58

The Chinese designed the wall to be an effective barrier; that was the goal. To answer your question, we need to ask: what land barrier stopped foreign troops the best? The answer in China, and everywhere else, is mountains. The Great Wall is nothing more than a fortification of existing natural barriers. Look closely at the pictures you've posted, and those ...


52

You're describing the mian (冕), a style of classical Chinese head dress that was indeed worn by successive Emperors of China. The basic design consisted of a hat secured to the head with a red string (纓), topped by a rectangular board (綖), with threads of gems (旒) attached to its front and back edges, and two "ear plugs" (充耳) hanging off the two sides. ...


30

The basis for the 5,000 years figure comes from tracing Chinese "history" to the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors. This figure includes over 1,000 years of legends. The next 1000 years are semi-legendary, being only somewhat corroborated by historical evidence. We start to have fragmentary historical records for a few centuries after that, but true ...


30

They did know. Roman knowledge of China is attested in the Geographia, the work of the famous Claudius Ptolemy. Which is not to say, however, that the Romans knew much at all about the Han Empire (or vice versa, for that matter). Ptolemy's map of the Far East coastline is rather distorted: In Chinese records, the Han Emperor first received Roman emissaries ...


20

The Han general Ban Chao (AD 32-102) reconquered the states in the Western Regions (the modern day Tarim Basin in Xinjiang) after pushing the Xiongnu out of the region. This included the kingdoms of Kashgar, Loulan, and Khotan, which were returned to Chinese control. He also sent his emissary Gan Ying even further in order to reach Rome (Daqin). Gan Ying ...


20

There is very little truth to this claim, if at all. The fall of Rome is conventionally dated to A.D. 476. By then China had long been overran by steppe nomads. Since 439, the North China plains - heartland of Chinese civilisation - have been united under the Northern Wei Dynasty. This was a nomad empire, founded by a Mongolic tribe known as the Xianbei, ...


20

In Ancient China, the primary method of coordinating units were to use flags, drums and gongs. Beating drums was a signal to advance, whereas ringing gongs was an order to retreat. The use of flags instructed units on the battlefield to move in specific directions. 《吳子‧應變》 凡戰之法,晝以旌旗旛麾為節,夜以金鼓笳笛為節。麾左而左,麾右而右。鼓之則進,金之則止。 (Wuzi, chapter "Reaction") The method ...


20

The Great Wall of China: It is the longest man-made construction in the world. In the old times, it was of great military importance of preventing the enemies' intrusion and was regarded as the 'Guardian Angel' of the central plain in the past. - Great Wall of China FAQs Why did they build the Great Wall of China? The Great Wall of China is the ...


19

Yes, this is historically accurate. Writing on bamboo slips was not entirely abandoned until the 4th century CE---over a century after the Romance of the Three Kingdoms takes place. As the Wikipedia article on the history of paper that you linked to states, the primary use of ancient Chinese paper before this was for wrapping things, not writing. One of the ...


18

The ➕-shaped inscription in the first image is not related to the ➕-shaped holes in the other images. Also, neither of these ➕-shapes are specific to Gū chalices, being also found in other types of bronze vessels. The ➕-shaped inscription in the first image is the ancestor of the Chinese character 「亞」, and can be thought of as a Shāng Dynasty, non-royal ...


16

Not all blades were constructed in the same way and of the same materials, but the Chinese are noted for originating binary swords. Ancient Chinese metallurgy recorded six different bronzes. In practice, the archeological record shows a much wider array of proportions, if only because much bronze was likely to have been recycled, but it seems clear that ...


16

There are no specific rules, it is completely up to the founders. Many dynasties ultimately took their names from one of the ancient states of China. In any case, usually the actual choice were made in one of six ways: Reviving an Ancient Name: the dynasty began where an ancient state existed, and took its name from its ancient predecessor. Examples include ...


16

I’m thinking I should rephrase my comment above as an answer. I believe the correct answer would be “they didn’t”, and that’s why. While the surname and name of Cao Cao almost match in modern Mandarin (except the tone is different, Cáo Cāo, so they don’t), the similarity is but a figment produced by the language development that led to modern Mandarin. He ...


14

Sort of. Chinese Histories are not without records of generals who can really fight. For instance, in the Records of the Three Kingdoms (not romance), Chen Shou states "黃忠趙雲強摯壯猛 並作爪牙 其灌滕之徒歟". He notes specifically Huang Zhong and Zhao Yun's fighting prowess, and compares them to earlier examples such as Guan Ying and Xiahou Ying, who were said to be fierce ...


13

Well, to be factual, more like 4100 years+ of history is available for study. The Xia Dynasty is dated back to c. 2100 BC - 1600 BC, and numerous sites have been found meeting these dates. Well before that, dates and historical records get more and more inaccurate and enter into the realm of legends. "5000 years" seems like a generous rounding up, but it is ...


12

中國歷代官方語言 (Wikipedia) 漢朝的汉语标准语称“正音”、“雅言”,也称“通語”,后来的“天下通语”则用来严格指汉语标准语。揚雄著書《輶軒使者絕代語釋別國方言》,“方言”即與“通語”相對。 汉代國語為“洛語”,洛語承襲先秦时代的雅言。 There was a standard Chinese dialect during the Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms. Yang Xiong's 1st-century Light-Carriage Messanger's Explanation of Other Countries' Local Expressions in Times Past distinguished the empire's 通語 ("...


12

As I touched in the last paragraph of this answer, we don't really know who the Huns were. Its one of the great mysteries of history, up there with the identity of the Sea Peoples. It appears the initial idea that they were the same people as the Xiongnu in the Chinese records came from an 18th Century French historian who also argued that China was ...


12

Using the delta areas as proxies for the entire river valley systems: The area of the Ganges delta (about 59,000 km2) is nearly 4 times as large as Mesopotamia (about 15,000 km2), and 3 times as large as the Nile river delta (about 19,000 km2). Additionally: Once wet-rice cultivation with paddies is developed, rice provides nearly twice the calories per ...


11

Neither, really. The Zhou Dynasty classed its vassals into five ranks, 公 侯 伯 子 男, which are usually translated into English as Duke, Marquis, Count, Viscount and Baron. The State of Lu held a rank of Marquis (侯). Accordingly, its rulers are properly referred to as Marquis of Lu (魯侯). For example, Marquis Xi of Lu (魯侯戲) whose given name was Xi. However, ...


11

I've searched the web, and as far as I can see, Heron designed the first steam engine, Savery, a British military engineer received the first patent, Newcoman created it, and Watt improved it. There is nothing about China on the web. (except for the conspiracy websites) Based on the lack of information, I'd say that China didn't invent it. (I'm going to do ...


11

Chinese eunuchs were the personal servants of the emperor and his household; being close and having the ear of the emperor gives you power. An eunuch could help you by putting in a good word; eunuchs that are particularly well trusted could abuse that trust by manipulating what the emperor hears, withholding some information or twisting others. I think this ...


11

I think you're finding this odd because you are looking at it from the point of view of your own culture, and assuming that is "normal". In fact, different cultures evolved with different standards for adult gender relations. Since the rules used appear to be nearly universal within language families, likely the roots of these idioms go back at least to the ...


10

There is an overview in an article on China Whisper.com: China`s historical GDP share in the world Han dynasty (206 BC–220 AD) GDP per capita: $450, 26% Tang Dynasty 618 – 907 AD GDP per capita:$480, 58% of world GDP Song Dynasty 960-1279 AD GDP per capita:US$2,280, 80% of the world’s GDP Yuan Dynasty 1271-1368 A estimated to account for about 30% -...


10

It depends on the location and time. Using the number of chariots to denote the size of an army is most often a Spring and Autumn practice. During this period, the traditional, ritualistic formal system of the Chou Dynasty degraded and gave way to ad hoc reforms. Part of these reforms is changes in military organisation. The Chou dynasty prescribed ...


10

The repeating crossbow, with its smaller and lighter ammunition, had neither the power nor the accuracy of an arbalest, however. Thus, it was not very useful against more heavily armoured troops unless poison was smeared on bolts, in which case even a small wound may prove fatal.1 Since the repeating crossbow was shot from the hip, accuracy was poor, but the ...


10

Short Answer There is support among some historians for identifying three periods of major activity along the Silk Road. Some list only two, others four (by dividing one of the three into two halves). But the three often cited coincide with the following dynasties: The Han Dynasty / First Pax Sinica; The T'ang Dynasty / Second Pax Sinica; The Yuan ...


10

There is a picture of that oracle bone in the chapter Chinese and Korean Star Maps and Catalogs by F. Richard Stephenson in the University of Chicago's History of Cartography (p514): There is also a sketch of the bone, together with a brief discussion of the inscription on pp 3-4 of The Astronomy Revolution: 400 Years of Exploring the Cosmos by Donald G. ...


9

There was a project earlier called the Xia-Shang-Zhou Chronology Project, but because it's a sensitive matter for Chinese, as well as the political situation regarding the People's Republic of china, there's a ton of dispute about it. Even in Chinese texts, it doesn't all agree. The Shiji, for example, paints a starkly different picture than the Bamboo ...


9

I think you are not giving the Chinese their due credit. First, interestingly enough, there was a democratic (even anarchist) social movement that tried to create egalitarian communities in uncontrolled areas during the Warring States period; these were called the School of the Tillers: In China around 400 B.C., for example, there was a philosophical ...


9

@lins314159 is correct: the Eastern Zhou's fall began with the demise of the Western Zhou. Unlike its predecessor, the Eastern Zhou was never able to control its vassals. The precipitous drop in royal authority was caused by the collapse of the king's moral authority, his ineptitude, and the internal bickering of the court. This doomed the Eastern Zhou by ...


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