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The total land area of Japan is around 146,000 square miles. 20% of that works out around 29,000 square miles or 18.6 million acres. The population of Tokugawa japan was around 30 million people. 80% of that is 24 million people. This gives each farmer roughly 3/4s of an acre. The basic unit of land in Japan was the cho, which was roughly 2.5 acres. ...


16

Farming societies typically support 60 to 100 times the population of hunter-gatherer societies. Given that kind of population difference, what that one person wants/needs vs. the 100 simply doesn't matter. They become unimportant on the ground, and are simply genetically and socially washed away in the tide. The hunter's options are to retreat to unfarmed ...


15

The time period from roughly 7500 BP (years Before Present) to 4000 BP (5500 BCE to 2000 BCE), known as the Holocene Maximum (or Optimum) saw global temperatures: rapidly increase from slightly (~0.5°C) below current the present value to between 1 and 2°C higher; stay at those values for nearly 2000 years; and then return to values ~0.5°C below current. (...


14

From Pakistan to Japan is indeed a big region and "before rice" a long and varied time frame. But this question seems to imply that it is concerned with the early neolithic centers of agriculture in Asia and what the first main staple foods in these were, excluding all rice. Short answer to that for the North-Eastern region in question, over the course of ...


9

For our purposes, there are two types of agriculture: Subsistence (food) agriculture and cash crop agriculture. The farming in the North focused on foodstuffs (corn, wheat, vegetables, etc.). The farming in the South focused on higher value cash crops, cotton, indigo, sugar, etc. Under a subsistence economy focused on food, you don't want slaves, because ...


8

The labouring man will take his rest long in the morning; a good piece of the day is spent afore he come at his work; then he must have his breakfast, though he have not earned it at his accustomed hour, or else there is grudging and murmuring; when the clock smiteth, he will cast down his burden in the midway, and whatsoever he is in hand with, he will ...


8

T.E.D. is right here. It is mentioned that Jorrocks "trotted home". A "trot" is a type of horse gait. Therefore, Jorrocks is most likely a horse, and presumably Street was the owner of Jorrocks. Jorrocks is actually a somewhat famous horse name (the name of a famous racing horse), so it makes sense as a horse name (though the original would have been long ...


7

Judging by History of Silage by Wilkinson et al (2003), the premise behind the question is somewhat inaccurate. Silage making is probably more than 3000 yr old. The ancient Egyptians and Greeks stored grain and whole forage crops in silos. Reviews of the history of silage refer to the mural in the Naples Museum, which shows whole-crop cereals being ...


5

An important concept here is "alienated wage labour." That is labour that is performed for someone else for a wage. A wage can be money, or goods, or food. But the wage relationship is focused on "labour" on one side and "money" on the other. By considering labour as convertible into money, the nature of the labouring human is changed and their hours or ...


5

This got to be a bit long for comments, so I'm moving the content here. farmers sent away their hunters to be trained for harness work. Many riding horses took badly to this humble duty, but Street’s Jorrocks trotted home like a gentleman. This is presumably simply a real-world example of a farmer and his horse, of the type he's talking about. In ...


4

Agricultural output went down during the early middle ages in Italy. According to data from Maddison database, Italy GDP per capita was 805 on year 1, while it was 450 on year 1000. Population went down from 8 million to 5 million, while GDP was 6.475 on year 1, and 2.250 on year 1000. Since agriculture is a vast ammount of GDP during early middle ages, ...


3

It feels as if the question draws a frame around the problem that is a bit misleading. The quote in question needs a bit more context: Neither [is optimal, as, LLC] all the theories treat the triumph of farming as inevitable. Competition, genetics and archaeology imply, has little to do with exams or teachers, because it has always been with us. Its ...


3

Summary: we do have evolutionary very old taste receptors that detect proteins, and we probably have rather well regulated protein intake. Knowing that this is protein is not necessary to achieve this. OTOH, while grains + pulses are good protein sources, of course meat, fish, eggs and later on milk are even better sources of protein (higher protein content ...


3

tl;dr Productivity did not change much in late antique Italy. Small decreases through disruptions occurred locally and repeatedly, but small increases in techniques and efficiency can also be observed. Lamentations about the decline – of agriculture in general – match the population contraction but not the productivity of the remaining farmers. Agri deserti ...


3

I am not going to even come close to answering this simple question. But it's worth a try because of perennial confusion on Southeast Asia. The region, concept and people of Southeast Asia is, to me, a living museum. Southeast Asia Political Border Source: Geographic guide. Country names in orange box, region is the larger dark blue box. MSEA (mainland ...


2

'Street' in this case is the English farmer, writer and broadcaster A. G. Street, 'Jorrocks' was his horse, and the anecdotes are taken from Street's book From Dusk Until Dawn, published in 1945. This online edition of Hastings' book has a different version of that paragraph: "Wiltshire farmer Arthur Street ploughed up his grassland as the government ...


2

A detail worth considering is that high-protein pulse crops also happen to be nitrogen-fixing. In other words, higher protein crops would have also improved the quality of the soil. Growing them together with cereals would have noticeably increased productivity, even if the nutritional benefits were less obvious.


2

Answers will vary depending on specific regions, cultures, and time period; many peoples would have been hunter-gatherers rather than farming anything. Millet is an ancient crop in east Asia and may have predated rice in some areas. In coastal communities, fish and shellfish were a major source of food. Animals were hunted (e.g. deer, antelopes, wild pigs, ...


1

From comments: "@JAsia I am not really doing very serious research. I just want to know more about the characteristics of these animals to satisfy my own curiosity. I know some general things like that they were more wild than they are now, but it would be nice to know how they were kept and how much milk and meat they produced. Having the names of ...


1

Sweet, sweet irony. I found this thread by googling after hearing the same "spring harvest" comment in the same lecture series mentioned in the original post. I wrote the Medieval Farming Year essay cited against it (theres an updated version of the essay here: http://www.penultimateharn.com/history/medievalfarmingyear.html ) I've seen a number of ...


1

The process of collecting and separating free-range cattle in early California was the rodeo (which later gave its name to a sporting event). These were held at specifically suited locations; place names in both Northern and Southern California refer to the practice. Several Indian cowboys on horseback (often they were the only Indians locally allowed to ...


1

The use of "fish as fertiliser" is one possibility to prevent soil fertility from degradation. After all, whatever you harvest and don't feed into the local environment, be it people or livestock, and then bring back to the fields as recycling (aka manure) is lost for the next cycle. The question immediately arising from the fish theory is of course, "isn't ...


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