75

Xenia is a concept that represented the relationship between guests and hosts in Ancient Greece, and is a recurring theme in the Odyssey, Iliad, and other Greek works. Essentially, Penelope was fulfilling the expected cultural role of a generous host, whereas the suitors were breaking their role as courteous guests. For adhering to that culture's expectation ...


49

The author of that particular claim appears to have been Diogenes the Cynic. This is the same man who was said to carry around a lantern in broad daylight, claiming to be (futilely) looking for an honest man to anyone who asked about it. He was also known to heckle Plato and other philosophers, as well as political leaders, and just generally seems to have ...


43

There is a difference between abstract knowledge and "inventions". In the 17th century it was still widely believed that the ancient Greeks had discovered and formulated pretty much the sum total of abstract knowledge. Fermat put this in question. The authentic quote from Fermat (in French and in English translation) can be found here: Perhaps, posterity ...


20

There are two kinds of τρόπαιον (tropaion) the battlefiled tropaion and the more permanent trophy, like an arch built to commemorate a military victory. The latter are then public buildings in a city. The battle field tropaion of that period was In the Greek city-states of the Archaic period, the tropaion would be set up on the battlefield itself, ...


15

Thucydides has been widely read and cited since ancient times, though not always to same extent in different periods. Martin Hammond, in his translation of The Peloponnesian War, observes: Thucydides was not as widely read in the fourth century and the hellenistic period as the more obviously attractive Herodotus and Xenophon, but he was far from ...


14

Xenophon gave specific reasons for some of his works but for others he did not. Xenophon (about 431 BC to 354 BC) produced a very wide range of work during his lifetime: historical, biographical, philosophical, instructional. He never stated a primary purpose for all his works and we can deduce that some of what he wrote was aimed at specific audiences. ...


12

As far as we know, Babylonians had no Pythagorean theorem and no theorems at all whatsoever. The major contribution of the Greeks was that "there are statements (which they called theorems) which can be PROVEN". This was a unique discovery, and no trace of it exists in any other culture. The notion of a "theorem" is a Greek invention, and there is absolutely ...


11

We do not know and cannot be sure. But it seems neither likely nor unlikely, but quite possible. It seems as if many would like to get an answer that either gives the most intimate biographical details about the bedroom behaviour of two concrete ancient persons that are dead for over 2300 years while information on both were quickly enshrouded in myths. Or ...


11

Other answers are good but I would like to add a bit of context. The OP states that it should have been clear by 1600 that some advance had been made since Roman times. However, the idea that by then contemporary sciences and arts had surpassed old ones was new and very controversial. The querelle des Anciens et des Modernes was a famous and heated literary ...


10

I ran this by my friend Matt Colvin, whose degree is in, and who teaches, classics. Here are his insights into the cultural context: Mickey, Missing from this discussion is the simultaneous second prong of the suitors’ strategy: namely, if they cannot make Penelope marry one of them, they can at least devour and waste so much of Odysseus’ ...


10

Firstly, your assertion that: > It is said he recorded the last words of the Spartans "stranger go tell Sparta we lie here obedient to her laws " is incorrect. That is actually the wording of an inscription that Herodotus states was erected above the graves of the Spartans. In fact, Herodotus records that three inscriptions were put there (Book VII, ...


9

There is no evidence from ancient sources that any helots were made citizens in the aftermath of Plataea. Also, there is very strong circumstantial evidence which suggests that it didn't happen. The earliest likely date for helots becoming citizens is the late 3rd century, at least 250 years after the Battle of Plataea. There is also no evidence that any ...


9

Two features of ceramics make them likely to be preserved. Firstly, ceramics are fired in a kiln. This makes them solid, even as sherds. They are hard and impervious. If not mechanically disturbed (jostled, trampled, etc.) they are likely to remain in the state they were in when discarded. Secondly, ceramics were widespread, in daily use, and regularly ...


9

Is there any other evidence of this mathematical concept existing in Babylon before Pythagoras? Yes. As Wikipedia observes, the Plimpton 322 tablet … lists two of the three numbers in what are now called Pythagorean triples, i.e., integers a, b, and c satisfying a2 + b2 = c2 (Click to enlarge) In addition to the Plimpton 322 tablet we have: The Yale ...


9

As the author of the long quotation, let me address the issue of whether they remained lovers later. I say they may not, not because Alexander got married (he was almost 30 by the first marriage!), but because for two adult men to continue a sexual affair when both could grow a beard began to stray beyond the accepted patterns. While as I note, ancient ...


8

Actually, it is quite easy to understand even from today's perspective : Penelope still has presumably living husband. There is no definite proof that Odysseus perished, and Penelope refuses to declare him dead. It is entirely in her right to do so, even in modern times. Odysseus has a son and heir. Telemachus would legally be new king of Ithaca if his ...


8

His tomb was found in 1957; a detailed report, Reconstructing King Midas: A First Report, by A. J. N. W. Prag, Anatolian Studies, Vol. 39 (1989), pp. 159-165 (9 pages) Published by: British Institute at Ankara details a reconstruction of his face from the body found in the tomb; see p. 9 of the article, available on JSTOR:


8

There's a model of the Stoa Basileios (or Royal Stoa), seat of the archon basileus, at the end of 5th century BC on the site of the American School of Classical Studies at Athens (ASCSA). This is close to the date (399 BC) that Plato's Euthyphro took place. "Model of the Royal Stoa at the end of 5th c. B.C. with the addition of the annexes. Model realised ...


8

In a specific case, his work was clearly intended as instructional manual for others: His work On Horsemanship addresses cavalry officers and others either involved with the training of horses or the leading of mounted troops. Thus sitting "between" your two positions of "for future generations" and "for own satisfaction". The twist being that he almost ...


7

This question probably can't produce anything but opinion-based answers, but I'll take my shot. I would say two factors are at play here: First, the lauding of extravagant praise on an "alien" system was often used by classical-era writers as a method of criticizing flaws in their domestic system. Tacitus' Germania is a typical example of this. Athens ...


6

There is a vast amount of literature covering the period you are interested in. What follows is but a small sample, but it should set you on your way. The following ancient sources cover 5th century BC Athens. They are not specifically about the daily lives and culture of Athenians but there is much to be gleaned from them. Plutarch's Parallel Lives, ...


6

No. We might infer from the documented existence of specific phobias that one for arachnids would be possible as well. So that's really a circumstantial, weak, tiny little maybe yes. But for arguing with evolutionary psychology? Noooooooo! We have to differentiate already our modern definitions for fear, anxiety and phobia. They have different wiki pages,...


6

Of course we can only conjecture (as we cannot know exactly what was in Xenophon's mind), so I conjecture that motivation was the same as for many modern writers: it is the desire to spread one's knowledge and ideas. To the contemporaries and to the later generations. There are additional, secondary motivations, of course, such as fame, respect in the ...


6

Others have covered Fermat's note specifically, so I'll respond to this sub-question: I am extremely interested in the idea that there was a period in time when, at least in the west, people looked upon the ancients (Romans/Greeks) as possessors of wisdom that had been lost. After the fall of the Roman empire (around 476 AD - exact opinions vary at what ...


5

The oldest written record of STD are probably the Sumerian clay tablets. from History of venereal diseases from antiquity to the renaissance That some genital disturbances were observed and some form of urethritis was present is within the range of probability, especially if one reads the poetry dedicated to Innana (or Ishtar), the goddess of sexual ...


5

Question: Why did Ancient Greek city-states fight each other and how did they moraly justify it? This is a great question. I choose to answer it by not just discussing the motivations for their internal wars but the systemic reason why Greece was so unstable (no empowered central authority). How the lessons have influenced the evolution of other ...


5

This question is periodically asked here in various forms. Apparently the problem is that none of the literature of Persian empires (Achaemenid, Parthian, Sasanian) survived. If there was any, it was completely destroyed after Muslim conquest. I will be glad if someone proves me wrong, but my search shows that no Persian pre-Muslim literature survived. None. ...


5

SHORT ANSWER Most modern historians lean towards Lampsacus being originally a Phocaean colony, this being based on an account of the local historigrapher Charon of Lampsacus in the surviving fragments of his Chronicles of Lampsacus, as well as other evidence linking Lampsacus to Phocaea. Evidence for Milesian involvement is lacking, aside from Strabo's ...


5

For Sparta, "great deeds" is mentioned by Xenophon (c. 431 to 354 BC) in Constitution of the Lacedaemonians where he relates this in the context of the young gaining part of their education from the experience of their elders: Note that in other states the company usually consists of men of the same age, where modesty is apt to be conspicuous by its ...


4

In his comment, Semaphore alludes to propaganda and this is indeed how Alexander's speech should primarily be viewed. He is tapping into the Greek 'traditions' of resisting foreign domination and of the superiority of Greeks over barbarians. Slavery is not really the issue here; rather, it is about subjugation. The peoples the Persian King ruled had offered ...


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