67

If the question is "did the roman government officials pay individuals, slave owners and groups of workers to build construction projects instead of using the government's direct manpower?", the answer is yes, just like any other public construction work during the Roman republic, principate and empire. If the question is "did something like Claudius & ...


49

Roman roads were largely constructed by the military, at least the long distance roads between regions and cities. The legions had work crews and civil engineers attached to them for such works, as well as for building fortifications and everything else the legion would need (siege engines, barges, you name it, they'd all build it as needed where needed). ...


46

The source for Sanjeev Sanyal's account is most likely Plutarch. In his Life of Anthony, Plutarch wrote: Caesarion, who was said to be Cleopatra's son by Julius Caesar, was sent by his mother, with much treasure, into India, by way of Ethiopia. There Rhodon, another tutor like Theodorus, persuaded him to go back, on the ground that Caesar invited ...


43

There is a difference between abstract knowledge and "inventions". In the 17th century it was still widely believed that the ancient Greeks had discovered and formulated pretty much the sum total of abstract knowledge. Fermat put this in question. The authentic quote from Fermat (in French and in English translation) can be found here: Perhaps, posterity ...


42

The biggest difference that I'm aware of is that the Classical Greek religion was much more the religion of myths that we all know, while the Classical Roman religion had fewer personifications and its gods were much more like numinous forces than like people. The Greek religion that we know was encapsulated by Homer who served in some respects like an Old ...


35

Plutarch's Lives says this about Marcus Cato: He would likewise say ... and that in his whole life he most repented of three things; one was, that he had trusted a secret to a woman; another, that he went by water when he might have gone by land; the third, that he had remained one whole day without doing any business of moment.


33

They most probably got that knowledge from cultural exchange with the greek city-states from southern France, like Massilia (Marseille), which was founded around 600 BCE and had plenty of relations with the sorrounding celtic tribes: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Marseille


31

It stands for "Titi filius Titi nepos", meaning "son of Titus and grandson of Titus" (filius and nepos mean son and grandson, respectively). This is because the consul Titus Flavius Sabinus was the son of the (non-consul) Titus Flavius Sabinus, who was in turn the son of Titus Flavius Petro. So as @SteveBird observed, the abbreivations are "filiation", i.e. ...


25

Yes, they were, but not until the Imperial period. A specific example is this one: The practice of Constantinius Aequalis and Pacatia Servanda is typical of the later first or second century. The couple had three sons. They named the eldest Constantinius Servatus, his cognomen a development of his mother's. The second they named Constantinius ...


23

It seems that the term "penal colony" would be evoking quite modern, if not 'Australian', imagery. When we look at Roman sources, not that much springs to mind. True: They frequently sent people into exile, often to islands. That sounds more like Napoleon on Elba or St. Helena, compared to what a "penal colony" would describe now. And even that is ...


17

The evidence available suggests that much of the gold and silver coinage which came to India from Rome was (1) melted down to produce local coins and jewelry, (2) defaced by local rulers and used locally, and (3) hoarded for financial or religious reasons. As noted by the OP's sources, huge amounts of gold and silver were shipped to India to buy luxuries ...


16

The literary evidence for Romans anticipating the fall of Rome would seem to be very limited and, at most, indirect. There are, though, references to potential future threats to the empire, but also - among Christian writers - the belief that Rome's future was in God's hands. The contemporary accounts we have tended to focus on the past and / or the times ...


15

Well, if we can change venue to Alexandria, which was a Roman city in Egypt with roughly similar standing to Antioch (they both housed a Christian Patriarch), and roll the date forward by only 5 years, then the fate of Hypatia might be a pretty good guide. The short version is that she was a pagan philosopher, who was well-liked in the pagan community, and ...


15

Since you don't give specific examples I am going to go out on a limb here are suggest you and wrong about the sculptures and paintings of the same periods. If I'm wrong about my assumption let me know and I'll delete my answer... Question Why was Roman painting so inferior to the sculpture and architecture of the same period? ...


14

Although Julius Caesar did not at first consider Sextus Pompey to be a significant threat, he eventually sent forces against him when his old rival's youngest son began to gather strength. Sextus Pompeius, unlike his elder brother Gnaeus Pompeius, escaped after the Battle of Munda in 45 BC and continued to elude Caesar's forces. According to Appian, ...


14

It's not specifically Roman, but the time frame is similar: I recommend Donald W. Engels, Alexander the Great and the Logistics of the Macedonian Army, University of California Press, 1978. The short version: Alexander and his generals had an extremely keen grasp of the logistical requirements of his army. He would send out advance detachments that ...


14

This is a bad answer - I don't have sources available. It is my understanding that we lack a great deal of the sources needed for an emic understanding of Roman and Greek religious practice, and I think that's fundamentally what you're seeking. Note that the differences between religions may not be obvious to the outsider. I've encountered Protestants who ...


13

TL;DR: Most of the people that died during the games were not gladiator fighters, the types we most commonly see in the pictures or representations, but were people sentenced to death. To understand why the gladiator games were widely practiced and were seen like normal, we must first differentiate the people that participated in such games. We find four ...


12

Assuming that you are not restricting this to Roman poets, Alcaeus of Mytilene (circa 625–620 to circa 580 BC), a Greek lyric poet from Lesbos may be of help. He was certainly known to Ovid, who even paid tribute to him through Alcaeus's contemporary Sappho in The Heroides (15): But the Muses compose the sweetest songs for me: now, my name is sung ...


11

Other answers are good but I would like to add a bit of context. The OP states that it should have been clear by 1600 that some advance had been made since Roman times. However, the idea that by then contemporary sciences and arts had surpassed old ones was new and very controversial. The querelle des Anciens et des Modernes was a famous and heated literary ...


11

Its quite possible, but don't be so credulous of Caesar's judgement and reporting. Not everything he's written has turned out to be 100% accurate. I don't know about the nuances of the original Latin, but that translation reads "they use Greek characters". That's not the same thing as using the Greek language. Right now, this post is using Latin characters. ...


10

I suggest you read Part III of Just Deserts: Roman Military Operations in Arid Environments (108 BC–AD 400) (Melissa Beattie, 2011, MPhil thesis from Cardiff University). It has a lot of good points about Roman and overall desert logistics and might be exactly what you need. I'll link to a pdf or you can search for yourself on google.


10

There are. Monument of Aemilius Paullus was erected in the Sanctuary of Apollo at Delphi shortly after 167 BCE in order to commemorate the Roman victory at the Battle of Pydna over King Perseus of Macedon. — David Gibbins: "Destroy Carthage: The Triumph Of Aemilius Paullus", 2013. — Jeremiah B. McCall: "The Cavalry Of The Roman Republic. ...


10

Vivian Nutton provides a detailed account for the workings for a Greek/Roman temple like the Asclepeion in his book Ancient Medicine pp. 109-110. At the shrine suppliants would purify themselves at a sacred spring, before offering an appropriate sacrifice, and then, wearing white robes, undergo a second purification before entering the abaton or an ...


9

He's probably talking about structures like this one at Senam Semana in Roman Tripolitania: You can see the superficial resemblance to the Stonehenge trilithons: image source Wikimedia CC BY-SA 3.0 de So it is, perhaps, understandable that nineteenth-century travellers in north‐west Libya took them to be prehistoric megaliths and assumed they were of ...


9

Not Roman, but Greek. The term you are seeking is Symbolum. The best description I find is from the book Everything is Sacred: A Complete Introduction to the Sacrament of Baptism By Thomas J. Scirghi. (emphasis mine): The word symbol derives from the Greek word symballein, literally meaning 'to throw together.' In ancient times, a symbolum was used ...


9

First of, idea that the First Jewish-Roman war was futile is wrong. War lasted several years, the Roman armies were defeated few times. The main reason for failure was Jewish infighting and therefore lack of cohesion between Jews themselves. "Professional armies" are not magically better than volunteer armies, or even conscript armies, as proven many times ...


8

These are meander patterns that had many variations and were very common in classical Greek and Roman art. The Romans took them from the Greeks and made their own variations, and in turn they were used by neo-classical architects and artists in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries There is an interesting article on how they work here I believe (I'll ...


8

For the question of lead pipes, the 2014 paper Lead in ancient Rome’s city waters, by Hugo Delile et al, probably contains more than enough detail to answer the question. The authors concluded that: Lead pollution of “tap water” in Roman times is clearly measurable, but unlikely to have been truly harmful. But piped water was by no means the only ...


7

The personal name in the Roman naming system is composed of several independent elements. A Roman male name of the late Republic such as Q. Numerius Q. f. Vel. Rufus comprises the following: the praenomen or the old individual name (siglum Q = Quintus ), the gentile or family name (Numerius), the filiation, which gives the ...


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