122

Alexandria is sometimes called the New York of the ancient world. That means you might very well use almost any ancient old-world language you like, as the people were incredibly diverse. But the History of Alexandria shows a few 'preferred choices': Ethnic divisions The early Ptolemies were careful to maintain the distinction of its population's three ...


46

The source for Sanjeev Sanyal's account is most likely Plutarch. In his Life of Anthony, Plutarch wrote: Caesarion, who was said to be Cleopatra's son by Julius Caesar, was sent by his mother, with much treasure, into India, by way of Ethiopia. There Rhodon, another tutor like Theodorus, persuaded him to go back, on the ground that Caesar invited ...


25

SHORT ANSWER Pyramid-building declined (in size and quality) during the 5th and 6th dynasties (c. 2450 to 2175 BC) of the Old Kingdom after reaching a peak during the 4th dynasty (c. 2575 to 2450 BC). We don't know for certain why this decline happened, but the economic cost of such large projects and a lessening of central authority were probably the main ...


19

The structure you see is made of rock and sandbags, to protect the Sphinx from bombs as World War II fighting drew near the area. Life magazine reported in 1942 that, the Egyptians have partially covered [the Sphinx] up.... From its base they have built a pile of rock. On top of that they have put a pile of sandbags, neatly tucking them in around the ...


18

From the Oxford English Dictionary (1928): Ethiop ... The Ethiopians are mentioned by Homer as a people dwelling in the far east and far west; in later Gr[eek] the name was applied chiefly to the inhabitants of Africa south of Egypt, but also to people of swarthy complexion from other parts of the world. Under the heading for Ethiopian it ...


14

There's various interpretations of Neferti that Historians have argued about over the years. Simpson considered it to be essentially a propaganda pamphlet aiming at legitimizing and drumming up support for the newly established Twelfth Dynasty, the first King of which was Amenemhat I and that "Ameny true of voice" is supposed to refer to him. (Amenemhat was ...


13

The "Aethiopia" of Herodotus was not the same thing as modern Ethiopia. Rather, the term described anyone from non-Mediterranean Africa. At the time of the Battle of Thermopylae, the Persian Empire included part of Aethiopia, so it's not surprising that an army composed of soldiers from all over the empire would include some Aethiopeans.


12

The short answer is: "No, there is no evidence of this in historical records". The word, 'pharaoh' [pr aA] is first attested in the First Dynasty, about 3150 BCE. It means 'great house', or 'palace'. It wasn't used as a title by Egyptian kings until the reign of Thutmose III in the New Kingdom (his reign lasted from about 1479 to 1425 BCE). From this ...


11

According to Brian Fagan's Lord and Pharaoh: Carnarvon and the Search for Tutankhamun, p. 55, he was "sent down for academic reasons after a year." So he did not obtain any kind of degree. The book doesn't indicate what he studied. This seems consistent with his earlier studies at Eton, which were quite unsuccessful; Fagan speculates that he may have had ...


10

By "religious books" I assume you mean basically the Hebrew Scriptures and possibly commentaries on them? While these quite often mention Egypt, it is hard to find much the other way round. The 'Amarna letters' (a collection of diplomatic correspondence received by the Egyptian court in the fourteenth century BC, mainly in the reign of Akhenaten) contain ...


9

First: A warning. What you're going to get on this website is going to be the fruits of the Documentary Hypothesis and similar historical approaches. This often clashes with some folks' "fixed beliefs". I'm a Christian myself, and have no issue reconciling my faith with secular scholarship, but some faith traditions have big problems with it. The first ...


9

Probably sand and limestone and that's about it. The narrator in the video claims that there is a ladder, but it's conspicuously not visible in the shot. It almost seems like a reference to the crackpot theory of a Hall of Records or something along these lines. An article in Smithsonian Magazine describes the extensive archeological work of Mark Lehner: ...


8

This website has a section on agriculture and horticulture in Ancient Egypt with reference to the creation and maintenance of irrigation canals ...on either side of the Nile. I would assume that if you have irrigation canals on the west bank you would also have fields and such to utilize the water. There seems to be a number of references on the site but I'...


8

The sash you refer to is discussed at the Western Australian Museum website: When he is shown as a seated jackal/dog, Anubis often has a ribbon/sash tied around his neck. This looped red sash is a version of the sa sign, a word often translated as amulet, and it symbolised the protection of female deities. Not only Anubis wears this sash, it is ...


8

The small opening shown in the video you link, which a worker covered with what looks like a temporary hatch cover, is probably related to ground water erosion testing and abatement projects. The same article linked by Brian Z has the following section at the end (emphasis mine): Today, the Sphinx is still eroding. Three years ago, Egyptian authorities ...


7

Why? Because successful ruling elites try to increase their wealth and power. Ancient Egypt was mainly arranged along the Nile with inhospitable desert to both East and West. This leaves only two directions for expansion. Egyptian polities expanded along both of them with the following results: Political unification of Egypt. Expulsion of inhabitants from ...


7

The earliest certain attestation of the solar calendar in Egypt dates to the reign of the Fifth-dynasty Pharaoh Neferirkare, in the mid 25th century BCE. There are also possible earlier examples, but the best we can say is that the calendar was certainly in use early in Old Kingdom Egypt, and perhaps much earlier. Current consensus credits its adoption ...


6

The Hermotybians and Calascirians mentioned by Heordotus appear to be simply two parts of the Egyptian army, each recruited from particular parts of the country. Indeed, Hordotus himself makes this explicit: "Their warriors are called Calasiries or Hermotybies and they are of the following districts, for all Egypt is divided into districts. The ...


6

tl; dr The answer to the question in your title is that it depends on what you (and Herodotus) mean by 'dark-skinned'. There is certainly no evidence of any large black African population in Colchis (contrary to the claims of many afro-centrists). The quotes from the Quora answer will be dealt with individually below. Firstly, your question: Pindar, ...


6

Question: What knowledge may have been lost at the Library of Alexandria? The library at Alexandria was said to be one of the largest and most significant libraries of the ancient world. At it's peak the Library contained between 40,000 and 400,000 manuscripts, (scrolls) and employed more than 100 staff to maintain the collection. While it's true that ...


6

Given that The British Museum Dictionary of Ancient Egypt, Margaret Bunson's Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt and The Greenhaven Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt - not to mention googling (for example, here and here) - all fail to mention any other individuals by the name of Imhotep, we can reasonably assume that there are no other known, notable ancient Egyptians ...


5

UCSD held a fascinating conference on the topic of the Exodus a couple of years back, which I highly recommend viewing - It contains a variety of views on the subject, along with both archeological and textual attempts to support the various hypotheses. That the Exodus story as described in the Old Testament is a myth, is a pretty much universally agreed ...


5

From a bit of research, it seems that hieroglyphs can be drawn in several distinct forms: Pure hieroglyphs are complete images, usually in multiple colours. Umbratic hieroglyphs are carved into stone and intended to be filled with a coloured plaster or enamel. Profiles are likewise carved into stone, and filled with paint. Linear hieroglyphs are simply ...


4

tl; dr the ancient Egyptians had no such concept. The king was simply the incarnation of Horus, so there would be no Ancient Egyptian phrase or word to describe it. There are a number of Egyptian dictionaries. Two of those available online are: Faulkner's Middle Egyptian dictionary Paul Dickson's Dictionary of Middle Egyptian The standard text for ...


4

Were there a pharaoh who believed in any of the Abrahamic religions? That would be proto Judaism, as Judaism as we come to know it later on wasn't invented yet. Other Abrahamic religions were far (= many thousands of years) in the future. At that time Judaism wasn't yet monotheistic. Even that comes later. There are many stories in religious books about ...


4

Nothing of that sort. While all these religious developments describe a very slow process both are not that compatible with one another. In Egypt we have a short episode of monotheism invented by Amenophis IV (Akhnaten) around 1400 BCE that ended quite definitely after his death and for Hebrews/Israelites we have long development towards monotheism from ...


3

As summarized in the Wikipedia article on the Second Persian Invasion of Greece, Herodotus lists 47 diverse ethnic groups which together constituted 1.7 million infantry troops, a large share of Xerces' 2.6 million forces. Whatever the accuracy of these numbers, Xerces clearly recruited soldiers from far and wide, and there may not be anything particularly ...


3

Adding to @Timothy's answer: I concur that there are no detailed accounts of the destruction of the Hittites. However, there appear to be at least two very, very short and incomplete accounts: Ugarit was probably under Hittite suzerranity, but maybe not. In any case, it was not far from the core areas of the Hittites. A desperate letter written by king ...


3

Although hieroglyphs, and indeed the Egyptian language, did change over time, the tombs in the Valley of the Kings all date to the same period. The royal tombs there were all cut in the New Kingdom, and date from about 1540 BCE to about 1075 BCE. The language spoken in Egypt at that time is what we now call Middle Egyptian. The written hieroglyphic ...


3

Depending on class, you might go with the Demotic language, what in the days of Cleopatra was the language of the people. The last successor to Egyptian is Coptic, Demotic is in between, and might be the language of your teenager. A simple google search did not find much "Demotic curse words". I'll put that in the not worthy to document column. But there is ...


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