42

The biggest difference that I'm aware of is that the Classical Greek religion was much more the religion of myths that we all know, while the Classical Roman religion had fewer personifications and its gods were much more like numinous forces than like people. The Greek religion that we know was encapsulated by Homer who served in some respects like an Old ...


17

That is very difficult to put a single number on. Like today, ethanol content in wines ranges from 5–25%, but usually between 9–16%. It depends a bit on how strong one prefers, or how the Greeks preferred the ethanol content to be. Traditionally it was that one consumption unit 'equals' – or let's say 'corresponds' – to 10g pure ethanol. (One shot of ...


14

This is a bad answer - I don't have sources available. It is my understanding that we lack a great deal of the sources needed for an emic understanding of Roman and Greek religious practice, and I think that's fundamentally what you're seeking. Note that the differences between religions may not be obvious to the outsider. I've encountered Protestants who ...


13

Short Answer There is no clear primary source evidence for either why the Hecatomnid dynasty (c. 395 - 334 BC) siblings married each other or why it was 'permitted' (by which I take it to mean why the citizens didn't drum the siblings out of town), but the former question is discussed in some detail by E. D. Carney in Women and Dunasteia in Caria. While ...


12

Assuming that you are not restricting this to Roman poets, Alcaeus of Mytilene (circa 625–620 to circa 580 BC), a Greek lyric poet from Lesbos may be of help. He was certainly known to Ovid, who even paid tribute to him through Alcaeus's contemporary Sappho in The Heroides (15): But the Muses compose the sweetest songs for me: now, my name is sung ...


11

Machanidas of Sparta's motive for attacking Elis was almost certainly territorial expansion, and was part of the last but one of several (ultimately futile) attempts to resurrect Spartan hegemony in the Peloponnese. A final attempt to restore Spartan 'glory' was made a few years later by Machanidas' successor, the tyrant Nabis (ruled 207 to 192 BC). This ...


10

Vivian Nutton provides a detailed account for the workings for a Greek/Roman temple like the Asclepeion in his book Ancient Medicine pp. 109-110. At the shrine suppliants would purify themselves at a sacred spring, before offering an appropriate sacrifice, and then, wearing white robes, undergo a second purification before entering the abaton or an ...


10

These are some comments about what you should look for, not a true answer. Also mind that 'ancient Greece' may mean many centuries (and different countries, places and colonies). This question may not have a single answer valid for all. Do not think on Temples as churches - people did not go there mainly to pray. There were built for sacrifices: the ...


8

As has been stated also by others, the real cost of a navy was not the construction cost, but the operating cost. According to Thucydides, the operating cost in 5th century Athens amounted to one silver talent per trireme per month, which is approximately 25 kilograms of silver per month. This is mentioned in Thucydides VI, 8.1 when in the spring of 415, ...


8

The quote is from Odyssey 10.84-6: ἔνθα κ᾿ ἄυπνος ἀνὴρ δοιοὺς ἐξήρατο μισθούς, τὸν μὲν βουκολέων, τὸν δ᾿ ἄργυφα μῆλα νομεύων· ἐγγὺς γὰρ νυκτός τε καὶ ἤματός εἰσι κέλευθοι. where the Greek word rendered as "wage" is μισθός/misthos, which did denote a range of meanings depending on historical periods and geographic regions; but in its most common ...


7

Our sources on how the Greeks in classical times celebrated their military leaders’ victories are scattered and, with rare exceptions, singularly lacking in detail. Enhanced reputation and prestige, along with booty, land, dedications, money, crowning with garlands and invitations as guest of honour at the homes of the most eminent citizens, could be among ...


7

Pre-modern payments for exertion were: gratuities: such as the coin to the beggar payment for an good or instant service: such as the loaf from the baker or the fuck from the whore part of a long term relationship of continuing semi-servile labour: such as the cow herd or sheep pasturer "Wage" here is entirely from a translation, so it is the translators' ...


6

I do not know of any specific stories like that of Vedius Pollio and Augustus, but Euripedes seems to have shown concern for slaves. This is perhaps his most famous line on the subject: 'Alas! how cursed is slavery always in its nature, forced by the might of the stronger to endure unseemly treatment.' (Hercuba, 332–334) Edit: Here are some references ...


6

I wonder whether you mean John Locke's treatise on commonplace books? As for Aristotle: The following adage is often attributed to him (put it into a search engine to see how many quotation websites have it): 'To write well, express yourself like the common people, but think like a wise man.' However, I cannot find an actual source for this and I suspect ...


6

Just because nothing survives of early cartographic works does not mean they did not exist. In History we often have to gather information from earlier historical writings, discussing earlier works yet. Gathering information on Geography, and recording this information, Cartography, predate Ptolemy by hundreds of years. Early Cartographers and Geographers ...


6

I don't know, but it is possible that Timaeus c. 300 BC, or Antiochius of Syracuse about a century earlier, was the first Greek writer to mention Rome. Unfortunately, for some reason I have been unable to link to my various sources. The first treaty between Roman and Carthage was made in about 509 or 508 BC. And if it was recorded in historical accounts, the ...


5

You would do well to remember that there were very few similarities between Roman and Greek religion until the Romans began borrowing from the Greeks. For an idea of how utterly different Roman religion originally was from Greek religion, see for example Dumezil's Archaic Roman Religion.


5

I suppose no ancient Greek maps or their descriptions survive to answer this question. The earliest maps (and a mathematical theory of making them) that we know were made by Ptolemy, who was not exactly an "ancient Greek". He lived in the Roman empire in 2-nd century AD, contemporary of Trajan, and he wrote in Greek. Even his maps illustrating his famous ...


4

1) Yes, history has documented honor killings back to ancient times. Honour killings have been known since ancient Roman times, when the pater familias, or senior male within a household, retained the right to kill an unmarried but sexually active daughter or an adulterous wife.Footnote39 Honour-based crimes were known in medieval Europe where early ...


4

I think the answer is that, failing the discovery of a new primary source, we will never know. Considering the sheer human cost of the Plague of Athens, its footprint in ancient literature does seem somewhat shallow (although who knows which texts have been lost over the centuries). For instance, one might consider the Plague and its effects on the people ...


4

Yes, in ancient times there was a Greater Greece that included what is now extreme southern Italy. From about 700BC to around 300BC. This initially consisted of colonists from various parts of Greece, but of course over time their descendants culturally (and presumably genetically) assimilated with the surrounding Latin culture from further north in the ...


3

The portrayal of Sparta and Athens as complete opposites masks the fact that neither city was one-dimensional. In Athens there had always been a faction leaning towards oligarchy, the prime example of which being Kimon son of Miltiades, who even had his son named Lacedaemonian. Please bear in mind that Kimon, despite his pro-Spartan views, was in no way in ...


3

(It's a high resolution photograph, in case it will help to be able to read the text.) Thank you very much for the high resolution image. As far as I can tell, the inscription reads: ΠΟ[Μ]ΠΗΙΑΝΟΝ ΚΟ[Λ]ΛΥΤΕΑ ΤΟΝ ΣΥΓΓΡΑΦΕΑ ΣΩΣΙΓΕΝΗΣ ΠΑΛΛΗΝΕΥΣ Ο ΣΟΦΙΣΤΗΣ ΨΗΦΙΣΑΜΕΝΗΣ ΤΗΣ ΕΞ ΑΡΕΙΟΥ ΠΑΓΟΥ ΒΟΥΛΗΣ This looks like an honorary inscription set up by vote of the ...


3

Note: I contributed to a number of articles on the Trebizond Empire for Wikipedia, so while I do not claim to be an expert on this subject, I can speak with some authority on the available scholarship. The etymology of Athenae/Atina/Pazar is uncertain. Some favor a Greek origin -- but fail to provide a convincing rationale to explain it. Some favor a Laz ...


3

A lot depends on the time-scale you are asking about. Evidence is spotty the further back you go. Many different populations settled or conquered Cyprus over the centuries. According to the Wikipedia article "Ancient history of Cyprus", Mycenaean settlers arrived in the twelfth century BCE and Assyrian conquest took place by about 700 BCE. The ten city-...


3

In tradition, yes, in contemporary times likely no First of all, we must establish that the original text of Draconian constitution is lost to us. All we have are some fragments and anecdotal evidence of them being very severe as mentioned by Aristotle, Plutarch and others. What did remain of them in later Athenian laws (like Solonian constitution) are parts ...


2

A couple exceptions do in fact exist where the site is relatively flat and the theatre is not built into the slope of a hill or ravine but entirely built up from level ground. One such exception is Metapontum in Basilicata.


2

Ancient world slavery was pretty well equal opportunity. People of any age/gender could get sold as war captives, as victims of piracy, for punitive reasons and in many cases for debt. Various societies legislated against the sale of their own citizens within their society, but that didn't protect citizens when they strayed abroad. Plato was an Athenian. ...


2

Honor killings??? Greek mythology/history is full of killings for honor. Odysseus killing the Suitors of Penelope Orestes killing his uncle Aegisthus and his mother (though unknowingly) Clytemnestra for killing his father Agamemnon Ajax killing himself because of the dishonoring madness which caught him after losing the verbal fight between the Greeks for ...


2

Although I can see why Ricky’s answer has been downvoted, I think he is actually making one perfectly valid point. The point is that religious warfare today has the meaning of a clash between people of different religious dogmata. The “Sacred Wars” of the Greeks were nothing of the sort, as the combatants were not divided by religious belief. In the case of ...


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