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Abyssinia / Ethiopia (the borders of which expanded and contracted frequently over the centuries) maintained its independence until 1936 by a combination of diplomatic skill in playing would-be colonizers off against each other, and military strength. These factors were, in turn, facilitated by centuries of diplomatic contacts with (as commented on by Denis ...


11

The reasons why African countries have, in most cases, maintained the borders they inherited from the colonial powers are summarized below. Note that, given how broad the question is, some factors may apply to some countries but not to others. 1. Both the Organization of African Unity (OAU) and most leaders of individual states have specifically rejected ...


10

This article, "A Brief History of Dutch in Africa", explains: From the start, Stanley worked with officers and agents of a variety of nationalities, many of them Belgians. These Belgian nationals were of either Dutch-speaking or French-speaking origin. As at that time French was still the only language for all formal communication in Belgium, the ...


6

The short answer is: where there was even a small Muslim population, there were usually schools for children at the elementary level, even in villages. Overall, we are thus talking about numbers which dwarf the number of Christian missions. Without a basic religious education, Muslims cannot perform the duties required of them. Some of these schools were ...


6

The answer is as simple as it may seem disturbing: gross and constant violence. The way the borders between African nations were drawn at the end of the colonial era (which often reflected borders between administrative districts during that era) were as you noticed largely artificial constructs with little or no relation to the ethnic and cultural makeup ...


5

Well, there was trade between the Mali Empire and the rest of the world via a Sahel camel-borne trade route established and run by the Berber tribes of that region. We know at least a few non-Berbers traveled that route as well as travelers or pilgrims, but all the direct trade would almost certainly be carried out by the Berbers, not Europeans. The ...


5

Just registered for the site, but I do know a bit about this! Following World War 2, Ethiopia wanted Eritrea, and the UN in 1950 came up with an agreement in which they would be a Federation together. By the end of the decade it was clear Ethiopian interest reigned supreme, and Eritrean separatists - predominately Muslim and known as the Eritrean Liberation ...


4

The horrific violence that accompanied the partition of India following independence in 1947 was still fresh in everyone's minds in the early and mid 1960's, when most African countries obtained independence. Nisid Hajari, in “Midnight’s Furies” (Houghton Mifflin Harcourt), his fast-paced new narrative history of Partition and its aftermath, writes, “Gangs ...


4

In terms of climate, Nigeria is much like India, the second most populous country in the world after China. (India is barely more than a fourth the size of China so it is much more densely populated on a per square mile basis.) That is, both India and Nigeria have hot tropical climates. And most of each country has abundant rainfall (except for the northern ...


3

Officially, the African leg of the Arab slave trade ended in 1923 when Ethiopia, one of the last countries where slavery was legal, definitely outlawed it after years of incremental legislation against the practice. This was done by the Ras Tafari (later known as Emperor Haile Selassie) in order to gain admittance to the League of Nations. Of course, the ...


3

You should be aware that Ireland was a neutral country during the Second World War, and Ireland had no overseas colonies. As far as I can see, none of the 151 soldiers in "A" Company of the 35th Battalion of the Irish Army had any experience of active service. This was certainly not a "commando company" or other specialist unit. While most of the men ...


2

Q: What was the contemporary German public opinion on the Herero Genocide? However, the source cited in wikipedia does not provide any details of the public outrage. I would like to know what form did it take? Did people write editorials? Did deputies protest in the Reichstag? Rallies? Lectures? Petitions? Demonstrations? It was a very controversial '...


1

Morocco has no claim to the Canary islands, they have never occupied the territory. They have no cultural or historical presence. The aboriginal population may have been distantly related to Berbers, but so were lots of other people in the Sahel, and that does not entitle Morocco to claim the Sahel any more than it entitles the other nations of the Sahel to ...


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