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5

The Himalayas were a natural border against migrations, invasions and incursions,akin to a "wall" holding off invaders (from the Steppes). However, it is overrated insofar that it did not block all outside incursions (e.g. Alexander, the Hephthalites/White Huns, the Mughals), who mostly entered the subcontinent through the Khyber pass. The wall had holes. ...


3

The general popular idea that the quote in question appears to be trying to counter is that the northern barrier of the Himalayas made the subcontinent nearly immune to invasion, and thus utterly cut off from the rest of the world. Particularly from powerful neighbors on the Asian steppe, who were militarily difficult to cope with until the invention of ...


3

Geography and technology. The conditions to support large cities were not possible with the technology of the day. Climatic conditions generally favor agriculture in warm, oceanic climates with mild winters for early civilizations (more food variety, higher yield). Cooler periods hit places in the far north harder than the Mediterranean. The early rise of ...


3

The Romans apparently had nicknames (of a sort) known as agnomen: Thus for instance Publius Cornelius Scipio had the agnomen Africanus from his military victories.


7

The question is based on false premises: The Eastern European Plain is often claimed as the homeland of the Proto-Indo-Europeans. If this is where the seeds of European civilisation were first sown, why did it take so long to found cities here? The Proto-Indo-Europeans, whereever they lived, did not sow the seeds of European civilization, they sowed the ...


2

This was getting too long for a comment, but Cambridge University's ASNC Spoken Word site has examples of Old English and Norse texts being read. (They also have an example of Insular Latin, some Welsh and Cornish texts, medieval Irish Gaelic, and some continental Celtic language texts). I understand that more texts are likely to be added over time. At the ...


2

Fortunately you can use recent history to answer your question. Until very recently, Bradley fighting vehicles (and others) did not have a range finders. Range were based upon the estimation of the commander and gunner. Modern day snipers are trained to judge range without the use of electronics. I'd dispute that range estimation was not important in ...


4

With just a little practice, most people can learn to judge distance fairly accurately. Even in modern times, use of a rangefinder is situational. In hunting with a modern sight, it is important to know the range of a shot. Yet it can also be inconvenient to break out and use an electronic rangefinder. 3D shoots are a type of archery contest intended to ...


5

Ranging wouldn't have been as important as it is today. The importance of ranging comes from the "first shot" advantage - being able to drop your projectiles onto your chosen target first time accurately (whether that is from a sniper rifle or an artillery piece) is important in modern warfare because most conflicts are decided by who gets the first hit in ...


43

They mostly didn't care. In combat, the purpose of an archer was not to land aimed shots on specific targets. It was to put large amounts of pointy wood-and-steel in the air, in the general direction of a block of enemy troops. When the block of enemy troops is tens of metres deep and hundreds of metres wide, aiming is largely irrelevant. For long range ...


85

I'm a horse archer; we use instinctive archery – there are no range finders, just a bow, a string an arrow and an archer. After a few thousand shots at various ranges, your body just knows how to aim – I'm not even conscious of doing it. Eventually you're able to hit a target from the back of galloping horse reliably (I'm not saying I'm there yet, but I'm ...


-1

I do not think there was a lot of contact, but for what it worth, it is usually assumed that Proto-Indo-European words for "six" su̯ecs and "seven" septm were borrowed from a Semitic language. There were other borrowings, like the Semitic word for wine, but it can more easily be explained by trade rather than direct contact.


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