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1

There are certainly scholars who have tried to quantify economic growth and income disparities over the long term, most notably Paul Bairoch and, especially, Angus Maddison. I don't have their books at hand and do not know whether their data goes as far back in the past or if they looked at this specific comparison but as I recall the main finding is that ...


0

Question: Why did Athenian philosophers praise Spartan culture and laws, which would preclude philosophers like themselves? The curious point is that all these philosophers(Socrates, Aristotle, Plato) were clearly products of the open and tolerant Athenian society in which they lived. Athens was not an open tolerant society. ...


2

The portrayal of Sparta and Athens as complete opposites masks the fact that neither city was one-dimensional. In Athens there had always been a faction leaning towards oligarchy, the prime example of which being Kimon son of Miltiades, who even had his son named Lacedaemonian. Please bear in mind that Kimon, despite his pro-Spartan views, was in no way in ...


3

(It's a high resolution photograph, in case it will help to be able to read the text.) Thank you very much for the high resolution image. As far as I can tell, the inscription reads: ΠΟ[Μ]ΠΗΙΑΝΟΝ ΚΟ[Λ]ΛΥΤΕΑ ΤΟΝ ΣΥΓΓΡΑΦΕΑ ΣΩΣΙΓΕΝΗΣ ΠΑΛΛΗΝΕΥΣ Ο ΣΟΦΙΣΤΗΣ ΨΗΦΙΣΑΜΕΝΗΣ ΤΗΣ ΕΞ ΑΡΕΙΟΥ ΠΑΓΟΥ ΒΟΥΛΗΣ This looks like an honorary inscription set up by vote of the ...


2

It seems virtually impossible to know this. Fermentation normally proceeds until the yeast go dormant because their own alcohol waste becomes too concentrated for them to tolerate. However, the level that they can tolerate depends greatly on the strain of yeast. Today, you can buy champagne yeast with a high alcohol tolerance, or other strains with much ...


16

That is very difficult to put a single number on. Like today, ethanol content in wines ranges from 5–25%, but usually between 9–16%. It depends a bit on how strong one prefers, or how the Greeks preferred the ethanol content to be. Traditionally it was that one consumption unit 'equals' – or let's say 'corresponds' – to 10g pure ethanol. (One shot of ...


0

In late 5th century BC Mycenae looked small and insignificant in the words of Thucydides I.10, as did all other cities of that age. (Καὶ ὅτι μὲν Μυκῆναι μικρὸν ἦν, ἢ εἴ τι τῶν τότε πόλισμα νῦν μὴ ἀξιόχρεων δοκεῖ εἶναι) The Mycenaeans are recorded to have taken part in the Persian Wars on the side of the Hellenic League. Herodotus 9.28.4 mentions that ...


5

As has been stated also by others, the real cost of a navy was not the construction cost, but the operating cost. According to Thucydides, the operating cost in 5th century Athens amounted to one silver talent per trireme per month, which is approximately 25 kilograms of silver per month. This is mentioned in Thucydides VI, 8.1 when in the spring of 415, ...


1

In my understanding, Cleon is arguing to kill all the men, even those who didn't instigate the rebellion. Cleon is arguing to kill all the men because they all willingly took part in the rebellion instigated by the oligarchs.πάντες γὰρ ὑμῖν γε ὁμοίως ἐπέθεντο In most city-states during the Peloponnesian War, there were two factions: the democratic (pro-...


1

I would also be interested in any references describing the Helots and the techniques Sparta used to control them. On the techniques used by Spartans to keep the helots in check you may want to read about the so called “ceremony of the helots” in Thucydides, IV,80. Thucydides describes how at one time the Spartan authorities got rid of around 2,000 ...


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