67

If the question is "did the roman government officials pay individuals, slave owners and groups of workers to build construction projects instead of using the government's direct manpower?", the answer is yes, just like any other public construction work during the Roman republic, principate and empire. If the question is "did something like Claudius & ...


56

The only book to survive from ancient Rome on architecture is Marcus Vitruvius Pollio's De architectura, found by the Renaissance scholar Poggio Bracciolini in 1414 after being largely forgotten. Bracciolini was one of a number of humanists "devoted to the revival of classical studies". However, it had been referred to by several churchmen, chroniclers and ...


51

For the Anglo-Saxons, the knowledge that it was the Romans whose city it was is less relevant than why those cities were there no more, or, well, why they were in such a poor state. However, for a direct answer, Gildas and Bede describe Britain as part of Rome (though possibly not with a specific statement that "The Romans built these") and this ...


49

Roman roads were largely constructed by the military, at least the long distance roads between regions and cities. The legions had work crews and civil engineers attached to them for such works, as well as for building fortifications and everything else the legion would need (siege engines, barges, you name it, they'd all build it as needed where needed). ...


42

The biggest difference that I'm aware of is that the Classical Greek religion was much more the religion of myths that we all know, while the Classical Roman religion had fewer personifications and its gods were much more like numinous forces than like people. The Greek religion that we know was encapsulated by Homer who served in some respects like an Old ...


35

Plutarch's Lives says this about Marcus Cato: He would likewise say ... and that in his whole life he most repented of three things; one was, that he had trusted a secret to a woman; another, that he went by water when he might have gone by land; the third, that he had remained one whole day without doing any business of moment.


33

They most probably got that knowledge from cultural exchange with the greek city-states from southern France, like Massilia (Marseille), which was founded around 600 BCE and had plenty of relations with the sorrounding celtic tribes: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Marseille


28

Yes, they were, but not until the Imperial period. A specific example is this one: The practice of Constantinius Aequalis and Pacatia Servanda is typical of the later first or second century. The couple had three sons. They named the eldest Constantinius Servatus, his cognomen a development of his mother's. The second they named Constantinius ...


24

The most (and maybe only) clearly recorded incident was in 206 BC when a novice vestal was whipped for letting the flame go out. Several historians record an incident that occurred in 206 BCE, in which a novice priestess had negligently allowed the sacred flame to be extinguished during her shift. After she was accused of a transgression and ...


19

While not exactly manuals, some of the architectural instructions survive on the buildings themselves. The Roman temple of Bziza has a wall that bears marks of an architectural sketch on how to assemble the half-pediment of the pronao of the temple itself; there's also an engraving of the temple's entablature. The temple of Jupiter in Baalbek, Lebanon has ...


19

This is a Roman bust excavated at the French city of Arles (see also French Wikipedia on Arelate). Currently, it's part of the collection of the Musée de l'Arles antique (previously Musée Lapidaire). Initially, it was assumed that it's a bust of the Roman emperor Augustus (Octavian). You can still find online sources describing the bust as one of Octavian. ...


17

That is very difficult to put a single number on. Like today, ethanol content in wines ranges from 5–25%, but usually between 9–16%. It depends a bit on how strong one prefers, or how the Greeks preferred the ethanol content to be. Traditionally it was that one consumption unit 'equals' – or let's say 'corresponds' – to 10g pure ethanol. (One shot of ...


15

Well, if we can change venue to Alexandria, which was a Roman city in Egypt with roughly similar standing to Antioch (they both housed a Christian Patriarch), and roll the date forward by only 5 years, then the fate of Hypatia might be a pretty good guide. The short version is that she was a pagan philosopher, who was well-liked in the pagan community, and ...


15

Since you don't give specific examples I am going to go out on a limb here are suggest you and wrong about the sculptures and paintings of the same periods. If I'm wrong about my assumption let me know and I'll delete my answer... Question Why was Roman painting so inferior to the sculpture and architecture of the same period? ...


14

It's not specifically Roman, but the time frame is similar: I recommend Donald W. Engels, Alexander the Great and the Logistics of the Macedonian Army, University of California Press, 1978. The short version: Alexander and his generals had an extremely keen grasp of the logistical requirements of his army. He would send out advance detachments that ...


14

This is a bad answer - I don't have sources available. It is my understanding that we lack a great deal of the sources needed for an emic understanding of Roman and Greek religious practice, and I think that's fundamentally what you're seeking. Note that the differences between religions may not be obvious to the outsider. I've encountered Protestants who ...


13

There are. Monument of Aemilius Paullus was erected in the Sanctuary of Apollo at Delphi shortly after 167 BCE in order to commemorate the Roman victory at the Battle of Pydna over King Perseus of Macedon. — David Gibbins: "Destroy Carthage: The Triumph Of Aemilius Paullus", 2013. — Jeremiah B. McCall: "The Cavalry Of The Roman Republic. ...


13

The authors of historical texts which reached us knew that Britain was ruled by the Roman empire some time ago. Educated people who wrote historical texts read Latin books, knew some history and knew about Roman empire. But this was a very tiny minority. Most of people were illiterate, and even those who could read have not seen many books, they saw Roman ...


12

Assuming that you are not restricting this to Roman poets, Alcaeus of Mytilene (circa 625–620 to circa 580 BC), a Greek lyric poet from Lesbos may be of help. He was certainly known to Ovid, who even paid tribute to him through Alcaeus's contemporary Sappho in The Heroides (15): But the Muses compose the sweetest songs for me: now, my name is sung ...


11

Its quite possible, but don't be so credulous of Caesar's judgement and reporting. Not everything he's written has turned out to be 100% accurate. I don't know about the nuances of the original Latin, but that translation reads "they use Greek characters". That's not the same thing as using the Greek language. Right now, this post is using Latin characters. ...


11

There isn't one. The idea that there was a pre-Gutenberg Bulgarian translation of Vegetius' De Re Militaria seems to have started with an unsigned article in the 11th edition (1911) of the Encyclopedia Britannica. The relevant passage is in vol 27, p.968, which states In manuscript, Vegetius's work had a great vogue from the first and its rules of ...


10

I suggest you read Part III of Just Deserts: Roman Military Operations in Arid Environments (108 BC–AD 400) (Melissa Beattie, 2011, MPhil thesis from Cardiff University). It has a lot of good points about Roman and overall desert logistics and might be exactly what you need. I'll link to a pdf or you can search for yourself on google.


10

Vivian Nutton provides a detailed account for the workings for a Greek/Roman temple like the Asclepeion in his book Ancient Medicine pp. 109-110. At the shrine suppliants would purify themselves at a sacred spring, before offering an appropriate sacrifice, and then, wearing white robes, undergo a second purification before entering the abaton or an ...


8

In 361-363 the Empire was ruled by a pagan emperor. His successors were Christian, but the empire was still a multi-religious state. It is only in 381 (under Theodosius) that introduction of uniformity and persecution of non-Christians began. So you can expect blasphemy laws from that time only and they were gradually introduced. The citation from John ...


8

First off, the idea that the First Jewish-Roman war was futile is wrong. The war lasted several years, the Roman armies were defeated a few times. The main reason for failure was Jewish infighting and therefore a lack of cohesion between Jews themselves. "Professional armies" are not magically better than volunteer armies, or even conscript armies, as proven ...


8

Most likely sometime after 25 BC, or even 23 BC. However, there is no concrete evidence; these dates are disputed and have been proposed by historians based on uncertain and / or circumstantial evidence. Cicero Minor disappears from the known historical record after his appointment to the legateship of Syria (then comprising approximately modern-day Syria, ...


7

I can only give part of an answer. However, Josephus, a moderate Jewish leader of the time who changed sides when he decided the Jews could not win, subsequently wrote a 'History of the Jewish War' and other writings about it. He twice puts into the mouths of Moderate Jewish leaders speeches in which the ask how their people can hope to stand against the ...


7

I believe that honour belongs to Julia Drusilla, the sister of the emperor Gaius (commonly known as Caligula). As explained in A Companion to Women in the Ancient World by Sharon L. James, and Sheila Dillon, Members of the imperial family began to receive worship, especially in the Greek East, from the time of Augustus, but the first woman to be deified ...


7

Both variants are possible. In the variant with side protections, the soldiers at the flanks would hold their shields to their sides. This made the top protection a bit worse and reduced mobility, but provided better protection. Sometimes soldieirs at the rear of the formation would also walk sideways to keep the back protected as well. No one is carrying ...


6

I'm going to go with 'There is no evidence'. Parrots (psittaci).—Varro mentions them among rare birds exhibited at public shows. The increase of trade between Egypt and India in the time of Augustus probably helped to make the parrot a common pet in Italy under the Empire. For it was chiefly, at least, the green Indian parrot that the Romans knew. "...


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