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45

There is some very good evidence for captured Muslims who were sold as slaves, but continued to practice their faith. Perhaps the best known individuals were Ayuba Suleiman Diallo, who was enslaved in the eighteenth century and Omar ibn Said who was transported to the US in 1807. Like many Muslims who were enslaved and transported to America as slaves, ...


37

That would have depended on the ship and your destination. To get a sense of the savings (the travel times are from today), consider the presentation that's referenced on the Suez Canal wiki page. As a point of comparison, London to New York is a bit over 3,300 nautical miles (6,200km) when traveling by sea. So going through Suez when traveling from Hormuz ...


32

In short, Brazil and Caribbean Isles were easy to colonize and suited to the culture of the sugar cane. This related question will provide most of the explanation why Africa was harder to colonize, and less welcoming to Europeans. Moreover, it is far easier to control slaves outside of Africa. They can't hide in the local population. Also, sugar became ...


31

While researching for this question, I found more details about what could be this (possible) adventure. Necho II hired a fleet of Phoenicians, who supposedly sailed from the Red Sea around Africa back to the mouth of the Nile in in three years. The voyage was related by Herodotus as a complete circumnavigation of Africa in his History: According to ...


29

The party line was that the war was not between Blacks and Whites, but between Rhodesians of all colours and international communism (Rhodesia Unafraid), that the communist-supported guerillas were a threat to Blacks as well (Anatomy of Terror), that they treated native Africans fairly (Rhodesia Accuses, 70s report) and that their opposition to a Black-...


26

Abyssinia / Ethiopia (the borders of which expanded and contracted frequently over the centuries) maintained its independence until 1936 by a combination of diplomatic skill in playing would-be colonizers off against each other, and military strength. These factors were, in turn, facilitated by centuries of diplomatic contacts with (as commented on by Denis ...


25

POWER AND EXTENT OF THE MALI EMPIRE At its peak during the 14th century, the Mali empire controlled an area of well over one million Km2 (approx. three times the size of modern Germany): At its height, under the reigns of Mansa Musa I and Mansa Sulaymän, the Mali empire covered the entire Sudan-Sahel region of West Africa. Many peoples and cultures were ...


25

Addis Hiwet first used the term 'Japanizer' to one group of modernisers in post-WWI Ethiopia who took the example of Meiji Japan as giving a model for development away from feudal forms. The model emphasized the forced development of capitalism, education, military modernisation and many similar ideas perceived as those used by Meiji Japan to develop quickly ...


24

Yes, surprising as it is, I found credible sources indicating that there was some discussion of offering India East Africa as a mandate. Perhaps it is useful for others who wish to read more about this a full detail of my sources. In "How India Became Territorial: Foreign Policy, Diaspora, Geopolitics (2014)" by Itty Abraham, I found this quote: On war ...


22

It apparently happened during Caesar's campaign against Scipio and Juba in 47BC, part of the wider Roman Civil War that was fought from 49–45BC. The story was recorded by Suetonius (Life of Julius Caesar: 59). The quote, as it has come down to us from Suetonius, was: "teneo te," inquit, "Africa." or "I hold you, Africa", he said. Although amusing ...


20

This thesis is manifestly false, and is indicative of the weaknesses of "Guns, germs and steel". For example, the making of iron tools was probably passed up the Nile, to Kush and Meroe, and then across to East Africa; they were making iron tools well before 1000 AD; evidence of iron work by the Nok of Nigeria exists as earlier than 400 BC. Nok culture - ...


20

Many Native Americans had died of Old World disease, Africans did not When the Europeans showed up in the New World, they brought disease that killed a large portion of the local people (60%? 80%? 90%? ). This meant, from the European standpoint, that in the 1500's and 1600's, New World land was available for the taking. West Africa, on the other hand, had a ...


20

Three steam ships of the Blue Funnel Line used both routes (round the Cape of Good Hope and via the Suez Canal) between Europe and Asia from 1866 to 1870. Upon switching from round the Cape to through the Suez Canal, these same ships saved between 10 and 12 days. Arthur Holt's Blue Funnel Line sister ships Agamemnon, Ajax and Achilles all sailed on their ...


19

Although this question probably can't be resolved without years of comparative study, a quick indication of the answer can be done by looking at the current GDP of the countries as a reasonable measure of "stability and success". The cases are also very different between different continents and times, as colonization changed a lot during the ...


16

SHORT ANSWER In several respects, it is at best misleading. Ghanaian leader Kwame Nkrumah's primary interests lay in Pan-Africanism and promoting the continent's freedom, independence and unity. He never had any intention of aligning himself with either the Eastern bloc or the West; rather, he sought to play them off against each other to the benefit of his ...


15

This question raises interesting questions. However, there are some confusions in the question. And I respectfully disagree with some of the factual and opinion content of the answers previously posted. Nearly all factual aspects of the conflict between the Tutsi and Hutu during the post-independence period are contested. This is regrettable since much of ...


15

Best evidence to date suggests that the Sahara dried up about 5,000 years ago, possibly in as little as 300 years, due to climate changes resulting from the precession and rotation of the Earth's rotation axis. ... around 8,000 years ago, the Earth's orbit was slightly different to how it is today. The tilt changed from around 24.1 degrees to the present-...


15

Ululation is of such ancient origins, likely in Sumer, that it would be difficult to trace its diffusion to other cultures. For example, a Sumerian proverb written down 4,000 years ago reads: (What characterizes) the carpenter is the chisel (What characterizes) the reed weaver is the basket The blacksmith (is known to) make tiny sides (...


15

Short answer: The Guinea 'No' vote: Sekou Toure, who was by far the most influential figure in Guinea, campaigned for a 'no' vote. Others voting 'Yes': Almost all local political leaders who could influence local populations had benefited from French patronage and thus tended not to favour a radical change in the relationship between France and the colonies....


14

Indeed, Mandela did not want to renounce violence, during his incarceration, as a means of political change. While he had been offered an end to his imprisonment quite a few times, he categorically refused on the basis that entering an agreement that did not acquiesce to the ANC's demands would be to betray his cause and the South-African people. Take for ...


14

SHORT ANSWER Although France (especially) had the means and the motive to support the 1987 coup, there is currently no conclusive evidence of French, US or other Western powers involvement. However, this may change in the coming months as the French President, Emmanuel Macron, recently promised to declassify files relating the death of Thomas Sankara (see ...


14

You can't really compare the two, because the Romans lived in such a different world than we do. The Romans didn't really have the concept of a "continent", as they didn't know for a fact that land past where they'd explored ever ended at all*. For all they knew, the Earth may have been half or more land, and the seas merely big lakes. For Africa, they had ...


13

There is in fact a small PDF available online which attempts to answer this question through detailed study of a small area of the South Pacific. The islands of Vanuatu were administered jointly by the British and French. The author finds that "political indicators are in favor of British administration, but economic indicators are in favor of French ...


13

This story depends entirely on Herodotus 4,42. The passage in question reads: I wonder, then, at those who have mapped out and divided the world into Libya, Asia, and Europe; for the difference between them is great, seeing that in length Europe stretches along both the others together, and it appears to me to be wider beyond all comparison.[2] For Libya ...


12

There are several reasons for the decolonisation of Africa in the post WW2 world - some of them indicate a decision to withdraw rather than a failure to continue. These reasons are in no particular order and are what I consider to be major contributing factors - for example it's also likely that desire for social reform within the UK itself was another ...


12

No. Slavery was banned in the first 1820 constitution and this ban was explicitly re-enforced in the 1847 constitution when Liberia declared independence. If Liberians owned slaves within Liberia they did so without any legal recourse and the strong risk of losing their property.


12

The Egyptian/Phoenician circumnavigation of Africa you refer to is recorded by Herodotus: For Libya shows clearly that it is encompassed by sea, save only where it borders on Asia; and this was proved first (as far as we know) by Necos king of Egypt. He, when he had made an end of digging the canal which leads from the Nile to the Arabian Gulf, sent ...


11

SHORT ANSWER Based on evidence from the period 1894 to 1897, the trip would have taken between 21 and 35 days, depending on how many ports were stopped at on the way. Possible ports of call are shown on the map below. It's unlikely that many ships went from England to the Gold Coast without stopping anywhere on the way, but a journey time of less than 21 ...


11

A little background here: there are generally considered to be 5 "races" of man historically native to Africa1: Afro-Asiatic, Niger-Congo, Nilo-Saharan, Pygmy, and Khoisan. Each would have originally had their own native language, and their own native turf: roughly North Africa, Sub-Saharan West Africa, Sub-Saharan Nile Valley, Southern Rainforest, and ...


11

British Empire armies the world over were natives. India is an important example. Indian troops were important in British colonial expansion to China during the Opium wars, and marched a long distance to fight the Ottoman Empire during world war I. There were even plans to have them march all the way to Germany, as they were highly skilled. As people the ...


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