54

John Hancock was the President of Congress. So, as stated, he signed first and largest. In the leftmost block are the signers from Georgia. In the block immediately to the right of that one are the signers from North Carolina. The block below contains the signers from South Carolina. This pattern continues throughout with a few exceptions. Here is a ...


48

I think there were two basic issues here: First off, it had never been done before in England. This was effectively the first colony outside of the British Isles peopled almost entirely with Englishmen that had "grown up" to an extent it could possibly consider running its own affairs. There was no real precedent for this situation. When this situation ...


46

I do not think it is accurate to say that guerilla techniques weren't used in the Civil War. What did Stonewall Jackson do in the Shenandoah Valley? But guerilla tactics are limited. First, they are adequate in defensive struggle, conducted within your own territory, where you count with superior knowledge of the terrain, and the loyalty of the local ...


41

The news reached London on the 10th of August. It was, of course, known by British officials in the colonies much earlier, but It is astonishing how casually the Declaration was first reported to official London. On July 8 ex-Governor Tryon in New York wrote to Lord George Germain, the colonial secretary, and Admiral Shuldham wrote to the Admiralty ...


38

It is spurious to assume that the French Revolution somehow originated the term, or otherwise set the standard for what could be called a "revolution". The reality is that different revolutionaries in different periods of history perceived the term differently. The Glorious Revolution of 1688 would be a much more immediate example to 18th century Americans. ...


34

Great Britain considered the colonies represented through virtual representation and as James Macpherson wrote in 1775 Had the Americans, instead of flying to arms, submitted the same supposed grievance [as the taxed though unrepresented Palatine counties in England had], in a peaceable and dutiful manner, to the Legislature, I can perceive no reason why ...


32

Whilst it's an interesting topic, unfortunately, the questions, answers, definitions and many facts are entirely incorrect. Lets address some of the inaccuracies first and see if we can drill down to what the author is driving at. My understanding (which could be wrong) is that armies in the U.S. civil war were "bloody" in the sense that soldiers did not ...


31

Loyalists who lived in the 13 colonies fled to Canada because Canada was part of the British Empire. In Canada they could still be British. If they stayed in the colonies they would be traitors to the King. When their cause was defeated, about 15% of the Loyalists (65,000–70,000 people) fled to other parts of the British Empire, to Britain itself, or ...


27

This article on the civil war's more advanced rifles highlights that: Most American army officers in 1861 had been schooled in obsolete Napoleonic tactics, especially since many of them had served in the Mexican War, which was still fought in the old way with smoothbore muskets and linear formations. The casualties themselves and the bloodiness of the ...


26

He's not 100% wrong that the desire of slaveholders in the States to protect their "property" and the institution itself has been drastically underplayed by Americans in talking about their own history (and really, can you blame them?) For a good historical perspective on this, I highly recommend Slavery and the Founders, by Paul Finkelman. However, as the ...


26

The London Enemies List seems to have been a list of 59 men who were considered to be a danger to the crown. I found a couple of sources that suggest the list was drawn up by London Tories, but these both use David Fischers "Paul Revere's Ride" as their source. The table in the question is reproduced in full in this paper. The footnotes to the table state ...


26

Not repeating info in the other answer(s), but it should be realized that by the time the Declaration of Independence was written, the Battles of Lexington and Concord were already more than a year old (April 19, 1775), as was the Colonials' Continental Army (June 1775). Parliament in London by this time was already quite certain they had an organized ...


24

In theory, yes that would cover any religion. In practice, not just no but hell no. Indian cultures, of which their religious beliefs were an integral part, were considered uncivilized and inferior. In the logic of time, this naturally meant the Indian "way of life" was an active harm to the Indians, as well as a standing threat to their neighbors. As such ...


23

Because residents of Great Britain also had "taxation without representation". Britain in the 1700s was not a democracy. Members of Parliament were not members of the general public, and were not elected by the general public. Even when elections happened, they were not in the least fair, and the voting areas had nothing to do with the numbers of voters ...


22

No. On the one side, we have Hamilton denouncing Cromwell in the Federalist Papers No. 21: Without a guaranty the assistance to be derived from the Union in repelling those domestic dangers which may sometimes threaten the existence of the State constitutions, must be renounced. Usurpation may rear its crest in each State, and trample upon the ...


19

The British army simply didn't have enough soldiers available when the war started. Per the Wikipedia page, their total military strength was around 45,000 men, and Lord North and General Howe didn't think this was nearly enough to succeed. Toward this end, the parliament authorized the raising of 55,000 soldiers and 45,000 sailors in October of 17751. ...


18

My understanding (which could be wrong) is that armies in the U.S. civil war were "bloody" in the sense that soldiers did not retreat or were sent directly into fire, until one side was wiped out. If I'm wrong about that please correct me. Something to keep in mind is the scale at which battles took place in the Civil War. Battles were significantly larger ...


17

Transported convicts weren't imprisoned in the North American colonies. Much like the convicts transported to Australia after the loss of Britain's American colonies they were set to work. American colonists bought their labour when they arrived in America, and the convicts lived with their new owner - effectively as slaves, although people often used the ...


15

There is an unobvious connection pointed out by Tarle: Before the Seven Years War the major threat for the colonists was the French in Canada who could conceivably mount an invasion and conquer the colonies (who hardly relished the prospect). The only sure protection against that was Britain. Once Britain had vanquished France and removed the ever-present ...


15

Remember that it takes several times longer to typeset a page (by hand, as in 1776) than to hand-write it; and that the typesetter still requires a hand-written fair copy to set from. So you don't save any time by only typesetting the document - as it must be first written out fair for the typesetter. From Wikipedia on the Dunlap Broadside (my emphasis). ...


15

Question: I would like to understand the context of France's material contribution, with an overview of what was provided in terms of the percentage of manpower, materiel, finance, and naval support during the revolutionary war? Short Answer: The numbers don't yield a complete "understanding" of the value of the French in the ...


14

I doubt the quoted indictment is about the Royal Proclamation of 1763 (that forbade settlement beyond the Appalachian Mountains). I think the quotation refers to the contemporary state of affairs months or even just weeks before the drafting of the Declaration of Independence in June 1776. In March 1776, there were widespread rumors about Sir John Johnson "...


14

UPDATE: Aaron Fogleman estimates that 585,000 people "immigrated" (many involuntarily) to the 13 colonies between 1700-1775. If they all survived until the time of the Revolution, then 24% of the population at the time of the Revolution would be foreign born (585,000/2,400,000 = .244). Of course this is an absurd assumption, so treat this estimate as an ...


14

Attempting to answer the actual question, Giving the colonists seats in Parliament would not have suited the aims of the parliamentarians and therefore it did not happen. In contrast to the acquisition of (most of) Canada from the French (ignoring the presence of the First Nations and their standing governance of course), the Colonies that eventually became ...


13

I passed the question to the professional historians at Mt Vernon (Washington's home). The Mt. Vernon research historian provided the following information, which I'll quote. Interesting...I've been on the staff here at Mount Vernon for almost 34 years and have never heard anything about Washington riding sidesaddle. I think what people might be ...


13

Salem Poor and Peter Salem were both freed slaves born in Massachusetts (don't be so surprised, New England prohibitions against slavery weren't always followed), which explains the Salem in their names more than an Islamic background. The name Salem has a strong symbolic significance in colonial Massachusetts: In recognition of this peaceful transition ...


12

I think that there were probably a great many factors that led to the American Revolution. Concerns about the growing anti-slavery movement in the UK were undoubtedly among them. Although it is true that the case of Somerset v Stewart in 1772 was a landmark in the campaign against slavery, I suspect that an earlier case would probably have caused greater ...


11

This answer is for a previous version of the question The most persuasive answer to this that I have read recently can be found in "American Nations: A History of the Eleven Rival Regional Cultures of North America" by Colin Woodard. It has been a few years since I read it, but if I remember correctly, he posits that different cultural patterns that were ...


11

The North American version of the Seven Years' War was the French and Indian War. And yes, it did set the stage for the American Revolution for at least three reasons: It provided a casus belli. The French and Indian War cost a lot of money, which the British tried to recoup by taxing the "Americans" of the Thirteen Colonies. The result was a battle cry of "...


11

There are two questions here, since "political elite" did not (and does not) equate to membership in congress. In terms of the physical overlap of the two Congresses, let's examine the composition of the First United States Congress. In the Senate, only four senators out of 25 (+3 replacements), or 16% (14.3% counting replacements) had not previously served ...


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