49

The author of that particular claim appears to have been Diogenes the Cynic. This is the same man who was said to carry around a lantern in broad daylight, claiming to be (futilely) looking for an honest man to anyone who asked about it. He was also known to heckle Plato and other philosophers, as well as political leaders, and just generally seems to have ...


44

Prior to Phillip's time, the ancient Greek world was fragmented in (often warring) city states and kingdoms, and citizenship was considered far more important than nationality or ancestry. Pericles' reforms (451 BC) exemplify the distinction: From that point on Athenian citizens would lose their citizenship if they married non Athenians, regardless of their ...


33

In regards to the battle between Alexander and Porus, both accounts are correct, in their own way. Alexander won the battle, and received an acknowledgement of such from Porus; Porus won the war, by convincing the Greek army (if perhaps not Alexander himself) that continuing was pointlessly expensive. Both sides saved face through the reappointment of ...


26

Wikipedia tells us that Alexander did indeed set out to conquer the whole world. His empire consisted of most of the world known to the ancient Greeks of his time, so for his compatriots, yes, he conquered "the world" as they knew it. As far as empires are concerned, the Macedonian empire is certainly among the greatest empires of all time. With the ...


25

Alexander, for the most part, left things unchanged in the lands he conquered. He didn't impose Greek customs, respected (or perhaps ignored) local religions and cultures and allowed a certain degree of self government that, for several of the territories of the former Achaemenid empire, was quite a refreshing change. Not everyone under his rule accepted him,...


21

I think the first time he is mentioned as "Alexander the Great" (at least in the sources known to us) is Quintus Curtius Rufus' "Historiae Alexandri Magni Macedonis", this "Magni" has been translated into English as "Great". Here it clearly refers to his talent as a military leader which allowed him to build up a huge empire. Quintus Curtius Rufus was a ...


16

The bulk of India then was not controlled by Porus, but by the Nanda dynasty, centered at Pataliputra. Porus controlled only a small section of India, close to Punjab (now divided between Pakistan as well as India). The Nandas were quite a powerful force, and the Greek troops had become war-weary (whether they actually refused orders is open to debate). So, ...


14

Actually, it wasn't intended specifically to set an example, but it did serve to deliver a message that he was not someone who was going to just go away. Alexander's father, Phillip, was murdered in 336 BC, leaving Alexander to rule in his place. Many states, including Thebes and Athens, rose up in revolt when they heard the news. Alexander responded ...


13

Note that an empire isn't necessarily ruled by an emperor. When historians describe Alexander's conquests as an "empire", it is at least partly in reference to the fact that he subjugated many nations and countries under his central authority. Alexander was definitely an "emperor" in the sense that he was a ruler of this polity. As for the Chinese ...


13

From this website http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/clothing-ii , in a section concerning historical clothing it goes into length on several styles of headgear. This style falls under the designation 'tiara'. In any event, the tiara had a top like a hood, often lined inside with luxurious animal fur. Ordinarily it was worn flat, either pressed down ...


12

When Alexander built his great empire, what he was essentially doing is taking over the Achaemenid Empire piece by piece, at a point when the empire was weakened by internal fights. The Kingdom of Pauruva is sometimes claimed to have lain outside the Achaemenid empire, but earlier Persian rulers seems to have claimed it was a part of the empire. This ...


11

I am Adrienne Mayor and I never wrote that Porus used any kind of poison weapons, not swords or arrows and certainly not poisoned elephant tusks, as claimed on About.com and the Univ. of Washington sites See my "Greek Fire, Poison Arrows & Scorpion Bombs: Biological and Chemical Warfare in the Ancient World" (Overlook/Duckworth, 2003, 2009) pp 88-91 and ...


11

The Greeks had demonstrated military superiority over the Persians for many years. Both Cimon and Agesilaus had led successful expeditions into Persian territory. That Persia maintained its dominant position over Greece had not so much to do with their own military capabilities, but rather because of the incessant warfare amongst Greek cities. Their focus on ...


11

We do not know and cannot be sure. But it seems neither likely nor unlikely, but quite possible. It seems as if many would like to get an answer that either gives the most intimate biographical details about the bedroom behaviour of two concrete ancient persons that are dead for over 2300 years while information on both were quickly enshrouded in myths. Or ...


10

I voted up lins314159's answer. I would like to add a couple of things though. The vast majority of Alexander's empire actually started his tenure as the Persian's empire. So a great deal of credit (and attention) should be paid to all the work they did to put that empire together. However, Persia's loss of the Persian-Greek wars 100 years earlier had ...


10

Alexander apparently received that epithet from the Romans, who admired him. The oldest surviving reference of the title is found in the Mostellaria ("The Haunted House"), a play written by Titus Maccius Plautus (c. 254 – 184 BC). This roughly a century or so after Alexander's death in 323 BC. Tranio: Alexandrum magnum, atque Agathoclem, aiunt maxumas Duo ...


9

There are no Indian accounts of the Battle of the Hydaspes River. It is difficult to prove a negative, but since there is very little historical material from that era (326 BCE) at all, we can be reasonably certain that there are no historical accounts. Tarn (1966) discusses this when talking about the Bactrian Greeks. Had the story of the Bactrian ...


9

So officially, would carry wheat and barley but they ate whatever they could find, Armies back then were principally fed with wheat, the soldiers would have likely ate plain whole wheat bread loaves. They would supplement this with whatever they could forage, wild animals, fruits, vegetables etc. Answers.com assessment that ancient soldiers ...


9

As the author of the long quotation, let me address the issue of whether they remained lovers later. I say they may not, not because Alexander got married (he was almost 30 by the first marriage!), but because for two adult men to continue a sexual affair when both could grow a beard began to stray beyond the accepted patterns. While as I note, ancient ...


8

As one more piece of evidence, Philip Freeman in his biography Alexander the Great judges thus: The question of Macedonian language and ethnic identity is one of the most contentious topics in classical scholarship, the debate often driven more by modern Balkan nationalism than the small amount of ancient evidence we actually possess. I incline to ...


8

Such estimates are pretty difficult. Even for WWII there is no universal agreement over the number of dead - and that's for a relatively recent event that was extensively documented. However, I think one can say from the record that the civilian/military ratio among Genghis Khan's victims was much higher than that of Alexander's. (To wit, Genghis Khan ...


7

I strongly suggest you read the celebrated and widely read and revered books on Ancient India by: Romila Thapar (Marxist in views) A. L. Basham (Non-partisan) You can also refer to the bibliography of the Wikipedia page Indian campaign of Alexander the Great. In earlier times, India ran from the Hindukush mountains(Afghanistan) to the Himalayas, and from ...


7

Today I stumbled across Machiavelli's answer to this question (at least with reference to the Persian Empire) in chapter 4 of The Prince, where he writes, Considering the difficulties which men have had to hold to a newly acquired state, some might wonder how, seeing that Alexander the Great became the master of Asia in a few years, and died whilst it ...


7

It was a combination of both. Alexander the Great encouraged the spread of Greek culture as noted by Plutarch in his work On the Fortunes of Alexander: But if you examine the results of Alexander's instruction, you will see that he educated the Hyrcanians to respect the marriage bond, and taught the Arachosians to till the soil, and persuaded the ...


6

I would like put few points from my reading: Who won the battle ? Well as pointed out by others, it is not quite sure who won the battle i.e. "The Battle of Jhelum". Alexander being the great king would have had a victory in that battle. But according to Battle of the Jhelum analysis which gives valid reasons why Alexander would have lost the battle taking ...


6

The man in the top right corner is Philip II of Macedon. According to legend, Zeus took to the serpent form and seduced and had coitus with his wife Olimpias and fathered Alexander the Great (or Alessandro Magno in Italian). This is why Zeus is shown in the half serpent form. The legend also says that Philip caught a glimpse of this and hence one day would ...


6

Location. According to A Companion to Ancient Macedonia edited by Joseph Roisman, Ian Worthington, the "site was attractive for several reasons". The location controlled a crossroads,"controlling major passageways from east to west, and south to north." The location was also situated on a lake, with a port which may have been able to be reached from the ...


5

Against the Romans, Alexander would have lost. Several hundred years later, when Perseus of Macedon fought the Roman army, the Macedonians found it hard to keep the line strait and their ranks unbroken, so once there was a gap, the Romans would rush in and massacre the people left and right. The Macedonians with a ridged command structure and armed with ...


5

Alexander was called "the Great" by historians shortly after his death in his early 30s. During his short life, we conquered essentially all of the modern Middle East and Egypt, starting with a base of Macedonia, a kingdom near Greece. In the process, he defeated much larger, mostly Persian armies, in an unbroken series of battlefield victories and ...


5

Alexander won ONE battle. That does not necessarily mean that he will win the second or third. By being able to appoint Porus "Satrap," Alexander got the "props" for winning the first battle. By accepting the position from Alexander, Porus got to keep control of his country without risking a second or third battle. It was a "win-win" (limited victory) ...


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