53

The author of that particular claim appears to have been Diogenes the Cynic. This is the same man who was said to carry around a lantern in broad daylight, claiming to be (futilely) looking for an honest man to anyone who asked about it. He was also known to heckle Plato and other philosophers, as well as political leaders, and just generally seems to have ...


36

In regards to the battle between Alexander and Porus, both accounts are correct, in their own way. Alexander won the battle, and received an acknowledgement of such from Porus; Porus won the war, by convincing the Greek army (if perhaps not Alexander himself) that continuing was pointlessly expensive. Both sides saved face through the reappointment of ...


35

Alexander left Antipater in charge in Macedonia/Greece while he was off conquering. Antipater had previously served Alexander's father, Phillip II, and had also previously served as regent for Alexander when he was fighting in Thrace, prior to the invasion of the Persian empire. I believe Antipater also governed Greece after Alexander's death and subsequent ...


29

Alexander, for the most part, left things unchanged in the lands he conquered. He didn't impose Greek customs, respected (or perhaps ignored) local religions and cultures and allowed a certain degree of self government that, for several of the territories of the former Achaemenid empire, was quite a refreshing change. Not everyone under his rule accepted him,...


25

Wikipedia tells us that Alexander did indeed set out to conquer the whole world. His empire consisted of most of the world known to the ancient Greeks of his time, so for his compatriots, yes, he conquered "the world" as they knew it. As far as empires are concerned, the Macedonian empire is certainly among the greatest empires of all time. With the ...


18

— My memory is all Greek to me too. — But it seems that here we see mainly a slight slip-up in letters with a bit of retroactive reasoning, or perhaps a certain conflation of concepts? The concept of photos seems unfamiliar. The concept of pothos is not. Especially in connection with Alexander: Pothos Pothos is the Greek word for "longing", a ...


16

The bulk of India then was not controlled by Porus, but by the Nanda dynasty, centered at Pataliputra. Porus controlled only a small section of India, close to Punjab (now divided between Pakistan as well as India). The Nandas were quite a powerful force, and the Greek troops had become war-weary (whether they actually refused orders is open to debate). So, ...


14

From this website http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/clothing-ii , in a section concerning historical clothing it goes into length on several styles of headgear. This style falls under the designation 'tiara'. In any event, the tiara had a top like a hood, often lined inside with luxurious animal fur. Ordinarily it was worn flat, either pressed down ...


14

When Alexander built his great empire, what he was essentially doing is taking over the Achaemenid Empire piece by piece, at a point when the empire was weakened by internal fights. The Kingdom of Pauruva is sometimes claimed to have lain outside the Achaemenid empire, but earlier Persian rulers seems to have claimed it was a part of the empire. This ...


13

Note that an empire isn't necessarily ruled by an emperor. When historians describe Alexander's conquests as an "empire", it is at least partly in reference to the fact that he subjugated many nations and countries under his central authority. Alexander was definitely an "emperor" in the sense that he was a ruler of this polity. As for the Chinese ...


12

We do not know and cannot be sure. But it seems neither likely nor unlikely, but quite possible. It seems as if many would like to get an answer that either gives the most intimate biographical details about the bedroom behaviour of two concrete ancient persons that are dead for over 2300 years while information on both were quickly enshrouded in myths. Or ...


11

Alexander apparently received that epithet from the Romans, who admired him. The oldest surviving reference of the title is found in the Mostellaria ("The Haunted House"), a play written by Titus Maccius Plautus (c. 254 – 184 BC). This roughly a century or so after Alexander's death in 323 BC. Tranio: Alexandrum magnum, atque Agathoclem, aiunt maxumas Duo ...


11

I am Adrienne Mayor and I never wrote that Porus used any kind of poison weapons, not swords or arrows and certainly not poisoned elephant tusks, as claimed on About.com and the Univ. of Washington sites See my "Greek Fire, Poison Arrows & Scorpion Bombs: Biological and Chemical Warfare in the Ancient World" (Overlook/Duckworth, 2003, 2009) pp 88-91 and ...


11

As the author of the long quotation, let me address the issue of whether they remained lovers later. I say they may not, not because Alexander got married (he was almost 30 by the first marriage!), but because for two adult men to continue a sexual affair when both could grow a beard began to stray beyond the accepted patterns. While as I note, ancient ...


10

There are no Indian accounts of the Battle of the Hydaspes River. It is difficult to prove a negative, but since there is very little historical material from that era (326 BCE) at all, we can be reasonably certain that there are no historical accounts. Tarn (1966) discusses this when talking about the Bactrian Greeks. Had the story of the Bactrian ...


10

It is not Sati alone that is mentioned by Aristobolos, the most significant historian that accompanied Alexander to India: Few reliable records exist of the practice before the time of the Gupta empire (c. 400 CE). Among those that do reference the practice, the lost works of the Greek historian Aristobulus of Cassandreia, who traveled to India with the ...


9

So officially, would carry wheat and barley but they ate whatever they could find, Armies back then were principally fed with wheat, the soldiers would have likely ate plain whole wheat bread loaves. They would supplement this with whatever they could forage, wild animals, fruits, vegetables etc. Answers.com assessment that ancient soldiers ...


9

In his comment, Semaphore alludes to propaganda and this is indeed how Alexander's speech (see Arrian) should primarily be viewed. He is tapping into the Greek 'traditions' of resisting foreign domination and of the superiority of Greeks over barbarians (non-Greeks). Slavery is not really the issue here; rather, it is about subjugation. The peoples the ...


8

Today I stumbled across Machiavelli's answer to this question (at least with reference to the Persian Empire) in chapter 4 of The Prince, where he writes, Considering the difficulties which men have had to hold to a newly acquired state, some might wonder how, seeing that Alexander the Great became the master of Asia in a few years, and died whilst it ...


7

It was a combination of both. Alexander the Great encouraged the spread of Greek culture as noted by Plutarch in his work On the Fortunes of Alexander: But if you examine the results of Alexander's instruction, you will see that he educated the Hyrcanians to respect the marriage bond, and taught the Arachosians to till the soil, and persuaded the ...


7

Location. According to A Companion to Ancient Macedonia edited by Joseph Roisman, Ian Worthington, the "site was attractive for several reasons". The location controlled a crossroads,"controlling major passageways from east to west, and south to north." The location was also situated on a lake, with a port which may have been able to be reached from the ...


6

If Alexander the Great is labelled as "one of the greatest military commanders of all time" is not because he wasn't defeated, but because his conquests. Having said that, yes, it's true: there's no single defeat recorded for Alexander. It can be argued the primary sources about his life were not impartial, but the Battle of Hydaspes river is recorded as a ...


6

I would like put few points from my reading: Who won the battle ? Well as pointed out by others, it is not quite sure who won the battle i.e. "The Battle of Jhelum". Alexander being the great king would have had a victory in that battle. But according to Battle of the Jhelum analysis which gives valid reasons why Alexander would have lost the battle taking ...


5

Alexander won ONE battle. That does not necessarily mean that he will win the second or third. By being able to appoint Porus "Satrap," Alexander got the "props" for winning the first battle. By accepting the position from Alexander, Porus got to keep control of his country without risking a second or third battle. It was a "win-win" (limited victory) ...


5

Jerusalem being the capital of a province of his empire, that he passed by at least twice going to and returning from Egypt, it seems most unlikely that Alexander didn't visit Jerusalem. He apparently went out of his way to visit the Siwa Oasis (where his god-hood was confirmed) after founding Alexandria. Chapter Eight of Volume XI of Josephus describes the ...


4

He was part of the common Greek collection of tribes and cities. He was from Greek parents Olympias who came from a Molossian royal family that traced its origins to Neoptolemus, the son of the greatest hero of the Trojan War, Achilles. Philip came from a Macedonian family that traced its origins to the Peloponnesian Greek city of Argos and Hercules/Heracles....


4

There are certainly references to "poison" and these come from Diodorus, Arrian, Plutarch and Justin. But these seem more like many of the other fantasies that the Greeks spun- especially if you consider the methods of preparation of the poison and how Alexander was told in a dream about the antidote. Also, the only reference to anyone being ...


4

Alexander the Great held the title of Archistrategos (Supreme Commander) of the Corinth League, which was granted to him at the Second Corinth Congress. He also was a king of Macedon. He could not bear the title of "imperator" which was a Roman title.


4

Alexander the Great conquered what was then the known, "civilized" world. The four early civilizations were the Egyptian, Babylonian, "Indian" and Chinese. Babylon was part of the Persian Empire, which Alexander defeated. Egypt was conquered next. Shortly before his death, Alexander penetrated to the Indus Valley, which was then the heart of "Indian" ...


4

There is a lot of truth in it Ancient Macedonia was a borderline Hellenistic kingdom (border towards barbarians to the north mostly) . As such, it was tribalistic warrior culture, with many customs similar to aforementioned barbarians. Being a member of Macedonian army was seen as a duty, but it was also an honor. Essentially, those who would try to avoid ...


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