without investing massive amounts of manpower and material. While I didn't get very close to the border, I saw no roads leading towards it that would ...


1

As a direct result of the so-called ‘Brezhnev doctrine’, the USSR asserted its “right and duty” to go to war in foreign countries “if and when an existing socialist regime was threatened.”[5] This accounts for the increased overseas military, political, and economic support being given at this time to pro-Marxist régimes in Nicaragua, Angola, Ethiopia, ...


1

I think he's off base about Switzerland, unless he is mischaracterizing the nature of the Swiss confederacy. I'm also not sure what he means about ethnic strife. He's probably talking about the Duchy of Savoy and France directly to the south, and the passes from France into Northwest Italy. It's a strategic point in Western Europe by which France was trying ...


1

The older Kandhar/Gandhar was not a country. It was a kingdom and what was the original territory of Kandhar kingdom now covers parts of Pakistan and Afghanistan. You can refer to the Wikipedia entries for Gandhara Kingdom and Gandhara.


1

The short answer is yes. To quote from on an article you may want to look at: The essence of Iran's policy toward Afghanistan was to create an "ideological sphere of influence" by mobilizing and energizing the Afghan Shi'ites, which comprised about 20% of the population, while barely dealing with the Communist government of Afghanistan. Tehran's ...


1

Iran called for a Soviet withdrawal and aided Afghan Shiites. In the second phase, after the Soviet Army withdrew, Iran helped the non-Pushtun ethnic groups form a united front.


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