62

This happened in Roman Times judging by two notes in Slaves doing business: the role of Roman law in the economy of a Roman household by Richard Gamauf (2009): A Roman slave could hold property which, despite the fact that it belonged to his master, he was allowed to use as if it were his own. All acquisitions based on such a peculium were automatically ...


54

There are examples of slaves owning slaves from different historical periods and in different regions of the world, including: Ancient Near East Early Medieval Sunni Islam Late Medieval Mallorca 19th century Brazil and the West Indies Pre-colonial and colonial East and West Africa Ancient Near East During the Neo-Babylonian empire (at least) the answer ...


43

There is a difference between abstract knowledge and "inventions". In the 17th century it was still widely believed that the ancient Greeks had discovered and formulated pretty much the sum total of abstract knowledge. Fermat put this in question. The authentic quote from Fermat (in French and in English translation) can be found here: Perhaps, posterity ...


42

One man's lock is another man's puzzle. Combination locks have been used since at least ancient Rome. Whether the lock uses numbers or letters (or other symbols), the combination to be entered may be set based on a riddle or some other piece of knowledge as a mnemonic. The lock is meant to be solved at some future time by someone who has the correct ...


42

The biggest difference that I'm aware of is that the Classical Greek religion was much more the religion of myths that we all know, while the Classical Roman religion had fewer personifications and its gods were much more like numinous forces than like people. The Greek religion that we know was encapsulated by Homer who served in some respects like an Old ...


39

Coins, dedications, and other 'ritual' objects have been buried in the foundations of buildings since prehistory. The function of these artefacts is unclear, but they do not appear to have been placed there for future generations. What you are looking for is usually called a 'time-capsule', and as the Wikipedia article observes: A time capsule is a ...


39

The Copper Scroll The Copper Scroll is a Dead Sea scroll found in 1952, unique in that it is of copper (with a little tin), has a list of 63 or 64 locations of treasure with "obscure hints of the locations". Although it was initially disputed whether or not the list was historical rather than legendary, a scholarly consensus seems to be emerging that ...


29

The short answer (unfortunately but unsurprisingly) is that we can't be sure. However, the currently most accepted theory would appear to be that the walls were for flood control, but there are other views and there is no clear consensus. The tower, on the other hand, has been associated with the summer solstice, among other things. THE WALLS The most ...


19

The ancient Sumerians and Babylonians, from about 3000 BC on, used to bury clay tablets in the foundations of their temples and other major buildings giving the name of the king who founded the temple and threatening to curse anyone who might in the future destroy the building. These inscriptions were not addressed to their contemporaries (they were buried ...


19

Most probably, this starts with a an untrue premise: There are not so many laws about eye injury. How many "laws" are there in the Hammurabi Code? — 282. How many "laws" are there concerning consequences of eye injury? 2 One law for harm done by everyday accidents, brawls, malicious intent, one for professional medical health & safety. The "why" and ...


16

The literary evidence for Romans anticipating the fall of Rome would seem to be very limited and, at most, indirect. There are, though, references to potential future threats to the empire, but also - among Christian writers - the belief that Rome's future was in God's hands. The contemporary accounts we have tended to focus on the past and / or the times ...


14

It's not specifically Roman, but the time frame is similar: I recommend Donald W. Engels, Alexander the Great and the Logistics of the Macedonian Army, University of California Press, 1978. The short version: Alexander and his generals had an extremely keen grasp of the logistical requirements of his army. He would send out advance detachments that ...


14

This is a bad answer - I don't have sources available. It is my understanding that we lack a great deal of the sources needed for an emic understanding of Roman and Greek religious practice, and I think that's fundamentally what you're seeking. Note that the differences between religions may not be obvious to the outsider. I've encountered Protestants who ...


12

Its actually a pretty astute observation that independent river-valley "cradles of civilization" tend to have their own crops associated with them. I've personally had a lot of luck researching plant domestication and its association with nearby river valleys, even in some unexpected places. The two definitely seem related. However, this isn't a hard and ...


11

Other answers are good but I would like to add a bit of context. The OP states that it should have been clear by 1600 that some advance had been made since Roman times. However, the idea that by then contemporary sciences and arts had surpassed old ones was new and very controversial. The querelle des Anciens et des Modernes was a famous and heated literary ...


11

There is this, from the Talmud (Sanhedrin 19a) - bold is a translation from the original, non-bold is the interpolated explanation: And Rami bar Abba says: Rabbi Yosei instituted an ordinance in Tzippori (Sepphoris, northern Israel) that women should converse in the bathroom, because of the restrictions on women being secluded with men. Since the public ...


11

Short Answer It is difficult to determine how common or regular colds and especially influenza were in ancient times, primarily because the most obvious symptoms can be identified with a large number of diseases. Also, descriptions in ancient sources are often unclear. However, there is some indication from ancient Chinese and Roman sources in particular ...


11

Because the circumstances are all different. In regards "blows and strikes": [116] addresses loss of life, not blows per se. [202] through [206] are all varying classes of assault under different circumstances. The rest of this answer should assist you in interpreting the Code. Let's look closely at the laws pertaining to loss of an eye, in context: 196....


10

The short answer is that we really don't know with any certainty, and there is - as yet - no scholarly consensus on the subject. The names given to ancient peoples (in this case from the early fourth century CE) often have little meaning in modern contexts. However, it does seem reasonable to associate the names 'Kasu' with Kushites and 'Nuba' with ...


10

I suggest you read Part III of Just Deserts: Roman Military Operations in Arid Environments (108 BC–AD 400) (Melissa Beattie, 2011, MPhil thesis from Cardiff University). It has a lot of good points about Roman and overall desert logistics and might be exactly what you need. I'll link to a pdf or you can search for yourself on google.


8

It is quite difficult to apply this modern concept with a comparatively recently invented word to ancient texts. One can find quite a few assessments of modern historians describing ancient rulers (or should we say "top-level managers and executives"?) as engaging in micromanagement and describing the practice and outcome in a negative light. But applying ...


8

There's a model of the Stoa Basileios (or Royal Stoa), seat of the archon basileus, at the end of 5th century BC on the site of the American School of Classical Studies at Athens (ASCSA). This is close to the date (399 BC) that Plato's Euthyphro took place. "Model of the Royal Stoa at the end of 5th c. B.C. with the addition of the annexes. Model realised ...


7

If the question is What's the most ancient known example of a woman challenging feminine gender roles? then I understand that to mean mainly a real woman doing the 'challenging'. And of course within a society that first developed an increasingly patriarchical system in the first place. A more egalitarian hunter-gatherer community has not that much need ...


7

While probably not representative of the "average" woman, there is recorded the view of a very remarkable woman named Aspasia, who lived during Greece's Golden Age. While a young woman, Aspasia immigrated with her aristocratic family to Athens from the Greek city of Miletus, now part of Turkey. She was married to Pericles and was famous for her intelligence, ...


7

On a cultural level, yes. The Yupik peoples have inhabited both sides of Bering Straight for at least a couple of millennia, though there are distinctions between the Siberian and various Alaskan groups. Archaeological evidence on St. Lawrence Island, amidst the Bering Strait but slightly closer to Siberia than Alaska, demonstrates the cultural affinity to ...


7

Not every ancient city survived to modern days. Sometimes (particularly in developed countries) there may be a new city in roughly the same place a matter of coincidence (within the dictates of geography), without an uninterrupted history of habitation between the two. "Spica" (assuming this is the same as Spina) to be specific was abandoned, likely ...


6

This is a long answer, so here is a list of connections that the public could have made, in no particular order: It was the work of the Gods and Goddesses It was the manifestation of the spirit within the object It was a form of magnetism It was a miniaturised form of lightning It was proof of hidden powers and magic of various kinds It was some ...


6

No. We might infer from the documented existence of specific phobias that one for arachnids would be possible as well. So that's really a circumstantial, weak, tiny little maybe yes. But for arguing with evolutionary psychology? Noooooooo! We have to differentiate already our modern definitions for fear, anxiety and phobia. They have different wiki pages,...


6

I don't see Gregory of Nyssa mentioned here. Fourth century Christian bishop, has a couple homilies in which he upbraids slave owners for the presumption that they could own human beings. Excerpt (quoting Eccl 2:7 where the author says "I got me slaves and slave girls"): “I got me slaves and slave-girls,” he says. For what price, tell me? What did you ...


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