49

The author of that particular claim appears to have been Diogenes the Cynic. This is the same man who was said to carry around a lantern in broad daylight, claiming to be (futilely) looking for an honest man to anyone who asked about it. He was also known to heckle Plato and other philosophers, as well as political leaders, and just generally seems to have ...


43

There is a difference between abstract knowledge and "inventions". In the 17th century it was still widely believed that the ancient Greeks had discovered and formulated pretty much the sum total of abstract knowledge. Fermat put this in question. The authentic quote from Fermat (in French and in English translation) can be found here: Perhaps, posterity ...


42

The biggest difference that I'm aware of is that the Classical Greek religion was much more the religion of myths that we all know, while the Classical Roman religion had fewer personifications and its gods were much more like numinous forces than like people. The Greek religion that we know was encapsulated by Homer who served in some respects like an Old ...


15

Thucydides has been widely read and cited since ancient times, though not always to same extent in different periods. Martin Hammond, in his translation of The Peloponnesian War, observes: Thucydides was not as widely read in the fourth century and the hellenistic period as the more obviously attractive Herodotus and Xenophon, but he was far from ...


14

Xenophon gave specific reasons for some of his works but for others he did not. Xenophon (about 431 BC to 354 BC) produced a very wide range of work during his lifetime: historical, biographical, philosophical, instructional. He never stated a primary purpose for all his works and we can deduce that some of what he wrote was aimed at specific audiences. ...


14

This is a bad answer - I don't have sources available. It is my understanding that we lack a great deal of the sources needed for an emic understanding of Roman and Greek religious practice, and I think that's fundamentally what you're seeking. Note that the differences between religions may not be obvious to the outsider. I've encountered Protestants who ...


12

As far as we know, Babylonians had no Pythagorean theorem and no theorems at all whatsoever. The major contribution of the Greeks was that "there are statements (which they called theorems) which can be PROVEN". This was a unique discovery, and no trace of it exists in any other culture. The notion of a "theorem" is a Greek invention, and there is absolutely ...


12

Assuming that you are not restricting this to Roman poets, Alcaeus of Mytilene (circa 625–620 to circa 580 BC), a Greek lyric poet from Lesbos may be of help. He was certainly known to Ovid, who even paid tribute to him through Alcaeus's contemporary Sappho in The Heroides (15): But the Muses compose the sweetest songs for me: now, my name is sung ...


11

We do not know and cannot be sure. But it seems neither likely nor unlikely, but quite possible. It seems as if many would like to get an answer that either gives the most intimate biographical details about the bedroom behaviour of two concrete ancient persons that are dead for over 2300 years while information on both were quickly enshrouded in myths. Or ...


11

Other answers are good but I would like to add a bit of context. The OP states that it should have been clear by 1600 that some advance had been made since Roman times. However, the idea that by then contemporary sciences and arts had surpassed old ones was new and very controversial. The querelle des Anciens et des Modernes was a famous and heated literary ...


9

There is no evidence from ancient sources that any helots were made citizens in the aftermath of Plataea. Also, there is very strong circumstantial evidence which suggests that it didn't happen. The earliest likely date for helots becoming citizens is the late 3rd century, at least 250 years after the Battle of Plataea. There is also no evidence that any ...


9

Is there any other evidence of this mathematical concept existing in Babylon before Pythagoras? Yes. As Wikipedia observes, the Plimpton 322 tablet … lists two of the three numbers in what are now called Pythagorean triples, i.e., integers a, b, and c satisfying a2 + b2 = c2 (Click to enlarge) In addition to the Plimpton 322 tablet we have: The Yale ...


9

As the author of the long quotation, let me address the issue of whether they remained lovers later. I say they may not, not because Alexander got married (he was almost 30 by the first marriage!), but because for two adult men to continue a sexual affair when both could grow a beard began to stray beyond the accepted patterns. While as I note, ancient ...


8

His tomb was found in 1957; a detailed report, Reconstructing King Midas: A First Report, by A. J. N. W. Prag, Anatolian Studies, Vol. 39 (1989), pp. 159-165 (9 pages) Published by: British Institute at Ankara details a reconstruction of his face from the body found in the tomb; see p. 9 of the article, available on JSTOR:


8

There's a model of the Stoa Basileios (or Royal Stoa), seat of the archon basileus, at the end of 5th century BC on the site of the American School of Classical Studies at Athens (ASCSA). This is close to the date (399 BC) that Plato's Euthyphro took place. "Model of the Royal Stoa at the end of 5th c. B.C. with the addition of the annexes. Model realised ...


8

Two features of ceramics make them likely to be preserved. Firstly, ceramics are fired in a kiln. This makes them solid, even as sherds. They are hard and impervious. If not mechanically disturbed (jostled, trampled, etc.) they are likely to remain in the state they were in when discarded. Secondly, ceramics were widespread, in daily use, and regularly ...


8

In a specific case, his work was clearly intended as instructional manual for others: His work On Horsemanship addresses cavalry officers and others either involved with the training of horses or the leading of mounted troops. Thus sitting "between" your two positions of "for future generations" and "for own satisfaction". The twist being that he almost ...


7

This question probably can't produce anything but opinion-based answers, but I'll take my shot. I would say two factors are at play here: First, the lauding of extravagant praise on an "alien" system was often used by classical-era writers as a method of criticizing flaws in their domestic system. Tacitus' Germania is a typical example of this. Athens ...


6

There is a vast amount of literature covering the period you are interested in. What follows is but a small sample, but it should set you on your way. The following ancient sources cover 5th century BC Athens. They are not specifically about the daily lives and culture of Athenians but there is much to be gleaned from them. Plutarch's Parallel Lives, ...


6

No. We might infer from the documented existence of specific phobias that one for arachnids would be possible as well. So that's really a circumstantial, weak, tiny little maybe yes. But for arguing with evolutionary psychology? Noooooooo! We have to differentiate already our modern definitions for fear, anxiety and phobia. They have different wiki pages,...


6

Of course we can only conjecture (as we cannot know exactly what was in Xenophon's mind), so I conjecture that motivation was the same as for many modern writers: it is the desire to spread one's knowledge and ideas. To the contemporaries and to the later generations. There are additional, secondary motivations, of course, such as fame, respect in the ...


6

Others have covered Fermat's note specifically, so I'll respond to this sub-question: I am extremely interested in the idea that there was a period in time when, at least in the west, people looked upon the ancients (Romans/Greeks) as possessors of wisdom that had been lost. After the fall of the Roman empire (around 476 AD - exact opinions vary at what ...


5

Question: Why did Ancient Greek city-states fight each other and how did they moraly justify it? This is a great question. I choose to answer it by not just discussing the motivations for their internal wars but the systemic reason why Greece was so unstable (no empowered central authority). How the lessons have influenced the evolution of other ...


5

This question is periodically asked here in various forms. Apparently the problem is that none of the literature of Persian empires (Achaemenid, Parthian, Sasanian) survived. If there was any, it was completely destroyed after Muslim conquest. I will be glad if someone proves me wrong, but my search shows that no Persian pre-Muslim literature survived. None. ...


5

The oldest written record of STD are probably the Sumerian clay tablets. from History of venereal diseases from antiquity to the renaissance That some genital disturbances were observed and some form of urethritis was present is within the range of probability, especially if one reads the poetry dedicated to Innana (or Ishtar), the goddess of sexual ...


5

SHORT ANSWER Most modern historians lean towards Lampsacus being originally a Phocaean colony, this being based on an account of the local historigrapher Charon of Lampsacus in the surviving fragments of his Chronicles of Lampsacus, as well as other evidence linking Lampsacus to Phocaea. Evidence for Milesian involvement is lacking, aside from Strabo's ...


5

For Sparta, "great deeds" is mentioned by Xenophon (c. 431 to 354 BC) in Constitution of the Lacedaemonians where he relates this in the context of the young gaining part of their education from the experience of their elders: Note that in other states the company usually consists of men of the same age, where modesty is apt to be conspicuous by its ...


5

You would do well to remember that there were very few similarities between Roman and Greek religion until the Romans began borrowing from the Greeks. For an idea of how utterly different Roman religion originally was from Greek religion, see for example Dumezil's Archaic Roman Religion.


4

If the question is indeed not about the part in question that's bracketed out, then well, focusing solely on tragedy drama, as a practice, emerged from an originally solely-musical chorus. First people sang story-songs, especially dithyrambs, and then later came dialog and characters as the subjects of the songs. then this is just an observational ...


4

There are two temples at Cumae which have been associated with Apollo, an upper one and a lower one. The latter, which is the one your question appears to refer to, is the more definitely identified but there is no established early date as "facts and finds are deficient". The earliest likely date would appear to be late 6th century BC. Map source: ...


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